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					WorkFirst


Third-Year
Accountability Report
for WorkFirst Training
Programs



November 2002



Prepared by
The Education Services Division

Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges
                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS



                                                                                                                                Page

Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1


Part I: Pre-employment Training Programs .............................................................. 11

    WorkFirst Pre-employment Training (PET) ......................................................... 11

    Families That Work (FTW) and Pregnancy To Employment (PTE) .................. 17

    WorkFirst Work Study ............................................................................................ 23


Part II: Post-employment Training For Low-Income Working Parents ................ 25

    Tuition Assistance ..................................................................................................... 25

    Workplace Basic Skills ............................................................................................. 29



Appendices

A      Policy Issues and Specific Questions for Accountability Report
B      Pre-employment Training Providers and Business Partners
C      Workplace Basic Skills Projects, Companies and Types of Workers Trained
                   Washington Community and Technical Colleges

                            Third Year Accountability Report
                                          For
                             WorkFirst Training Programs

                                             2000-01


INTRODUCTION

In 1997, Washington state inaugurated WorkFirst, our state’s welfare-to-work program based on
the 1996 federal Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) welfare reform legislation.
WorkFirst’s aim is to help people get “a job, a better job, a better life.”

As part of this new program, the community and technical college system created four WorkFirst
training programs in 1998 to provide WorkFirst participants with pre-employment and job
training to help them succeed in the economic mainstream. Training opportunities were
expanded with the additions of a new component in 1999 and another new program in 2000.

This report describes the third year’s results of those training programs. The period covered by
this report is July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001.

Throughout this report, the colleges training programs are referred to as WorkFirst training,
indicating their funding source. Participants are referred to as current welfare participants in the
quarter they started training or welfare parents if they were a WorkFirst/TANF caseload adult.
Participants whose income was below 175 percent of poverty (about $24,800 for a family of
three) are referred to as low-income parents, or low-wage workers when individuals are working
and attending training. Other welfare sub-classifications are also used for analyses, but
explained in the report.

Part I describes three programs that provided training to welfare participants and other low-
income/former welfare students preparing for work.

Part II describes two programs for people who are already working – both welfare participants
and other low-wage/former welfare workers – to help them stay employed and qualify for better
jobs.

Program results described in Parts I and II of this report include:

      Pre-employment Training (PET) provides short training geared to the hiring needs of
       specific employers. Most PET programs are 12 weeks, although some newer programs
       may last up to 22 weeks. (Three colleges have conducted pilot programs for one-year



                                                  1
        certificates in information technology that will be analyzed in next year’s accountability
        report.) PET is the largest pre-employment training program.

       Families That Work (FTW) provides intensive training to welfare and low-income
        parents with more difficult barriers to employability. FTW focuses on basic academic
        skills, developing better parenting and personal management skills, and work readiness.
        In 1999, a new component, Pregnancy to Employment (PTE) was added for expectant
        mothers and parents of infants.

        Neither of these is a job training program aimed at immediate post-program employment,
        but some participants do start work during and after participating.

       Work Study combines part-time, 16-hour-per-week study jobs with college enrollment.
        It was authorized for welfare participants in spring 1999 and geared up in all of the
        colleges in 2000-01.

       Tuition Assistance helps welfare participants and other low-wage/former welfare
        workers pay for college while they are working. Tuition Assistance is the major post-
        employment training service available under WorkFirst.

       Workplace Basics Skills provides customized, on-the-job-site literacy and English as a
        Second Language (ESL) training for low-wage workers in entry-level jobs.

OVERALL THIRD-YEAR FINDINGS

Community and technical college training increased employment for welfare parents.

       More than 1,500 welfare participants found jobs the quarter after they left Pre-
        employment Training, Work Study, and Families That Work.

       Pre-employment Training (PET) was the largest program for preparing welfare parents
        to go to work. Some 960 people went to work after completing PET.

       While job placement was not the primary goal for Families That Work (FTW/PTE), 290
        welfare parents entered employment after leaving training.

       Nearly 350 welfare participants entered employment after Work Study. This included
        75 participants who combined Work Study jobs with PET or FTW/PTE training.

Training at community and technical colleges resulted in a higher wages.

       PET completers earned a median hourly wage of $8.72 per hour the quarter after
        training. This was nearly $1.00 per hour more than the median hourly wage of the
        WorkFirst caseload as a whole, which earned $7.74 per hour when starting work after
        job search.



                                               2
       Welfare participants who went to work after holding Work Study jobs earned an even
        higher rate: $8.87 per hour. Those who combined a Work Study job with PET earned
        the highest hourly wage in the quarter after training: $9.56 per hour.

       The median hourly wage for people who participated in FTW/PTE and were employed
        the quarter after training was $7.48 per hour. When FTW/PTE was combined with
        Work Study jobs, hourly wages increased to $7.72 per hour – nearly the same as the
        caseload as a whole. This is notable because this program serves people with significant
        barriers to successful employment.

Post-employment programs – Tuition Assistance for low-wage working parents, and
Workplace Basic Skills for English as a Second Language instruction at the worksite –
continued to add value.

Major gains occurred when Tuition Assistance participants completed college certificate
and degree programs, but difficulties balancing school, work and family obligations
prevented many from getting this far.

       Low-income working parents who received Tuition Assistance increased their hourly
        wages 20 percent within one year after training if they earned a certificate or degree.
        Hourly wages of degree graduates rose from $10.35 per hour during their last quarter of
        training to $12.59 per hour the third quarter after leaving – a $2.24 per hour increase.

        Certificate completers’ hourly wages increased from $8.50 per hour to $10.14 (a $1.65
        increase) in the same period.

        However, only 20 percent of all Tuition Assistance students who left college earned
        degrees or certificates.

       The majority left college before earning a certificate or degree. Wage increases for these
        early stop-outs were about 10 percent, and their post-training earnings were far below
        those of degree graduates.

       Both employer and worker satisfaction with on-site English as a Second Language
        instruction has been consistently strong. In 2000-01, 1,037 low-wage workers received
        Workplace Basic Skills training. This compared to 1,274 workers trained in 1999-2000.




                                              3
                             SPECIFIC PROGRAM FINDINGS

PRE-EMPLOYMENT TRAINING FINDINGS:

PET training expanded the number of participants trained.

       Some 2,850 participants received Pre-employment Training the second year, compared
        to 2,100 the year prior, and about 1,070 the first year. Twenty-six community and
        technical colleges and four private career schools provided training.

       Sixty percent (1,696) of all participants were welfare adults in families that received
        cash assistance the quarter they started training. Some 475 of these were longer-term
        recipients who received cash assistance in at least 30 of the previous 36 months.
        Another 270 were entering clients who were new or returning to the caseload in the
        quarter they started training.

       About one in five participants had no work history in the two years prior to training, as
        reported in employment wage files. Nearly half (47 percent) of welfare participants had
        less than 12 years of education, including those who earned a GED.

PET completers continued to have higher employment rates and higher initial hourly
wages than non-completers, and higher wages than those who sought jobs without any pre-
employment training. These findings were reconfirmed in the latest Washington
WorkFirst Study (University of Washington, Sept. 2002).

       Three-fourths (76 percent) of all PET participants completed training. People who
        completed training were 30 percent more likely than non-completers to be employed the
        quarter after training. Sixty-eight (68) percent of PET completers were employed the
        quarter after training, compared to 47 percent of non-completers.

       The overall median hourly wage for PET welfare participants the quarter after training
        was $8.72 per hour. Completers earned $8.80 per hour, while non-completers earned
        $7.94 per hour.

       The WorkFirst Study found that people who completed PET in 2000-01 earned $628 per
        quarter ($2,512 per year) more, and were 14 percent more likely to be employed, than a
        comparison group who didn’t receive PET. (The study reports earnings of $2,462 per
        quarter and a 69 percent employment rate for PET completers, compared to earnings of
        $1,936 per quarter and a 55 percent employment rate for the comparison group.)

An analysis of post-PET employment results and length of stay in WorkFirst indicates that
PET could help new welfare clients achieve economic gains faster.

       Progress toward leaving welfare was measured by the percent of people who were off
        the TANF caseload within 6 months after PET training. (An exit was defined as three
        months off the caseload.) In 2000-01, 835 welfare participants exited the caseload


                                              4
        within six months after training. This was 52 percent of all welfare participants leaving
        PET during the year, and 55 percent of those who completed the training.

       Among entering clients who were new to the caseload during the quarter they started
        PET, 69 percent who completed the training left the caseload within six months. This
        compared to about one-third of new clients who entered the welfare caseload during the
        same time period but did not participate in PET.

       Focusing on new clients is a promising practice for PET, because entering clients had
        some of the highest overall success. They had the highest employment rate (71 percent)
        and the highest hourly wage ($8.96 per hour) in the quarter after training among all
        welfare participants leaving training.

       While longer-term welfare clients that completed PET had higher employment rates and
        earned higher hourly wages than those did not complete the training, PET was less
        effective in terms of exiting the welfare caseload, as 39 percent of all longer-term
        welfare left the caseload within 6 months after training.

FAMILIES THAT WORK FINDINGS:

FTW and Pregnancy to Employment (PTE) focused services on the hardest to serve.

       In 2000-01, 1,955 participants enrolled in training. This included 902 participants in
        FTW and 1,053 participants in PTE. Training was provided by 22 colleges and 4
        community organizations.

       The typical participant was a single mother (84 percent) with low basic skills, no high
        school diploma, or limited English proficiency, who had been determined as not ready or
        able to look for work by her Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS)
        caseworker.

       The median age for FTW participants was 29 years. Forty-six (46) percent were people
        of color, 42 percent had not worked in the past two years, and 31 percent received
        welfare in at least 30 of the past 36 months.

