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Turkish language

Turkish language
Turkish Türkçe Pronunciation Spoken in [ˈt̪yɾkˌtʃe] Albania, Azerbaijan,[1] Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Palestine, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Syria,[2] Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Countries with significant Turkish-speaking populations and by immigrant communities in (Click on image for the legend) Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Scandinavia, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United Turkish (Türkçe IPA [ˈt̪yɾktʃe] ) is spoken States as a first language by over 63 million people Northern Cyprus (recognized only by worldwide,[3] making it the most commonly Turkey) over 63 million worldwide[3]

spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Cyprus, with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, 23 Ranking Albania and other parts of Eastern Europe. Altaic (controversial) Language Turkish is also spoken by several million imTurkic family migrants in Western Europe, particularly in Southwestern Turkic (Oghuz) Germany. Western Oghuz Turkish The roots of the language can be traced to Central Asia, with the first written records Latin alphabet (Turkish variant) Writing dating back nearly 1,200 years. To the west, system the influence of Ottoman Turkish—the immeOfficial status diate precursor of today’s Turkish—spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as Official Turkey language in one of Atatürk’s Reforms in the early years of Northern Cyprus the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman script Cyprus (official, but not main was replaced with a phonetic variant of the language) Latin alphabet. Concurrently, the newly founKosovo (regional) ded Turkish Language Association initiated a Macedonia(regional) drive to reform the language by removing [4] Romania(recognized) Persian and Arabic loanwords in favor of nat[5] Iraq (In Kerkük, Tal Afar) ive variants and coinages from Turkic roots. The Turkish Language Association, Language distinctive characteristics of Turkish Regulated by Assembly (Dil Derneği) are vowel harmony and extensive agglutination. The basic word order of Turkish is SubLanguage codes ject Object Verb. Turkish has a T-V tr ISO 639-1 distinction: second-person plural forms can be used for individuals as a sign of respect. tur ISO 639-2 Turkish also has no noun classes or grammattur ISO 639-3 ical gender.
Total speakers

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Turkish language

Classification
Turkish is a member of the Turkish, or Western, subgroup of the Oghuz languages, which includes Gagauz and Azeri. The Oghuz languages form the Southwestern subgroup of the Turkic languages, a language family comprising some 30 living languages spoken across Eastern Europe, Central Asia. and Siberia. Some linguists believe the Turkic languages to be a part of a larger Altaic language family.[6] About 40% of all speakers of Turkic languages are native Turkish speakers.[7] The characteristic features of Turkish, such as vowel harmony, agglutination, and lack of grammatical gender, are universal within the Turkic family and the Altaic languages.[7] There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between Turkish and the other Oghuz languages, including Azeri, Turkmen, Qashqai, Gagauz, and Balkan Gagauz Turkish.[8]

History
See also: Turkic people and History of the Turkic peoples The earliest known Turkic inscriptions are the two monumental Orkhon inscriptions. They reside in modern Mongolia and were erected in honour of the prince Kul Tigin and his brother Emperor Bilge Khan and dating back to some time between 732 and 735, constitute another important early record. After the discovery and excavation of these monuments and associated stone slabs by Russian archaeologists in the wider area surrounding the Orkhon Valley between 1889 and 1893, it became established that the language on the inscriptions was the Old Turkic language written using the Orkhon script, which has also been referred to as "Turkic runes" or "runiform" due to an external similarity to the Germanic runic alphabets.[9] With the Turkic expansion during Early Middle Ages (c. 6th–11th centuries), peoples speaking Turkic languages spread across Central Asia, covering a vast geographical region stretching from Siberia to Europe and the Mediterranean. The Seljuqs of the Oghuz Turks, in particular, brought their language, Oghuz Turkic—the direct ancestor of today’s Turkish language—into Anatolia during the 11th century.[10] Also during the 11th century, an early linguist of the Turkic languages, Mahmud al-Kashgari from the Kara-

Old Turkic inscription with the Orkhon script (c. 8th century). Kyzyl, Russia Khanid Khanate, published the first comprehensive Turkic language dictionary and map of the geographical distribution of Turkic speakers in the Compendium of the Turkic Dialects (Ottoman Turkish: Divânü Lügati’tTürk).[11]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Turkish language
Due to this sudden change in the language, older and younger people in Turkey started to differ in their vocabularies. While the generations born before the 1940s tend to use the older terms of Arabic or Persian origin, the younger generations favor new expressions. It is particularly ironic that Atatürk himself, in his lengthy speech to the new Parliament in 1927, used a style of Ottoman diction which today sounds so alien that it has had to be "translated" three times into modern Turkish: first in 1963, again in 1986, and most recently in 1995.[15] There is also a political dimension to the language debate, with conservative groups tending to use more archaic words in the press or everyday language. The past few decades have seen the continuing work of the TDK to coin new Turkish words to express new concepts and technologies as they enter the language, mostly from English. Many of these new words, particularly information technology terms, have received widespread acceptance. However, the TDK is occasionally criticized for coining words which sound contrived and artificial. Some earlier changes—such as bölem to replace fırka, "political party"—also failed to meet with popular approval (in fact, fırka has been replaced by the French loanword parti). Some words restored from Old Turkic have taken on specialized meanings; for example betik (originally meaning "book") is now used to mean "script" in computer science. Many of the words derived by TDK coexist with their older counterparts. This usually happens when a loanword changes its original meaning. For instance, dert, derived from the Persian dard (‫" درد‬pain"), means "problem" or "trouble" in Turkish; whereas the native Turkish word ağrı is used for physical pain. Sometimes the loanword has a slightly different meaning from the native Turkish word, giving rise to a situation similar to the coexistence of Germanic and Romance words in English (see List of Germanic and Latinate equivalents). Among some of the old words that were replaced are terms in geometry, cardinal directions, some months’ names, and many nouns and adjectives. Some examples of modern Turkish words and the old loanwords are: For a more comprehensive list, see List of replaced loanwords in Turkish

Ottoman Turkish
Following the adoption of Islam c. 950 by the Kara-Khanid Khanate and the Seljuq Turks, who are both regarded as the cultural ancestors of the Ottomans, the administrative language of these states acquired a large collection of loanwords from Arabic and Persian. Turkish literature during the Ottoman period, particularly Ottoman Divan poetry, was heavily influenced by Persian, including the adoption of poetic meters and a great quantity of imported words. The literary and official language during the Ottoman Empire (c. 1299–1922) was a mixture of Turkish, Persian, and Arabic that differed considerably from the period’s everyday spoken Turkish and is termed Ottoman Turkish.

