Y Lined Letter Tracing Worksheets by hmu14502


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									                            Strategies for Handwriting Problem #1: Reversals

              Readiness                                   Skill Building                                  Function
Body Awareness                               Create a “frame of reference”                Give opportunities to practice writing
  ♣ pushing, pulling, jumping,                  ♣ tape a rectangle on board               commonly used words
      crawling, climbing, rolling               ♣ tape lines on board                        ♣ reinforce “writing out loud”
                                                ♣ HWT Grey Blocks                            ♣ reinforce sight words
Body Scheme                                  Teach letter formation inside the frame         ♣ Dolch phrases
  ♣ dress-up, bath time, grooming               ♣ identify spatial landmarks                 ♣ repetition for mastery
                                                ♣ teach starting points
Spatial Relationships                           ♣ teach letters in groups
  ♣ hide-outs, obstacle courses              Demonstrate correct letter formation
  ♣ doll house, toy cars                        ♣ verbalize spatial concepts              Consider keyboarding
                                                ♣ pair letter formation with                ♣ emphasize “typing out loud”
Language Development                               phoneme                                  ♣ teach spell check
   ♣ phonemic awareness                      Watch students imitate letter formation        ♣ use AutoCorrect Options
   ♣ sound-symbol relationships                 ♣ practice at the board first
   ♣ words for body parts                       ♣ correct errors before giving
   ♣ words for spatial relationships               writing paper
                                                ♣ repeat for motor memory                 For high school, consider reintroducing
Manipulatives                                   ♣ insist on “writing out-loud”            upper case block print as:
  ♣ sorting, matching letters                   ♣ student copies letter on paper             ♣ Engineering Graphics or
  ♣ “build” designs and shapes…                 ♣ monitor for correct formation              ♣ Architectural Lettering
  ♣ student “rebuilds”                       Present letters by oral dictation
                                                ♣ pronounce phoneme
Pre-Writing Strokes via Drawing                 ♣ student writes letter from
   ♣ top-to-bottom and left-to-right               memory
   ♣ counter-clockwise circles                  ♣ repeat commonly reversed                Don’t forget about numerals
   ♣ diagonals                                     letters: b, d, s, z, p, g, j, f          ♣ try the Phone Number game
   ♣ basic shapes                               ♣ monitor for correct formation             ♣ practice application forms
                                                ♣ always teach q and u together
Consistent Instruction                                                                        οοοοοοοο
  ♣ guided repetition                        Focused instruction for left-handers             οοοοοοοο
  ♣ special attention to left-handers
  ♣ varied sensory input                     What about the transition to cursive?
SWIDA Conference February 23 , 2008 The Top 5 Handwriting Problems… and What to Do about Them - presented by Laura Sena, OTR/L   5
                       Strategies for Handwriting Problem #2: Letter Formation

              Readiness                             Skill Building                                        Function
                                     All strategies for Problem #1: Reversals
                              can be used to address Problem #2: Letter Formation
                                                     See page 5

Visual Motor Integration                     Daily alphabet drills                        May not be feasible to correct
   ♣ draw with an adult                         ♣ copy from model                         ingrained letter formation errors in
   ♣ design copy activities                     ♣ write from memory                       older students
   ♣ chalkboard activities                      ♣ write in reverse order                     ♣ Jonathan Mooney and the “Law
                                                ♣ fill-in missing letter                         of Diminishing Returns”
                                                ♣ match UC and LC
                                                ♣ dictate phonemes                        Teach older students simple strategies
Pencil Control                                  ♣ speed drills – fast & slow              to make writing more legible
  ♣ practice starting and stopping                                                           ♣ skip a line
  ♣ coloring with crayons                                                                    ♣ use special paper
  ♣ Squiggle Wiggle Writer                   Present handwriting words in families           ♣ use a margin
                                                ♣ and, land, hand, sand, band                ♣ exaggerate spacing
                                                ♣ look, took, cook, hook, book
                                                ♣ ash, dash, lash, flash, splash          Teach symbols and abbreviations for
Motor Planning and Motor Memory
  ♣ use manipulatives to build               Correct letter formation errors before       Modify worksheets
      designs, shapes, letters, words,       giving worksheets
      numbers…                                   ♣ don’t just focus on the error          Practice practical writing skills
  ♣ student rebuilds, then copies                ♣ always vote for the “best” letter         ♣ forms and applications
      from memory                                ♣ discuss why it is the best letter         ♣ signature
  ♣ finger tracing                                                                           ♣ numbers
  ♣ air writing with eyes closed
  ♣ Tactile Graphics game                                                                 Focus on keyboarding
                                                                                             ♣ motor planning
                                                                                             ♣ motor memory
                                                                                             ♣ assistive technology (A.T.)
SWIDA Conference February 23 , 2008 The Top 5 Handwriting Problems… and What to Do about Them - presented by Laura Sena, OTR/L   7
                         Strategies for Handwriting Problem #3: Pencil Grasp
              Readiness                                   Skill Building                                 Function

Weight Bearing                              Teach correct pencil grasp                   It may not be feasible to correct
  ♣ shoulder, arm, wrist, palm                 ♣ make a “thumb dot”                      ingrained grasping patterns in older
  ♣ crawling, pushing, pulling,                ♣ end of pencil points to shoulder        students
      hanging                                  ♣ demonstrate
                                               ♣ observe and cue