       The median age for PTE participants was 21 years. All were pregnant or had infants.

       Many parents referred to FTW have personal or family barriers that need to be addressed
        before they can look for work. Two-thirds of parents enrolled in FTW during 2000-01
        were engaged in community activities or referred to services to address issues such as
        mental health, abuse, homelessness, or other family issues. These clients are typically
        deemed the hardest to serve by DSHS welfare caseworkers.


One-third (33) percent of all FTW participants made substantial skill gains compared to a
program target of 50 percent. Progress was closely tied to number of quarters enrolled.


                                              5
Those enrolled longer had higher gains. Twenty-nine (29) percent of all those enrolled who
had no high school diploma earned a GED, a prerequisite to further college level training
and financial aid.

       Just over 1,500 participants exited training by June 2001. Thirty-nine (39) percent of
        participants exited after just one quarter. Another 29 percent exited after participating
        for two quarters. Sixteen (16) percent exited after three quarters. The remaining 16
        percent exited after four or more quarters.

       Substantial progress is measured for gains in three areas combined: basic skills,
        parenting skills, and work readiness. Thirty-three (33) percent of all participants made
        substantial progress in all three areas. Progress rates ranged from just 18 percent for
        participants in the program for one quarter to 50 percent for those enrolled four or more
        quarters.

       Earning a GED credential is very important for access to further training for participants
        who do not already have high school diplomas. It is a prerequisite for most vocational
        training programs, and a diploma or GED is required for federal and state financial aid.
        Some 1,650 participants enrolled in 2000-01 had less than a high school education and
        429 (29 percent) earned a GED within 1 year after they started – ranging from 31
        percent for PTE participants to 26 percent for FTW participants.

Participation in FTW and PTE helped stabilize the hardest-to-serve so that they increased
the time and effort they spent preparing themselves for work and improving their skills.

       One goal of FTW/PTE is to help people meet WorkFirst work requirements (increasing
        employment and the time spent preparing for it). Instructors make their lessons relevant
        to participants’ work and family responsibilities.

       A study focused on 550 FTW/PTE parents who had received cash assistance for one full
        year after they started FTW, and for one quarter before they enrolled. All were pursuing
        community services. Twenty-five (25) percent of the FTW parents were working or
        looking for work. Just under half (46 percent) were engaged in some sort of educational
        program.

       One year after enrollment in FTW/PTE, more than half (57 percent) were engaged in
        work, looking for work or volunteer/community jobs. Fifty (50) percent were in
        education programs. Just over half (51percent) of the FTW/PTE parents needed
        community services to address their barriers to employability.

       The quarter before her start in FTW/PTE, the typical parent spent 14.2 hours per week
        pursuing community services. On average, she spent 3.4 hours per week working or
        looking for work. She participated for just less than 5 hours per week in some sort of
        educational program.




                                               6
       One year later, time spent working or looking for work had increased to 9.4 hours per
        week, and time in education activities increased to 6.7 hours. Time spent with
        community services was reduced to 6.1 hrs per week.

       As was the case with skill improvements, these behavior changes were tied to the
        number of quarters participants were enrolled in Families That Work.

WORK STUDY FINDINGS:

Work Study provided a new WorkFirst training option prior to employment by combining
a part-time Work Study job with college classes.

       In 2000-01, more than 1,600 individuals participated in Work Study combined with
        enrollment in community or technical college job training programs. They included 76
        participants who combined Work Study jobs and individualized training with PET, and
        74 FTW parents who used Work Study to build their work experience.

       Work Study was limited to welfare adults, with a significant group lacking job
        experience. Nearly half (45 percent) of these welfare participants had not worked in the
        two years prior to training.

       Some 690 Work Study participants exited college training during the year. The typical
        participant left a little after two quarters. One third (33 percent) used Work Study to
        finish certificates or degrees, or successfully completed an individualized training plan.
        Another 4 percent earned a GED. The majority (63 percent), however, stopped out
        before they completed enough training to significantly raise their skills levels.

       Given the high percentage of participants with little or no prior work history, first results
        indicate that Work Study may be a promising practice for building work experience and
        increasing employability skills, when combined with training. Over half (51) percent of
        all participants were employed the quarter after training, at a median hourly wage of
        $8.87 per hour. The hourly wage after Pre-employment Training combined with Work
        Study was $9.56 per hour.

TUITION ASSISTANCE FINDINGS:

Tuition Assistance increased access to job training for WorkFirst participants and other
low-income working adults.

       Nearly 8,600 working parents attended community or technical colleges with Tuition
        Assistance in 2000-01. Of the total, 67 percent (N=5,770) were new, first-time tuition
        aid recipients. Another one-third were students continuing from 1998 or 1999. This
        group was nearly equally divided between students who received further tuition
        assistance in 2000 (N=1,491), and students who continued with some traditional state
        and federal aid (N=1,317).



                                               7
       The typical new, first-time Tuition Assistance recipient in 2000-01 was female (78
        percent) and 32 years old. Just over half (52 percent) of first-time Tuition Assistance
        recipients were current or former welfare participants. A little less than one-third of all
        participants (31 percent) were people of color. Of those receiving Tuition Assistance for
        the first time in 2000-01, 29 percent were new to college.

Participants’ earnings increased with the level of education they achieved. Degree
graduates had the highest earnings. However, the majority of students stopped out of
college well short of degree status.

       Nearly 3,800 participants who received Tuition Assistance in 1998 or 1999 stopped out
        of college training at the end of 1999. Nineteen (19) percent (N=732) completed
        certificates, degrees or individualized plans, or, along with past college work, reached a
        full year of college credits. However, the majority were early stop-outs (N=3,065) who
        left with some college training, but not enough to be counted as a significantly new
        training level.

       Earnings increased with years of education attained. As a group, participants leaving
        training by the end of spring 2000 earned $3,910 in the third quarter after training.
        Completing a degree increased earnings to $5,860 in the quarter. Certificate completion
        increased earnings to $4,290. Nearly 80 percent of certificates were earned for short-
        term training of less than 900 hours. Participants who completed individualized plans
        earned $4,110 in the third quarter after training. A typical plan was a single course or
        group of courses designed to meet a specific employment need. Early leavers who
        completed some college, but not an individualized plan, certificate, or degree, had the
        lowest earnings – $3,780 in the third quarter after training.

Hourly wage gains within the first year after training were highest for participants who
earned a degree or a certificate.

       Participants who earned a degree increased their hourly wages more than 22 percent, or
        $2.24 per hour, within one year after leaving training. Students who earned certificates
        increased their hourly wages nearly 20 percent, or $1.65 per hour. As a group, hourly
        wage gains within one year from the last quarter of training were 10 percent, or $.90 per
        hour.

WORKPLACE BASIC SKILLS TRAINING FINDINGS:

Employer and employee support for Workplace Basic Skills programs remained strong,
but fewer low-wage workers received this training during 2000-01 than in 1999-2000.

       In 2000-01, 1,037 low-wage workers received Workplace Basic Skills training. This
        compared to 1,274 workers trained the year before. Fourteen (14) percent of those
        trained were current or former welfare participants.




                                               8
       Nineteen community or technical colleges and nine community organizations offered the
        training in partnership with 28 employers.

       Two-thirds of employers were “very satisfied” with the training, with the remaining one-
        third responding they were “satisfied.” Nearly 90 percent of workers responded that
        they found the language skills practice “quite helpful” in their work.

       Eighty-two (82) percent of employers said the training helped workers in their current
        jobs. Specifically, 77 percent responded that the training improved how the workers
        worked with others; 70 percent responded that the training helped give the workers a
        better understanding of their company’s big picture; and 57 percent found the training
        contributed toward improving the company’s overall effectiveness.

       Two-thirds (69 percent) of workers responded that they used the skills “very often” in
        their everyday jobs. The remaining one-third responded that they used the skills
        “sometimes.”

CONCLUSIONS

Consistent with all prior results, Pre-employment Training continued to be associated with better
jobs in comparisons between completers and non-completers, and with what we are learning
about the welfare caseload as a whole.

While PET has consistently helped participants with varied characteristics and experience, some
groups have benefited more than others. This past year provided evidence that PET worked
particularly well for new welfare participants who completed training; they started work at a
better starting wage and were off cash assistance at higher rates than other WorkFirst
participants. However, longer-term WorkFirst participants and those with little or no work
history needed longer training.

Work Study appeared to be a promising addition to training services by helping welfare adults
with little work history get work experience along with training. These people found jobs at
some of the highest starting wages. Both PET and FTW participants who combined training
with Work Study jobs had higher hourly wages than participants who didn’t.

While job placement was beyond the goals of Families That Work, a sub-group of participants
did enter employment the quarter after training, albeit with a lower employment rate than either
PET or Work Study, and at a median wage more similar to the welfare caseload as a whole.
When FTW programs had employer connections, employment results were stronger, but on the
whole this wasn’t the case, and participants capable of going to work after FTW most likely
needed stronger linkages to vocational skills training targeted to job openings to get higher
paying jobs. GED completion rates were worth noting, because the GED is particularly
important for access to further training.

Tuition Assistance affects how community and technical colleges plan and offer training to
working, low-wage people. Colleges again increased weekend and evening training.


                                              9
Participants able to balance work and family well enough to stay in training and earn degrees had
the highest earnings. Wage progression was greater for degree graduates and participants who
could complete short certificates than for those who completed short plans or stopped out after
just a few classes. This has implications for how these students are advised, and for the way
colleges modularize training for working low-income students.