Language reform and modern Turkish

Literacy rates before the language reform in Turkey (1927). The literacy rates rose to 48.4% among males and 20.7% among females in 1950.[12] After the foundation of the Republic of Turkey and the script reform, the Turkish Language Association (TDK) was established in 1932 under the patronage of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, with the aim of conducting research on Turkish. One of the tasks of the newly established association was to initiate a language reform to replace loanwords of Arabic and Persian origin with Turkish equivalents.[13] By banning the usage of imported words in the press, the association succeeded in removing several hundred foreign words from the language. While most of the words introduced to the language by the TDK were newly derived from Turkic roots, it also opted for reviving Old Turkish words which had not been used for centuries.[14]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ottoman Turkish müselles tayyare nispet Modern English Comments Turkish translation üçgen uçak oran triangle airplane ratio

Turkish language

Compound of the noun üç ("three") and the very old Turkic noun gen ("tension", "side") Derived from the verb uçmak ("to fly"). The word was first proposed to mean "airport". The old word is still used in the language today together with the new one. The modern word is from Old Turkic verb or- (to cut). Derived from the Old Turkic noun kuz ("cold and dark place", "shadow"). The word is restored from Middle Turkic usage.[16] The noun ekim means "the action of planting", referring to the planting of cereal seeds in autumn, which is widespread in Turkey are significant Turkish-speaking communities in France, the Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.[18] Due to the cultural assimilation of Turkish immigrants in host countries, not all ethnic Turkish immigrants speak the language with native fluency. The number of native speakers in Turkey is about 60 million, corresponding to about 90 percent of the population. There are roughly another 10 million native speakers worldwide.[7][19] Turkish is spoken as a first or second language by almost all of Turkey’s residents, with Kurdish making up most of the remainder (about 3,950,000 as estimated in 1980).[20] However, even most linguistic minorities in Turkey are bilingual, speaking Turkish as a second language to levels of native fluency.

şimal

kuzey

north

teşrinievvel ekim

October

Geographic distribution
See also: Turkish diaspora

Official status
Turkish is the official language of Turkey and is one of the official languages of Cyprus. It also has official (but not primary) status in the Prizren District of Kosovo and several municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia, depending on the concentration of Turkishspeaking local population. In Turkey, the regulatory body for Turkish is the Turkish Language Association (Türk Dil Kurumu or TDK), which was founded in 1932 under the name Türk Dili Tetkik Cemiyeti ("Society for Research on the Turkish Language"). The Turkish Language Association was influenced by the ideology of linguistic purism: indeed one of its primary tasks was the replacement of loanwords and foreign

Road sign at the European end of the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul. (Photo taken during the 28th Eurasia Marathon in 2006) Turkish is natively spoken by the Turkish people in Turkey and by the Turkish diaspora in some 30 other countries. In particular, Turkish-speaking minorities exist in countries that formerly (in whole or part) belonged to the Ottoman Empire, such as Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece (primarily in Western Thrace), the Republic of Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia.[17] More than two million Turkish speakers live in Germany, and there

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grammatical constructions with equivalents of Turkish origin.[21] These changes, together with the adoption of the new Turkish alphabet in 1928, shaped the modern Turkish language spoken today. TDK became an independent body in 1951, with the lifting of the requirement that it should be presided over by the Minister of Education. This status continued until August 1983, when it was again made into a governmental body in the constitution of 1982, following the military coup d’état of 1980.[14]

Turkish language
with the Yuruk nomads of Macedonia, Greece, and European Turkey who speak Balkan Gagauz Turkish. Güneydoğu is spoken in the southeast, to the east of Mersin. Doğu, a dialect in Eastern Anatolia, has a dialect continuum with Azeri, particularly with Karapapak dialects in some areas. The Central Anatolia region speaks Orta Anadolu. Karadeniz, spoken in the Eastern Black Sea Region and represented primarily by the Trabzon dialect, exhibits substratum influence from Greek in phonology and syntax.[26] Kastamonu is spoken in Kastamonu and its surrounding areas. The Hemşinli dialect, known as Hemşince, is spoken by the eastern group of Hamshenis around Artvin, influenced by Armenian.[27] Karamanlıca is spoken in Greece, where it is also named Kαραμανλήδικα (Karamanlidika). It is the literary standard for Karamanlides.

Dialects

Sounds
Map of Turkey Istanbul Turkish is established as the official standard language of Turkey. Dialectal variation persists, in spite of the levelling influence of the standard used in mass media and the Turkish education system since the 1930s.[22] Academically, researchers from Turkey often refer to Turkish dialects as ağız or şive, leading to an ambiguity with the linguistic concept of accent, which is also covered with these same words. Projects investigating Turkish dialects are being carried out by several universities, as well as a dedicated work group of the Turkish Language Association. Work is currently in progress for the compilation and publication of their research as a comprehensive dialect atlas of the Turkish language.[23][24] The standard dialect of the Turkish language is İstanbul. Rumelice is spoken by immigrants from Rumelia, and includes the distinct dialects of Deliorman, Dinler, and Adakale, which are influenced by the theoretized Balkan linguistic union. Kıbrıs is the name for Cypriot Turkish and is spoken by the Turkish Cypriots. Edirne is the dialect of Edirne. Ege is spoken in the Aegean region, with its usage extending to Antalya. The nomadic Yörük tribes of the Mediterranean Region of Turkey also have their own dialect of Turkish.[25] This group is not to be confused
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Consonants
The phoneme /ɣ/, usually referred to as yumuşak g ("soft g"), ğ in Turkish orthography, actually represents a rather weak front-velar or palatal approximant between front vowels. It never occurs at the beginning of a word or a syllable, but always follows a vowel. When word-final or preceding another consonant, it lengthens the preceding vowel.[28] In native Turkic words, the sounds /c/, /ɟ/, and /l/ are in complementary distribution with /k/, /g/, and /ɫ/; the former set occurs adjacent to front vowels and the latter adjacent to back vowels. The distribution of these phonemes is often unpredictable, however, in foreign borrowings and proper nouns. In such words, /c/, /ɟ/, and /l/ often occur with back vowels:[29] some examples are given below. When a vowel is added to many nouns ending with postvocalic <k>, the <k> becomes <ğ> by consonant alternation. A similar alternation applies to certain loan-words ending in <p> and <t>, which become <b> and <d>, respectively, with the addition of a vowel.[30] This is because the final //ɡ//, //d//,