Hand Skill Development                                                                   May try alternate tools to improve
  ♣ squeezing, poking, pinching,                                                         comfort
     rolling, twisting                      Pencil Exercises
  ♣ little tools for little hands             ♣ pencil flip
  ♣ manipulatives                             ♣ pencil crawl
  ♣ Finger Plays                                                                         Try speed and accuracy drills

Drawing Tools                               Try pencil grips and alternate tools              οοοοοοοο
   ♣ Toddlers: short, chunky drawing
      tools that are held with the
      whole hand…transition to…                                                              ϑϑϑϑϑϑϑϑϑϑ
   ♣ Age 4-6: introduce short, tiny                                                          ϑϑϑϑϑϑϑϑϑϑ
      drawing tools that are held with      Try slanted writing board
      the thumb, index and middle
      fingers (small pieces of crayon
      or chalk, mini colored pencils,                                                    Teach stretches to relieve hand
      mini markers, Q-Tips)                                                              fatigue.
   ♣ Teach how to hold tool

Vertical Work Surfaces                                                                   Keyboarding!!!!!
   ♣ easel
   ♣ chalkboard
   ♣ wall poster
SWIDA Conference February 23 , 2008 The Top 5 Handwriting Problems… and What to Do about Them - presented by Laura Sena, OTR/L   9
       Strategies for Handwriting Problem #4: Alignment, Spacing, Size Regulation

              Readiness                                   Skill Building                                  Function

                                       Demonstrate alignment, spacing and                 Keyboarding
Activities for body awareness and body size regulation at the board                          ♣ word processing features
scheme                                     ♣ “floaters and sinkers”                            automate alignment, spacing
                                           ♣ g,j,p,y,qu                                        and size regulation
                                           ♣ exaggerate spaces                               ♣ editing simplified
Use manipulatives to teach spatial         ♣ “Tell me when to stop”
   ♣ lining objects in rows
   ♣ sequencing from left to right     Teach “The Slide” technique for                    When handwriting is necessary for
   ♣ spacing between objects           spacing between words                              older students, try:
   ♣ sorting by size                       ♣ slide hand to the right after each              ♣ narrow double-lined HWT
                                              word                                           ♣ write on alternate lines
                                                                                             ♣ use a margin
Use manipulatives to teach letters and                                                       ♣ exaggerate spacing
simple words                                 Give an example of spacing errors…              ♣ discuss cursive vs. print
   ♣ placing magnet letters on a line           ♣ Mybigdogislost.                            ♣ consider UC print
   ♣ grouping magnet letters into            Student makes a slash mark between
      word families                          words
   ♣ placing magnetic word tiles on a           ♣ My/big/dog/is/lost.
      line to form simple sentences          Student copies to correct errors
      with spaces between tiles                 ♣ My big dog is lost.                     Modify worksheets
                                                                                            ♣ bigger fill-in-the-blank space
                                                                                            ♣ lines for short answer response
Demonstrate simple sentences                 Trials of different types of lined paper
  ♣ child dictates and adult scribes             ♣ raised-line paper
  ♣ adult models alignment, spacing              ♣ colored-coded lines
     and size                                    ♣ double-lined HWT paper
  ♣ adult then discusses with child              ♣ graph paper                            Explore AT options for scanning
     (e.g. How many words? Show                  ♣ consider appropriate size
     me the spaces between the                   ♣ try to be consistent
     words. etc)
SWIDA Conference February 23 , 2008 The Top 5 Handwriting Problems… and What to Do about Them - presented by Laura Sena, OTR/L   11
                              Strategies for Handwriting Problem #5: Fluency

           Readiness                       Skill Building                      Function
     Work with multidisciplinary team to make decisions about handwriting and keyboarding
  instruction. Determine how reading, spelling and handwriting curriculums will support each
other. Set consistent expectations for handwriting at each grade. Consider the type of paper and
 writing tools used at each grade. Establish protocols for early intervention for at risk students.
  Provide accommodations that support function. Conduct training to promote understanding.

Phonemic awareness activities                Guided practice with repetition              Provide a structure
                                                ♣ short warm-up drills                       ♣ make a checklist
                                                ♣ word families                              ♣ build-in breaks
                                                ♣ commonly used phrases                      ♣ try a challenge
Rhyming games                                   ♣ frequently misspelled words
                                                ♣ transcription activities                Try directed sensorimotor strategies
                                                ♣ near point and far point copying           ♣ gum to chew
                                                ♣ write from flash cards                     ♣ wiggle cushions
Word games                                      ♣ dictate words in groups                    ♣ stretch breaks
                                                ♣ finish the sentence                        ♣ fidgets
                                                                                             ♣ classical music
                                             Writing for fun and function                    ♣ pacing with clipboard
Model “writing out-loud” and “typing            ♣ directions for games                       ♣ home equipment
out-loud”                                       ♣ recipes, jokes, newsletters
                                                ♣ comic strips                            Keyboarding
                                                                                             ♣ proven programs + adult
                                             Emphasize different stages of writing           ♣ adapted keyboarding instruction
Computer + adult                               ♣ brainstorming                               ♣ dictation activities
                                               ♣ webbing
                                               ♣ story boarding
                                               ♣ dictating                                 Explore AT options
                                               ♣ key word list
                                               ♣ drafts
                                               ♣ editing
                                               ♣ illustrating
SWIDA Conference February 23 , 2008 The Top 5 Handwriting Problems… and What to Do about Them - presented by Laura Sena, OTR/L   13

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