Next Steps:

The WorkFirst Training Accountability Report relies on Unemployment Insurance (UI)
administrative records for the employment, wage, and earnings results presented. These data are
lagging indicators that are available one year after the participant leaves training. At the time
this third year report was prepared, colleges had completed their fourth year of WorkFirst
program operation, and were beginning to plan for the fifth year.

In the fifth year, WorkFirst job training funds were reduced 25 percent. The community and
technical college system responded strategically. Instead of funding six separate programs,
colleges were given a block grant, and asked to recombine these programs based on what has
worked and what hasn’t. This gives colleges the flexibility to combine and customize programs
to meet the needs of their local communities.

The challenge that colleges will address first is to increase placements in better jobs for
unemployed welfare parents. To accomplish this, colleges are planning training that streamlines
and integrates best practices from WorkFirst and other college programs. The new model
includes greater integration of basic skills with customized skills training. This new model is
called Customized Job Skills Training. In essence, it is PET Plus. Value will be added by
serving more WorkFirst participants. Low-income adults will continue to be served, but the
focus has clearly been placed on WorkFirst participants.

The community and technical college system has worked to increase welfare referrals to job
training. Referrals need to continue growing for the program to be successful.

In fall 2003, the State Board for Community and Technical Colleges will report on the final year
of WorkFirst Training designed around the previous program model. Results of the new block
grant model will be reported in fall 2004.




                                             10
PART I: PRE-EMPLOYMENT TRAINING PROGRAMS


                   WORKFIRST PRE-EMPLOYMENT TRAINING (PET)

Background

Pre-employment Training (PET) is the major WorkFirst training program for welfare and low-
income parents who are not yet employed and looking for jobs. Training is customized to a
specific employer or group of employers with hiring needs. PET aims to help people get better
jobs than if they go directly to job search workshops, job search only, or get no assistance at all.

PET nearly doubled in size in its second year. In both the first and second years, results were
similar. PET completers continued to have higher employment rates and higher hourly starting
wages than non-completers and other welfare participants who looked for work without pre-
employment training. These positive results continued to be confirmed in the University of
Washington Longitudinal Study.

This section describes the third year training and employment results for participants in PET in
2000-01.

Who received training?
                                                     PET Participant Status at Start of Training
Some 2,850 participants received Pre-                                (N=2,850)
employment Training in 2000-01. This
                                                                                8%
compared to 2,100 the second year and
1,069 the first year.                                    60%


Sixty (60) percent of all participants
(N=1,696) were welfare participants who                                          32%
received benefits the quarter they started
training. Some 475 participants (28
percent of all welfare participants) were              Welfare    Former Welfare     Low-Income
longer-term recipients of cash assistance
who had received benefits in at least 10 of the past 12 quarters. Another 270 (16 percent) were
welfare clients who were new or returning to the caseload in the quarter they started training –
people who did not receive benefits the quarter before.

Forty (40) percent of PET participants (N=1,152) were low-income adults. Of these, 32 percent
had no welfare history (N=916), and 8 percent were former WorkFirst participants (N=236) who
received cash assistance some time in the past three years, but not during the quarter they were
enrolled in training.

PET providers are selected based upon applications developed by the provider in partnership
with employers, and the Departments of Social and Health Services and Employment Security.




                                               11
Thirty (30) colleges and three private career schools provided training. See Appendix B for a
complete list of providers and business partners.

What were the demographic characteristics of those in training?

The typical welfare participant in training had characteristics similar to the caseload as a whole
as of July 2001. She was 30 years old. Slightly more than one-third of welfare PET participants
were people of color. Low-income/former welfare participants in training were more likely to be
male, of color, and older than welfare participants.

                   Demographic Characteristics of 2000-2001 PET Participants
                                 and All Adults on Welfare

                                              PET                        Welfare Caseload
                                                                          Comparison
                                                   Low Income/
                                 Welfare          Former Welfare         WorkFirst Adults
                                (N=1,696)            (N=1,154               July 2001

     Female                          79%                56%                     80%
     Of Color                        35%                59%                     35%
     (For whom known)
     Median Age                 30.1years             34.5 years             30.1 years


What was the work history and educational level of participants prior to training?

About one in five participants had no work history in the two years prior to training, as reported
in UI wage files. Nearly half (47 percent) of current welfare participants (including those who
earned a GED) had less than 12 years of education. About 20 percent of low-income participants
had limited English skills.

          Employment and Education of 2000-01 PET Participants At Start of Training

                                                         Welfare        Low-Income and
                                                                        Former Welfare
      Not worked Past 2 Years                              19%                 21%
      Less Than 12 years Education                         47%                 32%
      (Includes GED)
      Limited in English                                   15%                 21%


What percent of participants completed training?

Some 1,610 welfare participants, along with 1,090 low-income/former welfare participants,
exited PET training during the year. Three-fourths of all exiting participants successfully
completed the program. Completers included 1,200 welfare participants and 825 low-


                                             12
  income/former welfare adults. Similar to prior years, completion was high for participants as a
  whole, and for all sub-groups.

                                               PET Completion Rates
                                 All TANF and Low-Income/Former TANF Participants



          All PET Participants                                                              76%
                                                                                           75%

  Not Worked in Past 2 Years                                                               75%
                                                                                         73%

              Limited English                                                              75%
                                                                                         72%

 Less than 12 Years Education                                                           72%
                                                                                          74%

                     Of Color                                                                 78%
                                                                                        72%

              Entering Clients                                                               76%

Longer Welfare - 30 of Past 36
          Months                                                                       71%


                                       Welfare (N=1,206)      Low-Income/Former Welfare (N=824)




  What was the rate of employment after completing training?

  Sixty-eight (68) percent of all welfare participants who completed training were employed within
  one quarter after training. However, it should be noted that employment results in this report
  understate total employment, because these data include only jobs covered by unemployment
  insurance in Washington state. Self-employment and work in other states are not counted. The
  chart below shows the placement rates for welfare and low-income participants by selected
  characteristics.

  Among welfare participants, the employment rate was highest for those entering or new to
  welfare.

  Welfare participants with no prior work history in the past two years were the most difficult to
  place into employment, even after they completed training.




                                                       13
                      PET Employment for Completers One Quarter After Training

                                            Welfare Completers          Low-Income/Former Welfare
                                                Employed                   Completers Employed
   All Participants                                68% (813)                    69% (524)
   Less than 12 Years Education                    67% (277)                     63% (80)
   Of Color                                        70% (215)                    71% (289)
   Longer Welfare                                  60% (197)                          N/A
   Entering Clients                                71%(134)                           N/A
   Not Worked Past 2 Years                         56% (127)                     47% (90)
   Limited English                                 66% (113)                    75% (126)

Welfare participants who completed their training were more likely than those who did not
complete to be employed the quarter after completion (68 percent of completers started work,
compared to 37 percent of non-completers). Comparisons between these two groups are useful
because all participants were under the same mandate to look for work. Similar differences in
employment rates were found for low income/former welfare completers and non-completers:
69 percent for completers compared to 47 percent for non-completers.

The graph below shows differences for welfare completers and non-completer sub-groups.


                                Welfare Employment 1 Quarter After Training
                          All PET Completers and Non-Completers and Select Sub-Sets


                                                                        68%
                   All
                                                   37%

                                                                         71%
        Entering Client
                                                       39%

                                                                         70%
              Of Color
                                           25%

                                                                       67%      Completers (N=813)
   <12 Years Education
                                                 33%
                                                                                Non-Completers (N=150)

                                                                       66%
       Limited English
                                                   37%

                                                                 60%
       Longer Welfare
                                           26%

                                                               56%
      No Work History
                                           25%




                                                       14
What was the hourly wage in the quarter after Pre-employment Training?

PET welfare median wages outpaced all other welfare caseload job entries. A total of 963
welfare completers and non-completers entered employment at a median hourly wage of
$8.72 per hour the quarter after leaving training. For the welfare caseload as a whole, the
median hourly wage was $7.74 per hour for entries into employment after job search alone.

Median hourly wages were higher for welfare completers than non-completers. The typical
welfare participant who completed PET earned $8.80 per hour. Non-completers earned closer to
the caseload as a whole, $7.94 per hour. Entering welfare participants had the highest hourly
wage, $8.96 per hour.

Low-income adults who completed training earned $9.26 per hour, but non-completers earned
$9.42 per hour, indicating that in particular, non-completers with prior work history may not
have benefited as much from PET as they did from employment opportunities they may have had
on their own.

The chart below describes median hourly earnings for welfare and low income subgroups the
quarter after they left PET.

                          Median Hourly Wages One Quarter After PET

                                               Welfare          Low-Income/Former Welfare

    All Completers                               $8.80                       $9.26
     Limited English                             $8.50                       $9.03
     Less than 12 Years Education                $8.64                       $9.08
     Of Color                                    $8.51                       $8.83
     Entering Clients                            $8.96                       N/A
     Longer Welfare                              $8.87                       N/A
    All Non-Completers                           $7.94                       $9.42



What is the welfare status of PET participants after training?

In 2000-01, 835 PET welfare participants left the welfare caseload for at least one full quarter
within six months after training. This was 52 percent of all PET welfare participants who left
training. Welfare PET participants who completed the training exited welfare at a rate of 55
percent. PET’s goal was for 60 percent of all PET welfare participants to exit the caseload.

Leaving welfare can take some time and is easier for some than others. For participants who
were new or more recent to welfare in the quarter they started training, PET proved a promising



                                              15
strategy for leaving welfare quickly. Sixty-nine (69) percent of all welfare participants who were
new to the caseload when they enrolled and who completed PET left welfare within six months.
This compared to about one-third of all WorkFirst clients who entered welfare and were off six
months later. Conversely, for longer-term welfare participants, the process of leaving was more
difficult; even among PET completers, just 39 percent left the caseload six months after they left
training.