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Consonant phonemes of Standard Turkish Bilabial Plosives Nasal Fricative Affricate Tap Approximant Lateral ɫ Turkish vowels Front Unrounded High Low i e Rounded ü ö Back Unrounded ı a l p m f v b Labiodental Dental t̪ n s z tʃ ɾ j dʒ ʃ ʒ d̪ Alveolar Postalveolar

Turkish language

Palatal c ɟ

Velar Glottal k ɡ ɣ h

Rounded u o

and //b// consonants of these words lose their voicing when not followed by a vowel.

Vowels
IPA chart for Turkish vowels

The vowels of the Turkish language are, in their alphabetical order, a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, and ü. Undotted <ı> is the close back unrounded vowel [ɯ].[31] There are no diphthongs in Turkish; when two vowels come together, which occurs rarely and only with loanwords, each vowel retains its individual sound. However, a slight diphthong can occur when two vowels surround a yumuşak g. For example, the word soğuk ("cold") can be pronounced /soʊk/ (resembling the English soak) by some speakers.

Vowel harmony
For more details on this topic, see Vowel harmony.

The Turkish vowel system can be considered as being two-dimensional, where vowels are characterised by two features: front/back and rounded/unrounded. Vowel harmony is the principle by which a native Turkish word incorporates either exclusively back vowels (a, ı, o, and u) or exclusively front vowels (e, i, ö, and ü). The pattern of vowels is shown in the table below.[32] Grammatical affixes have "a chameleon-like quality",[33] and obey one of the following patterns of vowel harmony: • :[34] the locative suffix, for example, is -de after front vowels and -da after back vowels. The notation -de² is a convenient shorthand for this pattern. • : the genitive suffix, for example, is -in or ın after unrounded vowels (front or back respectively); and -ün or -un after the corresponding rounded vowels. In this case, the shorthand notation -in4 is used. The following examples, based on the copula -dir4 ("[it] is"), illustrate the principles of vowel harmony in practice: Türkiye’dir ("it is Turkey"),[35] kapıdır ("it is the door"), bu gündür ("it is the day"), paltodur ("it is the coat"). There are some exceptions to the rules of vowel harmony. In compound words, the vowels need not harmonize between the constituent words of the compound. Forms like bu+gün ("today") or baş+kent ("capital") are permissible. In addition, vowel harmony does not apply in loanwords and some invariant affixes, such as -yor (present tense) and -bil-

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Case Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative Locative Ending Ø (none) -in4 -e² -i4 -den² -de² Examples köy "village" köy köyün köye köyü köyden köyde ağaç "tree" ağaç ağacın ağaca ağacı ağaçtan ağaçta Meaning

Turkish language

(the) village/tree the village’s/tree’s of the village/tree to the village/tree the village/tree from the village/tree in the village/on the tree

(potential). Some loanwords do, however, exhibit partial or even complete vowel harmony (e.g. mümkün "possible" < Arabic mumkin; and dürbün "binoculars" < Persian dūrbīn).[36] There are also a few native Turkish words that do not follow the rule, such as anne ("mother"). In such words, suffixes harmonize with the final vowel: thus annedir ("she is a mother"). Many loanwords from Arabic and French, however, take front-vowel suffixes after final back vowels: for example halsiz < hal + -siz4 "listless", meçhuldür < meçhul + -dir4 "it is unknown", harfler < harf + -ler² "(alphabetical) letters" (instead of the expected *halsız, *meçhuldur and *harflar). The road sign in the photograph above illustrates several of these features: • a native compound which does not obey vowel harmony: Orta+köy ("middle village"—a place name) • a loanword also violating vowel harmony: viyadük ("viaduct" < French viaduc) • the possessive suffix -i4 harmonizing with the final vowel (and softening the k by consonant alternation): viyadüğü

Stress
Stress is usually on the last syllable.[28] Exceptions include some suffix combinations and loanwords, particularly from Italian and Greek, as well as many proper names. While such loanwords are usually stressed on the penultimate syllable ([ɫoˈkanta] lokanta "restaurant" or [isˈcele] iskele "quay"), the stress of proper names is less predictable ([isˈtanbuɫ] İstanbul, [ˈaŋkaɾa] Ankara).

new words, such as creating a verb from a noun, or a noun from a verbal root (see the section on Word formation). Most affixes indicate the grammatical function of the word.[38] The only native prefixes are alliterative intensifying syllables used with adjectives or adverbs: for example sımsıcak ("boiling hot" < sıcak) and masmavi ("bright blue" < mavi).[39] The extensive use of affixes can give rise to long words. It is jokingly said that the longest Turkish word is Çekoslovakyalılaştıramadıklarımızdanmışsınız, meaning "You are said to be one of those that we couldn’t manage to convert to a Czechoslovak". This example is of course contrived; but long words do frequently occur in normal Turkish, as in this heading of a newspaper obituary column: Bayramlaşamadıklarımız (Bayram [festival]-Recipr-Impot-Partic-PlurPossPl1; "Those of our number with whom we cannot exchange the season’s greetings").[40] Another example can be seen in the final word of this heading of the online Turkish Spelling Guide (İmlâ Kılavuzu): Dilde birlik, ulusal birliğin vazgeçilemezlerindendir ("Unity in language is among the indispensables [dispense-Pass-Impot-Plur-PossS3-Abl-Copula] of national unity ~ Linguistic unity is a sine qua non of national unity").[41]

Nouns
There is no definite article in Turkish, but definiteness of the object is implied when the accusative ending is used (see below). Turkish nouns decline by taking case-endings, as in Latin. There are six noun cases in Turkish, with all the endings following vowel harmony (shown in the table using the shorthand superscript notation. The plural marker -ler² immediately follows the noun before any case or other affixes (e.g. köylerin "of the villages").

Grammar
Turkish is an agglutinative language and frequently uses affixes, and specifically suffixes, or endings.[37] One word can have many affixes and these can also be used to create

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Turkish ev evler evin eviniz evim evimde evlerinizin evlerinizden evlerinizdendi evlerinizdenmiş Evinizdeyim. Evinizdeymişim. Evinizde miyim? English (the) house (the) houses your (sing.) house your (pl./formal) house my house at my house of your houses from your houses (he/she/it) was from your houses

Turkish language

(he/she/it) was (apparently/said to be) from your houses I am at your house. I was (apparently) at your house. Am I at your house? • definite (possessive) compound (belirtili tamlama). Eg Türkiye’nin sesi "the voice of Turkey (radio station)": the voice belonging to Turkey. Here the relationship is shown by the genitive ending -in4 added to the first noun; the second noun has the third-person suffix -(s)i4. • indefinite (qualifying) compound (belirtisiz tamlama). Eg Türkiye Cumhuriyeti "Turkey-Republic[43] = the Republic of Turkey": not the republic belonging to Turkey, but the Republic that is Turkey. Here the first noun has no ending; but the second noun has the ending -(s)i4—the same as in definite compounds. The following table illustrates these principles.[44] In some cases the constituents of the compounds are themselves compounds: these subsidiary compounds are marked with [square brackets]. As the last example shows, the qualifying expression may be a substantival sentence rather than a noun or noun group.[48]

The accusative case marker is used only for definite objects; compare ağaç gördük "we saw a tree" with ağacı gördük "we saw the tree".[42] The plural marker -ler² is not used when a class or category is meant: ağaç gördük can equally well mean "we saw trees [as we walked through the forest]"—as opposed to ağaçları gördük "we saw the trees [in question]". The declension of ağaç illustrates two important features of Turkish phonology: consonant assimilation in suffixes (ağaçtan, ağaçta) and voicing of final consonants before vowels (ağacın, ağaca, ağacı). Additionally, nouns can take suffixes that assign person: for example -imiz4, "our". With the addition of the copula (for example -im4, "I am") complete sentences can be formed. The interrogative particle mi4 immediately follows the word being questioned: köye mi? "[going] to the village?", ağaç mı? "[is it a] tree?". The Turkish personal pronouns in the nominative case are ben (1s), sen (2s), o (3s), biz (1pl), siz (2pl, or formal/polite 2s), and onlar (3pl). They are declined regularly with some exceptions: benim (1s gen.); bizim (1pl gen.); bana (1s dat.); sana (2s dat.); and the oblique forms of o use the root on. All other pronouns (reflexive kendi and so on) are declined regularly.

Adjectives
Turkish adjectives are not declined. However most adjectives can also be used as nouns, in which case they are declined: e.g. güzel ("beautiful") → güzeller ("(the) beautiful ones / people"). Used attributively, adjectives precede the nouns they modify. The adjectives var ("existent") and yok ("non-existent") are used in many cases where English would use "there is" or "have", e.g. süt yok ("there is no milk", lit. "(the) milk (is) non-existent"); the

Linking nouns (Tamlama)
Two nouns, or groups of nouns, may be joined in either of two ways:

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Linked nouns and noun groups Definite Indefinite (possessive) (qualifier) kimsenin kimse Atatürk’ün Atatürk Orhan’ın Orhan R [R sessizi]nin Türk [Türk Dili] Ford Ford’un [Ford ailesi]nin Ankara [yıl sonu] Bulgaristan’ın Complement yanıtı yanıtı evi Bulvarı adı adı sessizi söylenişi [Dil Kurumu] Dergisi [aile arabası] [aile arabası] arabası [Kız Lisesi][46] sınavları Meaning nobody’s answer the answer "nobody" Atatürk’s house

Turkish language

Atatürk Boulevard (named after, not belonging to, Atatürk) Orhan’s name the name "Orhan" the consonant r pronunciation of the consonant r Turkish language-society Turkish-language review Ford family car (Mr) Ford’s family car the Ford family’s car[45] Ankara Girls’ School year-end examinations

[İstanbul the Istanbul Consulate-General of BulBaşkonsolosluğu] garia (located in Istanbul, but belonging to Bulgaria) [ [İstanbul Üniversitesi] [Edebiyat Fakültesi] ] ne oldum [ [Türk Edebiyatı] Profesörü] Professor of Turkish Literature in the Faculty of Literature of the University of Istanbul "what-have-I-become!"[47] madman = parvenu who gives himself airs All Turkish verbs are conjugated in the same way, except for the irregular and defective verb i-, the Turkish copula, which can be used in compound forms (the shortened form is called an enclitic): Gelememişti = Gelememiş idi = Gelememiş + i- + -di.

delisi

construction "noun 1-GEN noun 2-POSS var/ yok" can be translated "noun 1 has/doesn’t have noun 2"; imparatorun elbisesi yok "the emperor has no clothes" ("(the) emperor-of clothes-his non-existent"); kedimin ayakkabıları yoktu ("my cat had no shoes", lit. "cat-my-of shoe-plur.-its non-existent-past tense").