The graph below shows the percent of welfare participants who left welfare within six months
after leaving PET, and the percent of the full caseload of entering welfare participants who left
the caseload within six months during the same period.




                            Percent of Welfare Participants Exiting Welfare
                           Within Six Months After Pre-employment Training
                                             (Target 60 %)




                                                  69%


                               55%
            52%


                                                                      39%
                                                                                             33%




          ALL PET         PET Completers   PET Entering Welfare PET Longer Welfare   Entering Clients-Full
                                                                                           Caseload




                                               16
    FAMILIES THAT WORK (FTW) and PREGNANCY TO EMPLOYMENT (PTE)

Background

Families That Work (FTW) offers intensive training and services to hard-to-serve clients.
Participants are WorkFirst enrollees who have severe barriers to employment, and low-income
parents with little or no work experience. FTW combines literacy and GED preparation with
interpersonal, problem-solving, and other personal management skills required of both parents
and workers.

WorkFirst participants referred by the Department of Social and Health Services are typically
those who are not able to find work even in a strong economy, and are having difficulty meeting
WorkFirst work requirements. Few have immediate job placement goals after FTW. Most are
referred to build their skills and increase their work readiness while they work on longer-term
plans. Many are dealing with serious family and personal issues before and during training.

FTW enrolled 1,700 participants in 1999-2000, approximately 1,100 more than 1998-99. The
increase was largely due to the addition of a new component – Pregnancy To Employment (PTE)
– for young expectant mothers and mothers with infants.

Overall findings from the second year suggest that participation in FTW and PTE helped clients
meet their WorkFirst work requirements as they developed basic skills. Participants who stayed
in the program longer typically had higher skills gains than those enrolled for just one quarter.

This section describes the third-year participants enrolled in FTW and PTE in 2000-01.

Who received training?

A total of 1,955 participants enrolled in basic           Participants Served in Families That
skills programs between July 2000 and June 2001.          Work and Pregnancy To Employment
This included 1,053 PTE and 902 FTW
participants. Twenty-two community and                                                     1,053
                                                                 923 902
technical college programs and four community                                        780
organizations provided training.                           570

What are the characteristics of participants?

The typical parent in FTW was 29 years old.
                                                               FTW                 PTE
Eighty (80) percent were current welfare                        98-99     99-00     00-01
participants. Of these, 31 percent received cash
assistance in at least 30 of the previous 36
months. Almost half (46 percent) were people of color. Seventy-one (71) percent had less than
a high school education or low basic skills; the remaining 29 percent had limited English
proficiency. Forty-two (42) percent had not worked in the past two years.




                                              17
PTE was established for expectant mothers and parents with infants. Eighty-eight (88) percent
of the parents in PTE were welfare participants. The median age was 21 years. Eighty-nine (89)
percent were referred because they had less than a high school education. The others (11
percent) had limited English proficiency.

The table below summarizes the characteristics of participants in each program:

                                            Families That Work                Pregnancy To Employment
                                                 (N=902)                              (N=1053)
 Female
 WorkFirst                                            80%                                  88%
 Received Welfare 30 of Past 36 Months                31%                                  16%
 Of Color                                             46%                                  40%
 Pregnant Mother or Parent of Infant                                                       100%
 Not Worked Past Two Years                            42%                                  34%
 Low Basic Skills and/or                              71%                                  89%
 No HS Diploma/GED
 Limited English Proficiency                          29%                                  11%
 Median Age                                          29 years                             21 years


What percentage of participants increased their basic skills?

Just over 1,500 participants exited training by
June 2001. Thirty-nine (39) percent of                           Percentage of Participants Making
participants exited after just one quarter.                     Substantial Skills Gains by Quarters
Another 29 percent exited after participating                         Enrolled Prior To Exit
                                                                           (Target 50%)
for two quarters. Sixteen (16) percent exited
after three quarters, and the remaining 16                                       47%         50%
percent exited after four or more quarters.                          36%                                 33%
                                                         18%
Substantial progress is measured for gains in
three areas combined: basic skills, parenting
skills, and work readiness. Thirty-three (33)
                                                      After 1 Qtr   After 2     After 3     After 4   All Exiters
percent of all participants made substantial                         Qtrs        Qtrs        Qtrs
progress in all three areas. This compared to
the goal of 50 percent of participants making
progress.

Progress rates ranged from just 18 percent for participants in the program for one quarter, to 50
percent for those enrolled four or more quarters.




                                                18
What percentage of those starting with less than a high school education earned a GED?

Earning a GED credential is very
                                                    % of Participants With Less That HS To Start That
important for access to further training,
                                                               Earned GED Within 1 Yea r
if a participant does not already have a
high school diploma. It is a                                              31%
prerequisite for most vocational                       29%
programs, and a diploma or GED is
                                                                                            26%
required for federal and state financial
aid. Some 1,650 participants enrolled
in FTW/PTE in 2000-01 had less than
a high school education. The                         Combined             PTE               FTW
participants included 959 Pregnancy to
Employment and 698 FTW parents.
Of the combined group, 429 (29 percent) earned a GED within 1 year after they started – ranging
from 31 percent for Pregnancy to Employment participants to 26 percent for FTW participants.
The national evaluation of welfare-to-work strategies that examined the effects of adult
education in welfare-to-work programs found that if adult education were required there was a
modest effect on GED attainment. About 11 percent earned GEDs, compared to 4 percent if
participants were left on their own to attend adult education. However, the programs studied at
the national level were typically all traditional class models. One factor in FTW/PTE’s relatively
high rate of GED attainment may be the intensiveness of the training services tailored to the
needs of welfare clients.

What progress do hard-to-serve parents make in leaving WorkFirst when they participate
in Families That Work?

Many parents who are referred to FTW/PTE are having difficulty in their personal lives. Two-
thirds of welfare parents enrolled in FTW/PTE 2000-01 were clients of, or referrals to,
community mental health, substance abuse, housing, family counseling or other support services
the quarter before training.

A goal of FTW/PTE is to help participants become more capable of meeting WorkFirst work
requirements (increasing employment and the time spent preparing for it). To make instruction
relevant, instructors contextualize their lessons around participants’ work and family
responsibilities. In addition, intensive support services are provided, including on-site child care,
and home outreach to participants who are falling behind or unable to attend because of sick
children.

This analysis describes how welfare participants spent their time in efforts to leave welfare one
year after they started FTW/PTE compared to the quarter before.

Some 1,200 welfare parents were enrolled in FTW/PTE between fall 1999 and spring 2000. Of
these, more than two-thirds (822 parents) remained on welfare continuously for a full year after
the program began. This is indicative of the hard-to-serve nature of these participants. Nearly
550 of the parents from this group were selected for further study because they all were pursuing



                                               19
community services for personal or family issues the quarter before they started training, another
indicator of difficulties in their lives. Just one quarter (25 percent) of the parents were working
or looking for work. Fewer than half (46 percent) were engaged in some sort of educational
component.

One year after enrollment, more than half (57 percent) were engaged in work, looking for work
or volunteer/community jobs. Half (50 percent) were in education programs. Just over half
(51percent) of the parents needed to work with community services to address their barriers to
employment.


                        Percent of Welfare Parents Who Participate In Various
                         WorkFirst Activities One Quarter Before They Start
                                    Training, and 4 Quarters After
                                               (N=547)

                       100%



                                                     57%
                              51%                                              50%
                                                                         46%

                                             25%




                    Community Service           Work               Education and Training

                              Qtr Before           1 Yr After Training Start



In addition to changes in the percent of welfare parents engaged in work and training four
quarters later, the amount of time spent in these activities changed. The quarter before she
started training, the typical welfare parent spent 14.2 hours per week pursuing community
services. On average she spent 3.4 hours per week working or looking for work. She was
engaged for just less than five hours per week in some sort of educational component.

One year later she was spending 6.1 hrs per week with community service programs. Time spent
working or looking for work had increased to 9.4 hours per week, and time in education
activities increased to 6.7 hours.




                                               20
                         Average Hours Per Week Spent By Welfare Parents In
                        Various WorkFirst Activities - One Quarter Before They
                                 Start Training, and 4 Quarters After

                       14.2


                                                       9.4

                              6.1                                                 6.6
                                                                           4.7
                                                 3.4




                    Community Service              Work              Education and Training

                                    Qtr Before            4th Qtr After Start


To examine the influence of the program in this period on the changes in participation, and to
distinguish them from changes that might have happened anyway over time, results are
disaggregated by the number of quarters the participants were enrolled in training. The 547
students studied were enrolled for the following lengths of time: 113 (21 percent) for one
quarter; 124 (23 percent) for two quarters; 99 (18 percent) for three quarters; and 211 (38
percent) for all four quarters of the study period.

The disaggregating shows that time spent in training was positive in helping these hard-to-serve
parents stabilize themselves and their families, and to become more capable of moving along the
WorkFirst pathway. For example:

       A participant enrolled all four quarters of the follow-up period was 30 percent more
        likely than a student enrolled for only the first quarter of that period to be spending time
        on work and/or education one year later.

       She also increased the number of hours spent in these activities by 49 percent.

       Overall, the percent of parents pursuing community services increased. However, one of
        the aims of the program is to help participants use the services they need to become
        stable, and to help the time spent in these activities be more effective by combining it
        with contextual literacy and parenting training.

The chart below presents the disaggregated results in the fourth quarter after participants started
training. There was not much difference from the overall results presented in the preceding
graphs when disaggregating how they spent their time the quarter before they started FTW, so
these results are not shown.