Attributive verbs (participles)
Turkish verbs have attributive forms, including present (with the ending -en²), future (ecek²), indirect/inferential past (-miş4), and aorist (-er² or -ir4). These forms can function as either adjectives or nouns: oynamayan çocuklar "children who do not play", oynamayanlar "those who do not play"; okur yazar "reader-writer = literate", okur yazarlar "literates". The most important function of attributive verbs is to form modifying phrases equivalent

Verbs
See also: Turkish copula Turkish verbs indicate person. They can be made negative, potential ("can"), or impotential ("cannot"). Furthermore, Turkish verbs show tense (present, past, inferential, future, and aorist), mood (conditional, imperative, necessitative, and optative), and aspect. Negation is expressed by the infix -me²- immediately following the stem.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Turkish gelgelebilgelmegelemegelememiş gelebilecek gelmeyebilir gelebilirsen gelinir gelebilmeliydin gelebilseydin gelmeliydin English equivalent Case of relat- Pronoun ive pronoun Nominative Genitive who, which/that whose (nom.) whose (acc.) at whose şimdi konuşan adam babası şimdi konuşan adam babasını dün gördüğüm adam resimlerine baktığımız ressam muhtarı seçildiği köy muhtarı seçilmek istediği köy yazdığım mektup English (to) come (to) be able to come not (to) come (to) be unable to come Apparently (s)he couldn’t come (s)he’ll be able to come (s)he may (possibly) not come if thou can come (passive) one comes, people come thou shouldst have been able to come if thou could have come thou shouldst have come Example Translation Literal "now speaking man" "father-his now speaking man" "father-his-ACC yesterday seen-my man" "pictures-his-to looked-our artist" "mayor-its beenchosen-his village" "mayor-its to-bechosen wishing-his village" "written-my letter"

Turkish language

Idiomatic the man (who is) now speaking the man whose father is now speaking the man whose father I saw yesterday the artist whose pictures we looked at the village of which he was elected mayor the village of which he wishes to be elected mayor the letter (which) I wrote the door from which we emerged the ship they came on

of which of which

Remaining cases (incl. prepositions)

whom, which

from which çıktığımız kapı on which

"emerged-our door"

geldikleri vapur "come-their ship"

which + yaklaştığını ansubordinate ladığı hapclause ishane günleri to the relative clauses found in most European languages. The attributive forms used in these constructions are the future (ecek²) and an older form (-dik4), which covers both present and past meanings.[49] The

"approach-their-ACC the prison days (which) understood-his prison he knew were apdays-its" proaching[51][52] use of these "personal or relative participles" is illustrated in the following table, in which the examples are presented according to the grammatical case which would be seen in the equivalent English relative clause.[50]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Turkish göz gözlük gözlükçü gözlükçülük gözlem gözlemci gözle gözlemek Components göz göz + -lük göz + -lük + -çü göz + -lük + -çü + -lük göz + -lem göz + -lem + -ci göz + -le göz + -le + -mek English eye eyeglasses optician optician’s trade observation observer observe to observe

Turkish language
Word class Noun Noun Noun Noun Noun Noun Verb (order) Verb (infinitive)

Word order
Word order in simple Turkish sentences is generally Subject Object Verb, as in Korean and Latin, but unlike English. In more complex sentences, the basic rule is that the qualifier precedes the qualified: this principle includes, as an important special case, the participial modifiers discussed above. The definite precedes the indefinite: thus çocuğa hikâyeyi anlattı "she told the child the story", but hikâyeyi bir çocuğa anlattı "she told the story to a child".[53] It is possible to alter the word order to stress the importance of a certain word or phrase. The main rule is that the word before the verb has the stress without exception. For example, if one wants to say "Hakan went to school" with a stress on the word "school" (okul, the indirect object) it would be "Hakan okula gitti". If the stress is to be placed on "Hakan" (the subject), it would be "Okula Hakan gitti" which means "it’s Hakan who went to school".

The 2005 edition of Güncel Türkçe Sözlük, the official dictionary of the Turkish language published by Turkish Language Association, contains 104,481 entries, of which about 14% are of foreign origin.[54] Among the most significant foreign contributors to Turkish vocabulary are Arabic, French, Persian, Italian, English, and Greek.[55]

Word formation
Turkish extensively uses agglutination to form new words from nouns and verbal stems. The majority of Turkish words originate from the application of derivative suffixes to a relatively small set of core vocabulary. An example set of words derived from a substantive root: Another example, starting from a verbal root: New words are also frequently formed by compounding two existing words into a new one, as in German. A few examples of compound words are given below:

Vocabulary

Writing system
Turkish is written using a modified version of the Latin alphabet introduced in 1928 by Atatürk to replace the Arabic-based Ottoman Turkish alphabet. The Ottoman alphabet marked only three different vowels—long ā, ū and ī—and included several redundant consonants, such as variants of z (which were distinguished in Arabic but not in Turkish). The omission of short vowels in the Arabic script was claimed to make it particularly unsuitable for Turkish, which has eight vowels. The reform of the script was an important step in the cultural reforms of the period. The task of preparing the new alphabet and selecting the necessary modifications for sounds specific to Turkish was entrusted to a Language Commission composed of

Origin of the words in Turkish vocabulary

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Turkish Components yatyatmak yatık yatak yatay yatkın yatıryatırım yatyat-mak yat- + -(ı)k yat- + -ak yat- + -ay yat- + -gın yat- + -(ı)ryat- + -(ı)r- + -(ı)m English lie down to lie down leaning bed, place to sleep horizontal inclined to; stale (from lying too long) lay down to lay down laying down; deposit, investment depositor, investor

Turkish language
Word class Verb (order) Verb (infinitive) Adjective Noun Adjective Adjective Verb (order) Verb (infinitive) Noun Noun Literal meaning after Sunday information counter sky piercer primary finger fore-judging

yatırmak yat- + -(ı)r-mak yatırımcı yat- + -(ı)r- + -(ı)m + -cı Turkish pazartesi bilgisayar gökdelen önyargı English Monday computer

Constituent words pazar ("Sunday") and ertesi ("after") bilgi ("information") and say- ("to count") baş ("prime") and parmak ("finger") ön ("before") and yargı ("splitting; judgement") Pronunciation ˈdʒaːɫoːɫu tʃaɫɯʃtɯˈɣɯ myʒˈde laˈzɯm mahˈcum Meaning [İstanbul district]

skyscraper gök ("sky") and del- ("to pierce") prejudice

başparmak thumb

Turkish spelling Cağaloğlu çalıştığı müjde lazım mahkûm

where/that s/he works/worked good news necessary condemned corresponding to each phoneme. Most of the letters are used approximately as in English, the main exceptions being <c>, which denotes [dʒ] (<j> being used for the [ʒ] found in Persian and European loans); and the undotted <ı>, representing [ɯ]. As in German, <ö> and <ü> represent [œ] and [y]. The letter <ğ>, in principle, denotes [ɣ] but has the property of lengthening the preceding vowel and assimilating any subsequent vowel. The letters <ş> and <ç> represent [ʃ] and [tʃ], respectively. A circumflex is written over back vowels following <k>, <g>, or <l> when these consonants represent [c], [ɟ], and [l]—almost exclusively in Arabic and Persian loans.[59] An apostrophe is used to separate proper nouns from any suffixes: eg İstanbul’da ’in Istanbul’. The specifically Turkish letters and spellings described above are illustrated in this table:

prominent linguists, academics, and writers. The introduction of the new Turkish alphabet was supported by public education centers opened throughout the country, cooperation with publishing companies, and encouragement by Atatürk himself, who toured the country teaching the new letters to the public.[56] As a result, there was a dramatic increase in literacy from its original Third World levels.[57] Latin was applied to the Turkish language for educational purposes even before the 20th century reform. Instances include a 1635 Latin-Albanian dictionary by Frang Bardhi, who also incorporated several sayings in the Turkish language, as an appendix to his work (e.g. alma agatsdan irak duschamas[58] – ’An apple does not fall far from its tree’). Turkish now has an alphabet suited to the sounds of the language: the spelling is largely phonetic, with one letter

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Can kafeste durmaz uçar Dünya bir han konan göçer

Turkish language
dʒan kafest̪e d̪uɾmaz utʃaɾ Soul flies from the cage

d̪ynja biɾ han World is an konan ɟœtʃeɾ inn, settlers depart The moon wanders, years go by May the friends remember me Body will be deprived of life

Ay dolanır yıl- aj d̪oɫanɯɾ lar geçer jɯɫːaɾ ɟetʃeɾ Dostlar beni hatırlasın d̪ostɫaɾ beni hatɯɾɫasɯn

Can bedenden ayrılacak Tütmez baca yanmaz ocak Selam olsun kucak kucak Dostlar beni hatırlasın

dʒan bed̪end̪en ajɾɯɫadʒak

t̪yt̪mez badʒa Hearth won’t janmaz burn, smoke odʒak won’t rise selaːm oɫsun kudʒak kudʒak d̪ostɫaɾ beni hatɯɾɫasɯn By armfuls, salutes I pass May the friends remember me Many blooms thrive and fade Who had laughed, who’ll be glad Desire’s lie, real is death May the friends remember me Into evening will turn the days Behold what soon will take place Veysel departs, his name remains

Atatürk introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of Sinop. September 20, 1928. (Cover of the French L’Illustration magazine)

Açar solar türlü çiçek Kimler gülmüş kim gülecek Murat yalan ölüm gerçek Dostlar beni hatırlasın

atʃaɾ solaɾ t̪yɾly tʃitʃec cimleɾ ɟylmyʃ cim ɟyledʒec

Sample
Dostlar Beni Hatırlasın by Aşık Veysel Şatıroğlu (1894–1973), a minstrel and highly regarded poet in the Turkish folk literature tradition. Orthography IPA Ben giderim adım kalır Dostlar beni hatırlasın Düğün olur bayram gelir Dostlar beni hatırlasın ben ɟid̪eɾim ad̪ɯm kaɫɯɾ d̪ost̪ɫaɾ beni hatɯɾɫasɯn d̪yjyn oɫuɾ bajɾam ɟeliɾ d̪ostɫaɾ beni hatɯɾɫasɯn Translation After I pass, my name remains May the friends remember me Weddings happen, holidays come May the friends remember me

muɾat jaɫan œlym ɟeɾtʃec d̪ostɫaɾ beni hatɯɾɫasɯn

Gün ikindi akşam olur Gör ki başa neler gelir Veysel gider adı kalır

ɟyn icindi akʃam oɫuɾ ɟœɾ ci baʃa neleɾ ɟeliɾ βejsel ɟideɾ ad̪ɯ kaɫɯɾ

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dostlar beni hatırlasın d̪ostɫaɾ beni hatɯɾɫasɯn May the friends remember me

Turkish language

[8] "Language Materials Project: Turkish". UCLA International Institute, Center for World Languages. February 2007. http://www.lmp.ucla.edu/ Profile.aspx?LangID=67&menu=004. Retrieved on 2007-04-26. [9] Ishjatms • List of English words of Turkic origin [10] Findley • List of replaced loanwords in Turkish [11] Soucek • Turkish alphabet [12] Taeuber, Irene B. (April 1958). • Turkish exonyms "Population and Modernization in • Turkish folk literature Turkey". Population Index 24 (2): 110. • Turkish Language Olympics doi:10.2307/2731516. OCLC 41483131. • Turkish literature http://links.jstor.org/ • Turkish Sign Language sici?sici=0032-4701%28195804%2924%3A2%3C101 Retrieved on 2007-04-27. Lay summary – JSTOR. [13] See Lewis (2002) for a thorough Details of the sources cited only by the author’s name treatment of the Turkish language are given in full in the References section. reform. [1] Taylor & Francis Group (2003). Eastern [14] ^ Turkish Language Association. "Türk Europe, Russia and Central Asia 2004. Dil Kurumu - Tarihçe (History of the Routledge. p. 114. ISBN Turkish Language Association)". 978-1857431872. http://www.tdk.gov.tr/TR/ http://books.google.com/ BelgeGoster.aspx?F6E10F8892433CFFAAF6AA8498 books?id=NI1G_9j1AhcC&pg=PT134&dq=1999+census+azerbaijan+turkish&lr=&hl=en&sig=lhkBO Retrieved on 2007-03-18. (Turkish) Retrieved on 2008-03-26. [15] See Lewis (2002): 2–3 for the first two [2] name="Turkish Weekly translations. For the third see Bedi Aksiyon">"Syrian Turks". Yazıcı. "Nutuk: Özgün metin ve çeviri http://www.aksiyon.com.tr/ (Atatürk’s Speech: original text and detay.php?id=22997. translation)". http://www.nutuk.org/. [3] ^ Katzner, Kenneth (2002) [1977]. The Retrieved on 2007-09-28. (Turkish) Languages of the World (3rd ed.). [16] Mütercim Asım (1799). Burhân-ı Katı Routledge. pp. pg 153. ISBN Tercemesi. İstanbul. (Turkish) 0-415-25004-8. [17] Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). http://www.routledge.com/books/The"Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Languages-of-the-WorldFifteenth edition. Report for language isbn9780415250047. Retrieved on code:tur (Turkish)". 2008-09-11. "...language of Turkey, http://www.ethnologue.com/ spoken by about 60 million...also some show_language.asp?code=tur. Retrieved 750,000 speakers in Bulgaria, 150,000 in on 2007-03-18. Cyprus, and 100,000 in Greece…in [18] Center for Studies on Turkey, University Germany, numbering over 2 million of Essen (2003). "The European Turks: people..." Gross Domestic Product, Working [4] Recognized Minority Languages of Population, Entrepreneurs and Romania Household Data" (PDF). Turkish [5] APA - Kirkuk parliament passes decision Industrialists’ and Businessmen’s to give official status to the Turkish Association. http://www.tusiad.org/ language haberler/basin/ab/9.pdf. Retrieved on [6] Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). 2007-01-06. "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, [19] TNS Opinion & Social (February 2006) Fifteenth edition. Language Family Trees (PDF), Special Eurobarometer 243 / - Altaic". http://www.ethnologue.com/ Wave 64.3: Europeans and their show_family.asp?subid=90009. Languages, European Commission Retrieved on 2007-03-18. Directorate of General Press and [7] ^ Katzner Communication, http://ec.europa.eu/