                                                  21
           Fourth Quarter WorkFirst Activities and Average Hours Per Week Involved
                       Disaggregating for Quarters Enrolled In Training

                                                                                  % Work
       Training QTRS         Community                 Work          Education     and/or
       Enrolled                Service                                            Education

       1 Quarter           43%                   54%                30%              66%
         (N=113)             6.3 Hours             8.9 Hours          3.0 Hours
       2 Quarters          45%                   61%                37%              73%
         (N=124)             4.8 Hours             10.1 Hours         4.6 Hours
       3 Quarters          51%                   66%                57%              82%
         (N=99)              5.1 Hours             11.9 Hours         6.5 Hours
       4 Quarters          59%                   53%                65%              85%
         (N=211)             7.0 Hours             8.0 Hours          9.6 Hours


What are the employment outcomes for welfare parents after they leave FTW?

Most FTW participants are referred to                      % of FTW TANF Parents Employed
build their skills while they try to stabilize                   Quarter After Training
themselves and their families. A
substantial sub-group looks for
employment even though few have
immediate job goals when they enter
training. Thirty-five (35) percent – 290 of                Not
750 WorkFirst parents exiting FTW in                     Employed                    Employed
2000-01 – were employed the quarter after                  65%                         35%
they left. The median hourly wage was
$7.48 per hour.




                                                  22
                                 WORKFIRST WORK STUDY

Background

WorkFirst Work Study combines a 16-hour-per-week work-study job with college training.
Typically, it is integrated with other college WorkFirst programs that include tuition aid, FTW
and PET.

This section describes the training and employment results for participants in Work Study
Training in 2000-01. It includes participants who started in spring 2000, the first year that Work
Study was offered.

Who received training?

In 2000-01, more than 1,600 welfare participants combined Work Study with training. They
included 76 participants who combined Work Study jobs and individualized training with PET,
and 74 Families That Work/Pregnancy to Employment parents who used Work Study to build
their work experience.

Nearly half (45 percent) of Work Study participants had not worked in the two years prior to
training, the highest percentage of any of the colleges’ WorkFirst programs.

The chart below presents the characteristics and backgrounds of Work Study participants:

             Total Work Study Students                                          1,605
             Current Welfare                                                    100%
             Female                                                              84%
             Not Worked past 2 years                                             45%
             Less than 12 years Education (includes those with GED)              40%
             Of Color                                                            30%
             Longer Welfare                                                      31%
             Entering Client                                                     20%
             Limited English                                                     18%
             Median Age                                                       30.5 years

What progress do Work Study participants make in increasing their skills?

Some 690 Work Study participants exited college training during the year. The typical
participant left a little after two quarters. One third (33 percent) earned certificates or degrees, or
successfully completed an individualized training plan. Another 4 percent earned a GED, which
is essential if they are to return to college training and go on to higher skill levels. The majority
(63 percent), however, stopped out before they were able to complete enough training to
significantly raise their skills levels.


                                                23
                                   Training Levels Reached By
                              Work Study Students After Stopping Out
                                             2000-01
                                             (N=688)

                                                       20%




                                                             14%
                                  62%
                                                         4%



                                Certificate/Degree   Individualized Plan
                                GED                  Early Stop-Out




What are the initial employment outcomes for Work Study students one quarter after they
leave college training?

According to UI records, nearly 350 Work Study             Employment Status of Work Study
students (51 percent) leaving college training            Students Quarter After Training: All
were employed the quarter after they left college             Exiters and Completers Only
training. Job placement was higher for those who
completed certificates, degrees or individualized
plans.
                                                                                57%
The median hourly wage for Work Study students                        51%
one quarter after leaving college was $8.87 per
hour. Completers earned $9.61 per hour.

Students who combined a Work Study job with
PET or FTW/PTE or both earned higher hourly
                                                         All Exiters (N=347) Completers (N=149)
wages than those who did not. The hourly wage
for a welfare participant who combined PET and
Work Study was $9.59 per hour, compared to $8.70 per hour for PET welfare participants as a
whole. The hourly wage for a welfare participant who combined Work Study with FTW/PTE
was $7.72 per hour, compared to $7.48 per hour for all FTW/PTE parents.




                                               24
PART II: POST-EMPLOYMENT TRAINING FOR LOW-INCOME WORKING
PARENTS

                                     TUITION ASSISTANCE

Background

Tuition Assistance is a WorkFirst post-employment program to encourage low-income parents to
increase their education and skill levels while they work. Tuition Assistance pays for training to
upgrade skills for a person’s current job, or to help prepare the participant for a better job.
Between 1998 and 2000, 9,400 working parents received Tuition Assistance. Over half were
current or former WorkFirst recipients. The remaining participants earned less than 175 percent
of the federal poverty level.

This section describes the characteristics of first-year tuition assistance participants enrolled in
2000-01, and training results for earlier first- and second-year participants who exited training by
June 2000.

Who received training?
                                                        Tuition Aid Students in College Training
                                                                        2000-01
Participants typically receive one or two
                                                                       (N=8,578)
quarters of aid, although they may stay
in training longer, particularly if tuition
aid is packaged with other state and                                                   Other
federal aid. All tuition aid recipients are                                          Continuing
                                                                                       17%
tracked from the first quarter they are
awarded aid (“aid year start”) to the last       1st Time Aid
                                                   Recipient
quarter they are enrolled in college. A              65%
participant is considered to have stopped                                                Continuing
out of training when she leaves college                                                   with Aid
for one academic year.                                                                    Recipient
                                                                                            18%

Nearly 8,600 low-income parents
received Tuition Assistance to attend
college in 2000-01. Of the total, 65
percent (N=5,770) were new, first-time aid recipients. Another one-third were students whose
aid year start was in 1998 or 1999. This group was nearly equally divided between students who
received further WorkFirst tuition aid in 2000 (N=1,491), and students who continued with
traditional state and federal aid (N=1,317).

What were the characteristics, welfare status, and college standing of new first-time aid
recipients in 2000-01?

The typical new, first-time aid recipient in 2000-01 was female (78 percent) and 32 years old.
Just over half (51 percent) of first-time Tuition Assistance recipients were current or former
welfare participants. A little less than one-third of all participants (31 percent) were people of



                                               25
color. Of those receiving aid for the first time in 2000-01, 29 percent were new to college in
their first quarter of aid.

           First -Year Aid Recipients’ Characteristics, Welfare and College Status 00-01

       Total First-Year Recipients                                                            5,770
       Current or Former WorkFirst in First Aid Year and Quarter                               51%
       Low-Income Working Parent in First Aid Year and Quarter                                 49%
       First-Time College Student in Any College                                               29%
       Female                                                                                  78%
       Of Color                                                                                31%
       Median Age                                                                           31.8 years

How many hours per week did participants spend attending college and working?


The typical participant devoted 35 hours per
week to work and school, a high level for a             Hours per Week at Work and in Training
parent with family responsibilities.


                                                                25 hours                       10 hours
                                                                working                        training




How much instruction is provided in the evening and on weekends?

Over time, community and technical                        Evening and Weekend Training as %
colleges have increased evening and                         of All Training for Participants
weekend instruction for working                                    Preparing for Work
students in order to accommodate their
work schedules and family
responsibilities. In 2000-01, Tuition                     27% 27%                        28% 28%
                                                                                                     25%
Assistance students attended evening                                       23%
and weekend classes for 27 percent of
the total instruction they received –
about the same as all other working
students attending college.


                                                          Tuition Assistance             Working Workforce
                                                                                             Students

                                                    2000-2001                1999-2000              1998-1999



                                               26
What kind of training is provided to Tuition Assistance students?

Tuition Assistance is aimed entirely at
workforce-related training for                                          Nature of Training
completion of certificates, degrees, or
other individualized plans. In 2000-01,    18%                          16%                  18%
the percentage of training aimed at job-
specific skills was 59 percent. About                                   21%                  22%
                                           23%
23 percent was for college-level
instruction, including English, math,
sciences, and social sciences. The                                      63%                  60%
                                           59%
remaining 18 percent of instruction
was for preparatory basic skills and
English as a Second Language.
                                                     2000-01                  1999-2000            1998-1999

                                               Specific Job Skills      Related Academics    Preparatory Basic Skills



What were the training levels of participants who stopped out from training?


Nearly 3,800 Tuition Assistance participants                   Training Levels Reached by Tuition
who received Tuition Assistance in 1998 or                  Assistance Students That Left Training by
1999 stopped out of college training by June                               June 2000
2000. Twenty (20) percent (N=732)                                           (N=3,800)
completed certificates, degrees or
individualized plans, or, along with past                                                          Degree
college work, reached a full year of college                                                        3%
credits. However, the majority were early                 Early Stop-                               Certificate
stop-outs (N=3,065) who left with some                        Out                                      7%
college training, but not enough to be                       80%
                                                                                                    Individual
counted as reaching a significantly new
                                                                                                       Plan
training level.                                                                                        9%
                                                                                              I Yr College
                                                                                                   1%




                                                27
What are the earnings and wage outcomes for participants who stopped out of training?

Similar to national data, participants’ earnings
                                                            1999-00 Participant Earnings in 3rd
were higher when more advanced levels of                     Quarter After Training (Constant
education and training were achieved. As a                               Dollars)
group, participants who left training by the
end of spring 2000 earned $3,910 in the third
                                                             Degree                            $5,860
quarter after training. Completing a degree
increased earnings to $5,860. Certificate                  Certficate                 $4,290
completion increased earnings to $4,290.
                                                    Completed Plan                    $4,110
Nearly 80 percent of certificates were earned
for short-term training of less than 900 hours.     Early Stop-out               $3,780
Participants who completed individualized
plans earned $4,110. A typical plan was a
single course or group of courses designed to meet a specific employment need. Early leavers
completing some college, but not an individualized plan, certificate, or degree had the lowest
earnings – $3,780.