See also

Notes

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Turkish language

public_opinion/archives/ebs/ [32] Note that this table is essentially the ebs_243_en.pdf, retrieved on 2007-03-28 same as the IPA vowel chart shown [20] Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). above: both table and chart indicate the "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, physical location and quality of each Fifteenth edition. Report for language vowel. code:kmr (Kurdish)". [33] Lewis (1953):21 http://www.ethnologue.com/ [34] For the terms twofold and fourfold, as show_language.asp?code=kmr. well as the superscript notation, see Retrieved on 2007-03-18. Lewis (1953):21–22. In his more recent [21] The name TDK itself exemplifies this works Lewis prefers to omit the process. The words tetkik and cemiyet in superscripts, on the grounds that "there the original name are both Arabic is no need for this once the principle has loanwords (the final -i of cemiyeti being a been grasped" (Lewis [2001]:18). Turkish possessive suffix); kurum is a [35] In modern Turkish orthography, an native Turkish word based on the verb apostrophe is used to separate proper kurmak, "set up, found". names from any suffixes. [22] Johanson, Lars (2001) (PDF). Discoveries [36] In Lewis’s marvellously precise on the Turkic linguistic map. Swedish formulation, "The effect of vowel Research Institute in Istanbul. harmony extends to non-Turkish words http://www.srii.org/Map.pdf. Retrieved too, bringing as many vowels as possible on 2007-03-18. of a foreign borrowing into one class, or [23] Özsoy pressing a foreign borrowing whose [24] Akalın, Şükrü Halûk (January 2003). vowels happen to be all of one class still "Türk Dil Kurumu’nun 2002 yılı further into Turkish form." Lewis (2001): çalışmaları (Turkish Language 17. Association progress report for 2002)" [37] This section draws heavily on Lewis (2001) and, to a lesser extent, Lewis (PDF). Türk Dili 85 (613). ISSN (1953). Only the most important 1301-465X. http://www.tdk.gov.tr/TR/ references are specifically flagged dosyagoster.aspx?DIL=1&BELGEANAH=2693&DOSYAISIM=calismalar2002.pdf. with footnotes. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. (Turkish) [38] see Lewis (2001) Ch XIV. [25] Shashi, Shyam Singh (1992). [39] "The prefix, which is accented, is Encyclopaedia of Humanities and Social modelled on the first syllable of the Sciences. Anmol Publications. p. 47. simple adjective or adverb but with the http://books.google.com/ books?id=4T0oAAAAMAAJ&q=yoruk+turkish+taurus&dq=yoruk+turkish+taurus&lr=&hl=en&pgis= substitution of m, p, r, or s for the last Retrieved on 2008-03-26. consonant of that syllable." Lewis [26] Brendemoen, B. (1996), "Phonological (2001):55. The prefix retains the first Aspects of Greek-Turkish Language vowel of the base form and thus exhibits Contact in Trabzon", Conference on a form of reverse vowel harmony. Turkish in Contact, Netherlands Institute [40] This "splendid word" appeared at the for Advanced Study (NIAS) in the time of Bayram, the festival marking the Humanities and Social Sciences, end of the month of fasting. Lewis Wassenaar, 5–6 February, 1996 (2001):287. [27] Vaux, Bert (2001) (PDF). Hemshinli: The [41] İmlâ Kilavuzu Forgotten Black Sea Armenians. Harvard [42] Because it is also used for the indefinite University. http://www.uwm.edu/~vaux/ accusative, Lewis uses the term hamshen.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-04-24. "absolute case" in preference to [28] ^ Handbook of the IPA, p. 155 "nominative". Lewis (2001):28. [29] Lewis (2001):3-4,6. [43] Lewis points out that "an indefinite izafet [30] The <k>/<ğ> alternation does not group can be turned into intelligible usually apply to monosyllabic nouns. (though not necessarily normal) English Lewis (2001):10. by the use of a hyphen". Lewis (2001): [31] "Americans will recognize in it the first 42. [44] The examples are taken from Lewis vowel of Missouri as pronounced by a (2001): 41-47. native of that state." Lewis (2001):13.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Turkish language

[45] For other possible permutations of this about the preceding consonant rather vehicle, see Lewis (2001):46. than the vowel over which it is written. [46] "It is most important to note that the third-person suffix is not repeated though theoretically one might have Printed sources expected Ankara [Kız Lisesi]si." Lewis • Akalın, Şükrü Haluk (January 2003). "Türk Dil Kurumu (2001): 45 footnote. (Turkish Language Association progress report for 20 [47] Note the similarity with the French (613). ISSN 1301-465X. http://www.tdk.gov.tr/TR/ phrase un m’as-tu-vu "a have-you-seendosyagoster.aspx?DIL=1&BELGEANAH=2693&DOSY me?", ie a vain and pretentious person. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. (Turkish) [48] The term substantival sentence is • Bazin, Louis (1975). "Turcs et Sogdiens: Les Enseigne Lewis’s. Lewis(2001:257). Bugut (Mongolie), Mélanges Linguistiques Offerts à É [49] See Lewis (2001):163–165, 260–262 for Linguistique, publiée par la Société de Linguistique d an exhaustive treatment. 37–45. (French) [50] For the terms personal and relative • Brendemoen, B. (1996), "Phonological Aspects of Gree participle see Lewis (1958):98 and Lewis in Trabzon", Conference on Turkish in Contact, Nethe (2001):163 respectively. Most of the Advanced Study (NIAS) in the Humanities and Social examples are taken from Lewis (2001). February, 1996 [51] This more complex example from Orhan • Coulmas, Florian (1989). Writing Systems of the Worl Pamuk’s Kar (Snow) contains a nested Oxford. ISBN 0631180281. structure: [which he knew [were • Dilaçar, Agop (1977). "Atatürk ve Yazım". Türk Dili 35 approaching]]. Maureen Freely’s more http://www.dildernegi.org.tr/TR/ succinct and idiomatic translation is the BelgeGoster.aspx?F6E10F8892433CFFAAF6AA84981 days in prison he knew lay ahead. Note Retrieved on 2007-03-19. (Turkish) that Pamuk uses the spelling hapisane. • Findley, Carter V. (October 2004). The Turks in World [52] From the perspective of Turkish Press. ISBN 0-19-517726-6. grammar yaklaştığını anladığı is exactly • Johanson, Lars (2001) (PDF). Discoveries on the Turki parallel to babasını gördüğüm ("whose Research Institute in Istanbul. http://www.srii.org/Ma father I saw"), and could therefore be 2007-03-18. paraphrased as "whose approaching he • International Phonetic Association (1999). "Turkish". understood". International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use [53] Lewis (2001): 239–240. Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University [54] "Güncel Türkçe Sözlük". Turkish 0-521-65236-7 (hb); ISBN 0-521-63751-1 (pb). Language Association. 2005. • Ishjatms, N. (October 1996), "Nomads In Eastern Cen http://www.tdk.gov.tr/TR/ BelgeGoster.aspx?F6E10F8892433CFFAAF6AA849816B2EFB40CE59E171C629F. civilizations of Central Asia, 2, UNESCO Publishing, I Retrieved on 2007-03-21. (Turkish) • Katzner, Kenneth (March 2002). Languages of the Wo [55] "Türkçe Sözlük (2005)’teki Sözlerin Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd.. Kökenlerine Ait Sayısal Döküm • Lewis, Geoffrey (1953). Teach Yourself Turkish. Engli (Numerical list on the origin of words in 978-0340492314. (2nd edition 1989) Türkçe Sözlük (2005))". Turkish • Lewis, Geoffrey (2001). Turkish Grammar. Oxford Uni Language Association. 2005. 0-19-870036-9. http://www.tdk.gov.tr/TR/ • Lewis, Geoffrey (2002). The Turkish Language Reform BelgeGoster.aspx?F6E10F8892433CFFAAF6AA849816B2EF1A46C5FBFA979D0C. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-925669-1. Retrieved on 2007-03-21. (Turkish) • Nişanyan, Sevan (2007). Sözlerin Soyağacı: Çağdaş Tü [56] Dilaçar, Agop (1977). "Atatürk ve Yazım". (Etymological Dictionary of Contemporary Turkish). A Enlarged 3rd Edition. ISBN 975-418-868-4. (Turkish) Türk Dili 35 (307). ISSN 1301-465X. • Özsoy, A. Sumru; Taylan, Eser E. (eds.) (2000). Türkçe http://www.dildernegi.org.tr/TR/ bildirileri (Workshop on the dialects BelgeGoster.aspx?F6E10F8892433CFFAAF6AA849816B2EFC3C6D81741DBEB05. of Turkish). Boğa ISBN 9755181407. (Turkish) Retrieved on 2007-03-19. (Turkish) • Soucek, Svat (March 2000). A History of Inner Asia. C [57] Coulmas, pp. 243–244 ISBN 978-0521651691. [58] In modern Turkish spelling: elma • Vaux, Bert (2001) (PDF). Hemshinli: The Forgotten Bl ağaçtan ırak düşmez. University. http://www.uwm.edu/~vaux/hamshen.pdf. [59] Lewis (2001):3-7. Note that in these cases the circumflex conveys information

References

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Turkish language

External links
• • • • • • • • • • • • • VikiKaynak, Turkish Wikisource Vikisöz, Turkish Wikiquote Turkish Phrases with Video Turkish Talking Dictionary LangToLang Turkish-to-many Dictionary BBC Turkish, including online Turkish radio service Sözlerin Soyağacı: Online Turkish etymological dictionary 250.000 Pretranslated English-Turkish Sentences A short English-Turkish-Japanese phraselist (renewal) incl. sound file Zargan Turkish Dictionary, with a special emphasis on law, medicine, finance Turkish language at Ethnologue Turkish vowels: sound and photos Sesli Sözlük, online Turkish, Ottoman, English, Spanish, German, French, Italian dictionary with vocabulary translation pronunciations and idioms

Learning resources
• Turkish Language: Resources - University of Michigan • Turkish lessons at the University of Arizona • Turkish Language Class free online Turkish course • United States Foreign Service Institute free online Turkish Basic Course • LT: LearningTurkish • LT: Automatic Turkish Verb Declinations • The Site of Education Turkish Language • Turkish Language Resources • Learn Turkish • Digital files of folksongs, tales and epics in Turkish from the Archive of Turkish Oral Narrative at the Southwest Collection/ Special Collections Library at Texas Tech University

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_language" Categories: Agglutinative languages, Languages of Azerbaijan, Languages of Bulgaria, Languages of Cyprus, Languages of Germany, Languages of Kosovo, Languages of Russia, Languages of the Republic of Macedonia, Languages of Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkish language, Vowel harmony languages This page was last modified on 20 May 2009, at 03:21 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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