What is the wage progression of participants within one year after leaving college?

The chart below presents inflation-adjusted hourly wages for participants from their last quarter
in training to the third quarter after stopping out. Participants who earned a degree increased
their hourly wages more than 22 percent, or $2.24 per hour within one year after leaving training.
Certificate earners increased their hourly wages nearly 20 percent or $1.65 per hour. As a group,
the hourly wage gain within one year from the last quarter of training was 10 percent, or $.90 per
hour.

               Wage Progression for Participants From Last Quarter During Training
                                  to Third Quarter After Leaving

                                     Median Hourly Wages
                                       from Last Quarter                     Hourly
                                      of Training to Third                   Wage                Wage
                                     Quarter After Stopping                   Gain             Progression
Earned Degree                            $10.35 to $12.59                     $2.24               22%
Earned Certificate                       $8.50 to $10.14                      $1.64                19%
Completed Individual Plan                 $9.14 to $9.93                      $.79                  9%
Early Stop-outs                           $8.93 to $9.79                      $.87                 10%
All Participants                          $8.97 to $9.87                      $.90                 10%




                                               28
                                WORKPLACE BASIC SKILLS

Background

Workplace Basic Skills training is designed for low-wage workers who have limited English
skills and lower educational levels. Workplace Basic Skills training is provided in partnership
between the provider and employers, who contribute resources. It is customized to the specific
needs of the workers and their employers, and is provided for two to four hours per week in the
workplace.

In 1999-00, more than 40 employers and 1,275 workers participated in Workplace Basic Skills
training. The majority (85 percent) of participants were workers who had earnings of less than
175 percent of the federal poverty level. The rest (15 percent) of the workers were current or
former welfare recipients.

Workplace Basic Skills programs are evaluated for their success in raising worker skill levels
and meeting employer and worker expectations for the training. Eighty-seven (87) percent of
workers trained were assessed as having gained skills. Twenty-two (22) percent of these
increased their skills by one competency level. Three-quarters or more of all workers and
supervisors were very satisfied or satisfied with the progress made in increasing employees’
basic skills. Supervisors said that increased self-confidence (64 percent) and improved worker
relationships (50 percent) were the two biggest areas of success they observed after the training.
Most workers (96 percent) responded that they used the skills very often or sometimes in their
everyday jobs.

This section describes the third-year training results for participants in Workplace Basic Skills in
2000-01.

Who received training?
                                                           % of Welfare and Other Low-Wage Workers
In 2000-01, 1,037 low-wage workers received                         in Workplace Basic Skills
Workplace Basic Skills training. Fourteen (14)                             1999-2000
percent of those trained were current or former
welfare participants.                                                                       Current
                                                                                            Welfare
Eleven community and technical colleges and                                                  3%
five community organizations offered the                    Other Low-
                                                             Income                          Former
training in partnership with 37 employers.                                                   Welfare
                                                             Workers
(Appendix C)                                                   86%                            11%




                                               29
What were the characteristics of the participants who received training?

Workers with limited English
                                            Characteristics of Workplace Basic Skills Workers
proficiency were the primary
beneficiaries of training (97
percent of all enrollments).               97%
Nearly half (44 percent) of the
limited-English workers were
assessed as able to understand                                             53%
and reply to only the most basic                              44%
everyday situations, and often                                                            30%
could receive instruction from a
supervisor only with the aid of an
interpreter. Asian Americans
were the largest group served (53     Limited English Pre-Literate or     Asian          Latino
percent); 30 percent were                               Beginning
                                                       English Only
Latino/Hispanics.

What were the training results
and how satisfied were workers and supervisors with the training provided?

Eighty-eight (88) percent of workers trained were assessed as having gained skills with half (50
percent) having increased their skills one level. One thousand (1,000) workers and 28 employers
were surveyed at the end of training. Two-thirds of employers were “very satisfied” with the
training, and the remaining one-third responding they were “satisfied.” Nearly 90 percent of
workers responded that they found the language skills practice quite helpful in their work.

What areas of worker success
did employers identify after the                   Areas of Worker Success Identified by Employers
training?

Eighty-two (82) percent said the          Perform Better in
                                                                                                        82%
training helped workers perform             Current Job
better in their current jobs; 77
percent responded that the training
improved how the workers worked          Work Better With
with others; 70 percent responded                                                                    77%
                                             Others
that the training helped give the
workers a better understanding of
                                         Better Understand
their company’s big picture; and 57
                                         How Their Job Fit
percent found the training               in Company's Big
                                                                                                  70%
contributed to improving the                  Picture
company’s overall effectiveness.
                                       Contribute More To
                                       Company's Overall                                 57%
                                         Effectiveness




                                              30
How useful to their jobs were
                                   How Often Workers Said They Used The Skills
the skills workers learned?
                                           They Learned In Their Jobs

Two-thirds (69 percent) of
workers responded that they used
                                            69%
the skills “very often” in their
everyday jobs. The remaining
one-third responded that they
used the skills “sometimes.”
                                                                  31%


                                           Very Often            Sometimes




                                     31
32
                                       Appendix A

Policy Issues and Specific Questions for Accountability Report:

Pre-employment Training Policy Issues:

        To what extent did Pre-employment Training result in higher employment rates and
         higher hourly wages than Job Search alone?

        To what extent did Pre-employment Training participants demonstrate wage progression,
         and leave welfare?

        What changes did colleges make to gear up and provide Pre-employment Training? How
         are these changes contributing to the overall way colleges re-design themselves for
         serving WorkFirst and other low-income adults?

Specific Questions:

1.  How many participants were served?
2.  What groups of program participants were served?
3.  What were the training outcomes, i.e., completion rates for participants?
4.  What was the employment rate for completers in the quarter after training ended? How did
    this compare to non-completers?
5. What was the hourly wage for completers in the quarter after training ended? How did this
    compare to non-completers?
6. How did the starting hourly wage for completers compare to other WorkFirst participants
    who entered employment from Job Search and who left welfare?
7. What best practices can be identified?
8. What were the earnings of completers four quarters after training?
9. What was the welfare status of completers four quarters after training?
10. How do the results and finding compare to findings in other WorkFirst studies being
    conducted?

Work-Based Learning Tuition Assistance Policy Issues:

        To what extent are WorkFirst and other low-income working adults able to attend college
         and make progress in education and training?

        To what extent did participants demonstrate wage progression during and after they left
         training?

        How did colleges re-design their instructional programs and services for low-income
         working adults?


                                              A-1
Specific Questions:

1.  How many participants were enrolled?
2.  What groups of program participants were enrolled?
3.  To what extent were participants new to college?
4.  Into what courses and programs did they enroll?
5.  How much instruction was offered on evenings and weekends?
6.  How many hours did participants typically work while attending?
7.  Of the students who earned at least 10 credits and exited for at least one year, what is their
    exit status- i.e. did they earn a certificate or degree, or have another training outcome of a
    successful leaver prepared for work?
8. Of the students who earned at least 10 credits and exited for at least one year, what is their
    one1-year post training employment and earnings?
9. How do the one-year post-training employment and earnings compare to employment and
    earnings in the first quarter they received tuition assistance?
10. What was the welfare status of completers four quarters after training?
11. How do the results and finding compare to findings in other WorkFirst studies being
    conducted?

Families That Work Policy Issues:

        To what extent did WorkFirst and low-income parents participating in Families That
         Work increase their employability and advance in getting ready for work, starting work,
         or increasing their earnings and employment?

        To what extent did Families That Work become part of a continuum of training services
         for WorkFirst and other low-income parents?

        To what extent did the lessons learned and best practices demonstrated in Families That
         Work affect how basic skills programs are being re-designed for all students with work-
         related goals?

Families That Work Questions:

1. How many participants were enrolled?
2. What groups of program participants were enrolled?
3. What were the training outcomes for increasing basic skills, family management skills and
   work readiness?
4. What percentage of participants increased their work activity or employment by participating
   in job search, Pre-employment Training, and work experience, or becoming employed or
   retaining employment while participating in and since leaving the program?
5. What best practices can be identified?
6. What is the welfare status of participants since leaving the program?
7. How do the results and finding compare to findings in other WorkFirst studies being
   conducted?




                                              A-2
Workplace Basic Skills Policy Issues:

        To what extent did low wage earning workers participating in Workplace Basic Skills
         increase their basic skills?

        To what extent did Workplace Basic Skills become part of a continuum of training
         services for WorkFirst and other low-income adults after they went to work?

        To what extent did the lessons learned and best practices demonstrated in Workplace
         Basic Skills affect how basic skills programs are being re-designed for all students with
         work-related goals?

Specific Questions:

1.   How many participants were enrolled?
2.   What kinds of participants were enrolled?
3.   How many businesses participated?
4.   What were the training results for completion of training?
5.   What was the participant and employer satisfaction with training?
6.   What are the employment and earnings one year after initial training?
7.   What best practices are being incorporated into re-designed basic skills?
8.   How do the results and finding compare to findings in other WorkFirst studies being
     conducted?




                                               A-3
A-4
                                                Appendix B


                                                   2000-2001

                Pre-Employment Training Providers and Business Partners


      COLLEGE
                                         JOB TITLES                         BUSINESS PARTNER(S)
   (PROJECT NAME)
Aster Technology Institute   Data Entry Registration            DaVita
                             Lab Assistant                      Franciscan Health Care
                             Patient Service Rep                PacLab
                             Phlebotomist
                             Specimen Processor
Bates                        Assemblers                         American Woodcraft
(Wood Products)              Carpenter                          Colvos Cabinet Co.
                             Delivery                           Custom Molding
                             Finishers                          Delta Marine
                             Laborers                           Fir Crest Pre-Fit Door Co.
                             Off-bearer                         For Kidz Only
                             Production Laborer                 Greco Homes and Manufacturing
                             Sander                             Hillstrom Cabinet
                                                                Pacific Coast Showcase
                                                                Pickering Industries, Inc
                                                                Premier Industries
                                                                Specialty Wood Manufacturing
                                                                The Truss Co
                                                                WDK Ltd.
                                                                Westmark Products, Inc.
Bates                        Childcare                          Children's World
                                                                Kinder Care
                                                                Puyallup Playcare
Bates                        Appointment Scheduler              At&T Broadband
(Call Center)                Customer Sales & Service           Foundation Health Federal Services
                             Client Satisfaction Professional   Key Bank
Bates                        Truck Driver                       Puget Sound Truck Lines, Inc.
Bates                        Document Center Operator           Kinko's, Inc.
                                                                Office Max/Copy Max
                                                                State Dept. of Printing
                                                                Xerox Business Services
Bates                        Office Assistant                   MultiCare Health System
                                                                State Farm Insurance
                                                                The News Tribune
                                                                USAA
Bellevue                     Administrative                     Boeing Employees Credit Union
(MOUS Certification)         Customer Service Rep               Hopelink
                             Data Entry                         Washington Mutual
                             Program Clerk
                             Receptionist
                             Transportation Coordinator
Bellevue                     Administrative Assistants          Covenant Shores
(ServiceMaster)              Carriers                           ServiceMaster
                             Customer Service Rep               UPS
                             Drivers/Delivery



                                                       B-1
      COLLEGE
                                     JOB TITLES                          BUSINESS PARTNER(S)
   (PROJECT NAME)
Bellevue                 Package Handlers
(ServiceMaster) (cont)   Warehouse Worker

Big Bend                 Entry-level Positions               Wal-Mart
Big Ben                  Certified Nursing Assistant         Samaritan Hospital
Big Bend                 Truck Driver                        Swift Transportation
Clark                    Bakery Sales Clerk                  Hilton Reservations Worldwide
(Customer Service)       Checker                             Safeway
                         Deli
                         Floral
                         Night Stocker
                         Office Clerk
                         Produce & Utility Clerk
                         Reservation Sales Specialist
Clover Park              Client Satisfaction Professional    AT&T Broadband
(Capital One)            Reservation Agent                   Capital One
                         Customer Relations Associate        Key Bank
                         Customer Sales & Service            Lowestfare.com
                         Representative I & II
Edmonds                  Construction                        Carpenters Local 562
                                                             Construction Craft Laborers, Local 292
                                                             Garner Construction
                                                             Master Builders
                                                             Pacific Northwest Iron Workers, Local 86
                                                             W.G. Clark
                                                             Washington Insulation
                                                             Wilcox Construction
Edmonds                  Administrative Assistant            Group Health Coop of Puget Sound
(Group Health)           Billing Clerk                       Premera Blue Cross
                         Customer Service Representative     UW Physicians
                         Patient Account Representative      Washington Mutual
Everett                  Welding                             Allied Steel
                                                             Alpha Technologies
                                                             American Boiler
                                                             Sportworks
Everett                  Auto Technician                     Dwayne Lane's
                                                             Klein Honda
                                                             Les Schwab Tires
                                                             Sears
Everett                  Customer Service                    At&T Broadband
(Call Center)            Teller                              Eddie Bauer
                                                             WA Mutual Bank
Everett                  Electronic Assembly                 Solectron
(Solectron)                                                  ATS
Everett                  Teller Training                     Washington Mutual Bank
                                                             Interwest Bank
                                                             Bank of America
Grays Harbor             Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA)   Grays Harbor Health & Rehabilitation Center
                                                             Oceanview Convalescent Center
Green River              Cashier/Checker                     Associated Grocers
(Associated Grocers)                                         Fred Meyers
                                                             Safeway
Highline                 Childcare                           Discovery World Learning Centers
                                                             ECEAP
                                                             Good Shepherd Preschool
                                                             Grace Children's Center
                                                             Green Acres Learning Center




                                                  B-2
      COLLEGE
                             JOB TITLES                             BUSINESS PARTNER(S)
   (PROJECT NAME)
Highline (cont)                                         Head Start (PSESD)
                                                        Highline College Childcare Center
                                                        Highline Head Start
                                                        Highline School District
                                                        KinderCare Learning Centers
                                                        LaPetite Academy
                                                        Refugee and Immigrant Family Center
                                                        St. Columbia's Children's Center
                                                        Toddler Town
                                                        Tukwila Even Start
Highline            Reservation/Sales Agent             Alaska Airlines
                                                        Horizon Air
Lake Washington     Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA)   Americana Health and Rehab
                    Entry-Level Hospital Occupations    Birchwood Homes
                    Telephone Online Banking            Canterbury Gardens
                                                        Canterbury Inn
                                                        Cowlitz Care Center
                                                        Crawford House
                                                        Delaware Plaza
                                                        Evergreen Healthcare
                                                        Evergreen Manor
                                                        First Student (Formerly Ryder Transportation)
                                                        Frontier Rehab and Ext. Care
                                                        NW Continuum Care
                                                        Park Royal Medical Nursing Center
                                                        PeaceHealth
                                                        Residential Resources
                                                        Sunrise Care Center
                                                        Washington Mutual
                                                        Woodland Care Center
Lake Washington     Bus Driver                          King County Metro

Lower Columbia      Automotive Lube Technician          Bud Clary Inc.
                                                        Columbia Ford
                                                        Dick Hannah's Longview Toyota, Inc
                                                        GM Goodwrench Service Plus
                                                        Jiffy Lube (Longview & Kelso)
                                                        Lewis River Motor Co., Woodland
                                                        Midas Auto Systems Experts
                                                        Sears Auto Center
                                                        Wal-Mart Tire & Lube Express
Lower Columbia      Customer Service                    Adelphia
                    Retail Sales                        Columbia Bank
                                                        Cowlitz Bank
                                                        Daily News
                                                        Emporium
                                                        Entercom Longview
                                                        Fred Meyer
                                                        Hi-School Pharmacy, Woodland
                                                        JC Penny
                                                        Lower Columbia College
                                                        Montgomery Wards
                                                        Safeway
                                                        Sears
                                                        Simply Wild
                                                        Super 8 Motel
                                                        The Bon Marche
                                                        Thriftway
                                                        Twin City Bank



                                              B-3
      COLLEGE
                                       JOB TITLES                            BUSINESS PARTNER(S)
   (PROJECT NAME)
Lower Columbia (cont)                                            Woodland
Lower Columbia               General Office Technician           Express Personnel Services
                             Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA)   Fred Meyer
                                                                 Birchwood Homes
                                                                 Park Royal Medical Nursing Center
                                                                 Americana Health & Rehab Center

National Transportation      Truck Driver
Training & Consulting, LLC
NW Career Training Center    Truck Driver                        Trans-System, Inc.
Olympic                      Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA)   Belmont Terrace Convalescent Center
                                                                 Martha and Mary Health Care Center
Peninsula                    Boxers                              Eureka Fisheries
                             Filleters
                             Packers
Peninsula                    Cashier                             Forks Community Hospital
(Forks)                      Dietary Services Aide               Ocean Park Resort
                             Environmental Services Aide         Sully's Drive-In
                             General (counter, clean-up, etc)
                             Groundskeeper
                             Housekeeper
Peninsula                    Nursing Assistant                   Olympic Care and Rehabilitation Center

Peninsula                    Entry-level Paper Mill Jobs         Port Townsend Paper Company

Peninsula                    Entry-level Temp Positions          Wal Mart

Peninsula                    Childcare Aide                      Kite Strings
                             Infant/Toddler Specialist           Port Hadlock
                             Teacher                             Sequim Head Start
Perry Technical Institute    Fiberglass Worker                   Western Recreational Vehicles
                             Production Installer
                             Service Technician
Pierce                       Corrections Officer                 McNeil Island Corrections Center

Pierce                       Customer Service/Airline Positions United Airlines
Pierce                       Contact Center Representative       AT&T Broadband
(REI)                        Customer Sales & Service            Capital One
                                                                 Key Bank
                                                                 Lowestfare.com
                                                                 REI
Renton                       Delivery Van Driver                  Teamsters 174
                             Distribution Clerk                  United Parcel Service
                             Package Handler                     Uwajimaya
                             Truck Loader                        Viking Office Products/Office Depot
                             Warehousing
Renton                       Construction Apprenticeship         Cement Masons
                                                                 King County Carpenters Apprenticeship
                                                                 Puget Sound Electrical Apprenticeship & Training Trust
Renton                       Emergency Dispatcher                American Medical Response
(Communications)                                                 Valley Communications
Renton                       Billing & Claims Clerk              Group Health
                             Medical Records Assistant
                             Nursing Assistant
                             Patient Care Representative




                                                     B-4
      COLLEGE
                                        JOB TITLES                          BUSINESS PARTNER(S)
   (PROJECT NAME)
Renton                         Batton Processor                  Fatigue Technology
(Manufacturing)                Extruder Operator                 Griffin Envelope
                               Fabrication/Assembly Worker       Jorgensen Forge
                               Forge Helper                      Mikron Industries
                               High Speed Operator               Red Dot Corporation
                               Machining Helper
                               Part Marker
                               Recycler
                               Spot Weld Assembler
Seattle Central                Bakery Crew Worker                Cucina! Cucina!
(Food Service)                 Prep Cook                         Schwartz Brothers Bakery
                               Production Crew Worker            Schwartz Brothers Catering/Gretchen's Shoebox
                                                                 Schawrtz Brothers Restaurants
Seattle Central                Framer                            Cedar King Lumber
(Master Builders)              Siding Applicator                 Chausee Siding
                               Truss Production Worker           J.W. Bratton Design/Build LLC
                               Wall Panel Worker                 Woodinville Lumber
Seattle Central                Cashier                           Nordstrom
(Retail Sales)                 Customer Service Specialist       Nordstrom Rack
                               Inventory Specialist              REI
                               Sales Associate                   The Bon Marche
                               Stock Associate
Seattle Vocational Institute   Administrative Assistant          Bank of America
(Office Occupations)           AR/AP Assistant                   Regence Blue Shield
                               Customer Service Representative   Washington Mutual Bank
                               Data Entry Clerk
                               Payroll Assistant
                               Receptionist
Seattle Vocational Institute   Warehouse Worker                  Diadora America, Inc.
                                                                 Fritz Companies, Inc.
                                                                 Labor Designed Logistics
Shoreline                      Administrative Assistant          Bastyr University
(Job Ladder)                   Assemblers                        Careforce
                               Catalog Sales Associate           Eddie Bauer
                               Certified Nursing Assistant       Genie Industries
                               Clerical Assistant                Millennium Cabinetry
                               Customer Service                  Northwest Hospital
                               Customer Service Clerical         Volt Services
                               Data Entry                        Walsh & Associates
                               Department Assistant              Washington Mutual
                               Lab Assistant                     Xerox Corporation
                               Medical Office Assistant
                               Production Specialist
                               Receptionist
                               Registered Nursing Assistant
                               Residential Support Staff
                               Telephone Banker
Skagit Valley                  Callers                           Independent Marketing Services
                               Clerical
                               Licensed L & D Agent
                               P & C Agent
South Puget Sound              Certified Nursing Assistant       Alterra Clare Bridge
                               Registered Nursing Assistant      Olympia Manor
                                                                 Olympics West
                                                                 Panorama City Convalescent Center
                                                                 Puget Sound Healthcare Center
South Seattle                  Truck Driver                      Swift Transportation
(CDL)




                                                      B-5
      COLLEGE
                                          JOB TITLES                          BUSINESS PARTNER(S)
   (PROJECT NAME)
South Seattle                   Corrections Facilitator           Pioneer Human Services
                                                                  Second Chance
South Seattle                   Electronic Assemblers             CDI Technical Series
                                                                  Remedy Staffing
                                                                  Symmetry Electronics
South Seattle                   First Step-Business & Computer    Bank of America

CC of Spokane                   Customer Service Representative   Avista Advantage
(Customer Relationship          Sales Consultant                  Bank of America
Management)                     TSR                               Cavanaughs
                                                                  Dakotah Direct
                                                                  Farm Credit Services
                                                                  Group Health
                                                                  Guardian Life Insurance
                                                                  Medical Service Corp.
                                                                  Metropolitan Mortgage
                                                                  Pitney Bowes
                                                                  Premier Marketing
                                                                  Safeco
                                                                  Software Spectrum
                                                                  Sound TelCom
                                                                  Spokesman Review
                                                                  TCI Cable
                                                                  Travelers
                                                                  Trinity Universal Insurance
                                                                  Washington Mutual Bank
                                                                  Washington Trust
                                                                  Wendle Ford
Spokane IEL                     Community Living Instructor       Ambassador
(Daring to Make a Difference)   CSR                               Arc of Spokane
                                Hospitality                       Bank of America
                                Merchant Services                 MultiFab, Inc.
                                TSR                               Pitney Bowes
                                Vacuum Press Operators            Premier Marketing
                                                                  Spokane Club
Spokane IEL                     Machine Operator                  Accra-Fab, Inc.
(Machine Operator Training)                                       Acme Machine Works
                                                                  ALTEK
                                                                  BF Goodrich Aerospace
                                                                  Borin-Halbich, Inc.
                                                                  Garco
                                                                  MacKay Manufacturing
                                                                  Pyrotek, Inc.
                                                                  Shredfast, Inc.
                                                                  Telect, Inc.
                                                                  Travis Pattern
Spokane IEL                     Warehouse Laborer                 B & B Distributors, Inc.
(PHACS)                                                           Columbia Distributing
                                                                  Core-Mark Distributors, Inc.
                                                                  Craven's Coffee Co.
                                                                  Cyrus O'Leary's Pies
                                                                  Food Services of America
                                                                  Glacier Mountain Floral Suppliers
                                                                  Grossman Enterprises
                                                                  Hathaway Meat Co.
                                                                  Michlitch Co.
                                                                  Ocean Beauty Seafoods, Inc.
                                                                  Pasta USA
                                                                  Pepsi Cola




                                                          B-6
      COLLEGE
                                 JOB TITLES                            BUSINESS PARTNER(S)
   (PROJECT NAME)
Spokane IEL                                                Pupo's Produce
(PHACS) (cont)                                             Specialty Frozen Foods
                                                           Spokane Food Bank
                                                           SuperValu Spokane Division
                                                           U R M Stores, Inc.
Tacoma                  Client Satisfaction Professional   AT&T Broadband
(Capital One)           Customer Relations Specialist      Capital One
                        Customer Sales & Service Rep I     Key Bank
                        Customer Sales & Service Rep II    Lowestfare.com
                        Reservation Agent

Tacoma                  Ticket/Reservation Agent           Carlson Wagonlit Travel
(Travel Marketing)      Travel Agent                       United Airlines
Wenatchee               Activities Aide                    Colville Confederated Tribe
(Office Skills)         Case Manager                       Colville Tribal Enterprise Corporation
                        Community Service Aide
                        Data En try
                        Elections Clerk
                        Job Dispatcher
                        Office Assistant
                        Staff Assistant
Whatcom                 Production                         Lynden Door
(Positive Production)   Entry-level Operator               Mr. Baker Plywood
                        Automotive Operator                Yamato Engine Specialist
Yakima Valley           Truck Driver                       American Container Transport
                                                           Floyd Blinsky Trucking
                                                           Interstate Distributors
                                                           LTI, Inc.
                                                           Quality Transportation
Yakima Valley           Breakfast Bar Server               Black Angus
                        Desk Clerk                         Comfort Suites Yakima
                        Drivers                            Doubletree
                        Food & Beverage Server             Holiday Inn Express
                        Front Desk Clerk                   M & M Catering
                        Housekeeping                       Oxford Inn
                        Kitchen Staff                      Oxford Suites
                        Night Auditor                      Red Lion Inn
                        Wait Staff                         Westcoast Hotels
                                                           Yakima Valley Visitors & Convention Bureau




                                               B-7
B-8
                                           Appendix C

                                              2000-2001

             Workplace Basics Projects, Companies and Types of Workers Trained

Provider                                   Business Partner                 Sector

Bellevue Community College                 Covenant Shores                  Medical
                                           Terranomics (Crossroads Mall)    Retail
                                           McDonalds                        Hospitality
Big Bend Community College                 Simplot
                                           Zirkle Fruit Co                  Fruit Processing
Cascadia College                           ATL Ultrasound                   High Tech Manu.
Catholic Community Services - Seattle       HMS Host – Sea-Tac Airport      Hospitality
Clark College                              DoubleTree Inns                  Hospitality
                                           Tensolite                        Manufacturing
Edmonds Community College                  Advanced Digital Imaging Corp.   High Tech Manu.
                                           Coach USA                        Transit Coach Operator
                                           Crane Interpoint                 High Tech Manu.
                                           ELDEC                            High Tech Manu.
Everett Community College                  Solectron                        High Tech Manu.
Green River Community College              Oberto Sausage, Inc.             Food Processing
                                           Emerald Downs                    Agricultural
                                           Lightel Technology               Technology
Hopelink - Bellevue                        Eurest Dining Services           Hospitality
                                           McDonalds                        Hospitality
Lake Washington Technical College          ATL Ultrasound                   High Tech Manu.
                                           Cuizina Italia                   Hospitality
                                           JIT Mfg                          High Tech Manu.
                                           Precor                           High Tech Manu.
                                           Sensitech Ryan Ind               Assembly
                                           Spacelabs Medical                Assembly
Literacy Source - Seattle                  Deseret Industries               Retail
                                           Ida Culver House                 Medical
Pioneer Human Services - Seattle           Pioneer Human Services           Manufacturing
Seattle Central Community College          Executive Inn – Worker Center    Hospitality
                                           Sheraton Hotel                   Hospitality
                                           Best Western Hotel               Hospitality
                                           Sea. Parks & Rec. Dept           Labor
South King County Multi-Service Center -   Seatoma Convalescent Center      Medical
Auburn
South Seattle Community College            UPS - Boeing Field               Parcel Service
                                           Office of Port Jobs              One-stop Emp. Ctr.
Wenatchee Valley College                   J.R.Simplot                      Food Processing
                                           Dolco Packaging                  Manufacturing
                                           Red Lion Hotel                   Hospitality




                                                  C-1
          The Washington State Board
     for Community and Technical Colleges

              Members of the Board

             Tom Koenninger, Chair
                  Bob Bavasi
               Sharon Fairchild
                 Jim Garrison
                  Paul Hutton
                    Al Link
                 Jane Nishita
                Carolyn Purnell
                   Jose Ruiz

          Earl Hale, Executive Director




 For more information on the accountability research
            related to WorkFirst, see the
SBCTC Web site at http://www.sbctc.ctc.edu or contact:
                    David Prince
  State Board for Community & Technical Colleges
                   P O Box 42495
             Olympia WA 98504-2495
                   360-704-4347
           E-mail: dprince@sbctc.ctc.edu

				
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