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Us Television Advertising Rate Card Chart - PowerPoint

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					International Business

          Business Functions: Human
            Resources, Marketing,
          Supply Chain, Finance, and
                  Technology
        Who Makes Up the Labor Market?

   Host-country nationals (locals)
   Expatriates (live and work outside their native
    countries)
    –   Parent-country nationals (Home) come from where
        company is headquartered
    –   Third-country nationals (Other) come from countries
        other than where headquarted
                 Four Approaches
   Ethnocentric Approach: uses natives of parent country
   Polycentric Approach: uses natives of host country
   Regiocentric Approach: uses managers of various countries
    within geographic region of business
   Geocentric Approach: uses best available managers
          Why Global Employees Fail?

   Unable to adjust to             Employee may not accept
    different physical and           new responsibilities
    cultural environment            Employee mat lack
   Spouse unable to adjust          technical competence
   Employee is not productive      Employee may lack
                                     motivation to cope with
                                     international challenges
          Human Resource Activities

   Training/development
   Compensation/benefits
   Health/safety
   Performance evaluations
   Labor relations
   Employee recruitment/selection
                   Steps to fill a position
   1.   Need Identification
   2.   Employment requisition
   3.   Job specification
   4.   Recruitment
   5.   Resume Evaluation
   6.   Interviews
   7.   Offers
   8.   Negotiation
   9.   New Employee Orientation
             Recruiting

 Referral         Temporary
 Media            Campus
 Internet         Mature
 Agencies         EEO concerns
                 Analyzing Candidates

   History
   References
   Interview
    –   Unstructured
    –   Structured
   Test
    –   Work samples/tasks
    –   Personality
    –   Physical
    –   Drug
                      Hiring

   Positive energy
   Energize others
   Edge
   Execute
   Passion
              Compensation Methods

   Wages
   Base Salary
   Commission
   Time
   Cost of living adjustment
   Expatriate Bonus
   Piece rate
   Non cash incentives
            Employee Benefits

 Health Insurance    Tuition
 Life Insurance       reimbursement
 ADD Insurance       Vacation
                      Retirement
                        – Pension
                        – 401k
                      Repatriation

   Process a person goes
    through when returning
    home and getting settled
    after having worked
    abroad.
                Employee Evaluation

   Forced Distribution (General Electric Theory: 20/70/10)
   Objectives/Rankings (Key Performance Measures)
   Comparative
   Weighted Checklist
   Self
   Peer
   Customer
   Subordinate
   360
                      Labor Relations

   Collective Bargaining
   American Federation of Labor (AFL-1886)
    –   Crafts or trades
   Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO-1938)
    –   Manufacturing
   National Labor Relations Board
                  Organizing Steps

   1. Employees contact union
   2. Union analyzed facility/firm
   3. Authorization cards
   4. Certification
               Labor Tactics

 Bargaining
 Boycott
 Picket
 Strike
           Management Tactics

 Bargaining
 Lockout
 Injunction
                   Scope of Bargaining

   Mandatory items              Permissive Items
    –   Wages                      –   Changes in retirees benefits
    –   Hours                      –   Union input to prices of
    –   Overtime                       product
    –   Layoff procedure
    –   Safety                   Illegal items
    –   Seniority                  –   Featherbedding
    –   Grievance procedure        –   Discrimination in hiring
               Marketing Activities

   Managing the Brand
   Selling
   Pricing
   Distribution
   Sales Promotions
   Advertising
   New Product Development
   Public Relations
                     Consumer Behavior

   Culture                      Personality
   Social Factors               Perception
   Family                       Beliefs
   Roles/Stature                Psychological
   Lifestyle
                           Brand

   Name, term, sign, symbol, design, idea, or combination
    intended to differentiate the product to the consumer
   Six Levels of Meaning:
    –   Attributes
    –   Values
    –   Personality
    –   Benefits
    –   Culture
    –   User
                  High Brand Equity

   Increase price
   Increase negotiating power
   Easy product line extension
   Decrease advertising and
    sales promotion costs
   Distinct from competitors
                   Brand Awareness

   Creative advertising      Public Service
   Sponsor events            Strong spokesperson
   Clubs                     Own retail unit
   Tours                     Valuable leader
                 Marketing Mix

 Product
 Price
 Promotion
 Distribution
                Targeting Customers

   Target Markets: large identifiable segments within
    a market
    –   Primary
    –   Secondary
    –   Tertiary
   Branding: make or break your firm
           Product Life Cycle

 Introduction
 Growth
 Mature
 Decline
           Product Differentiation

   Form                  Style
   Feature               Performance
   Performance           Design
   Reliability           Repairability
   Durability
             Service Differentiation

   Ordering ease
   Delivery
   Installation
   Custom
   Repairability
   Technical Support
                New Product Launches

        Price
Promo
$        Rapid Penetration   Rapid Skimming



         Slow Penetration    Slow Skimming
Growth Share Matrix
            Product Decline Strategies

   Dominate what is left
   Maintain market share left
   Drop product line
   Divest the business
   Harvest
                  Why Products Fail

   Executive pet project      High advertising costs
   Market is too small        Competitive market
   Poor product design        Poor sales promotions
                 Pricing Strategies

   Meeting competition
   Standard markup
   Demand based
   Harvesting
   EDLP
   Sealed Bid
           How pricing turns to profit

   Revenue (Units * Price)
   Cost of Goods Sold (Raw Materials)
   Net Profit (Revenue-Cost of Goods)
   Expenses (Advertising, Salaries, Buildings, Trucks,
    Taxes)
   Net Profit (Gross Profit-Expenses)
                         Discounts

   Cash: price reduction for
    paying early
   Trade: price reduction
    from channel of
    distribution partner
       Channels of Distribution

 Producers
 Wholesalers
 Warehouses
 Retailers
                How to move goods?

   Trucks
    –   Small package
    –   LTL
    –   Truckload
   Air
   Sea
   Railroad
        International Intermediaries

   Export Management Company
   Export Trading Company
   Freight Forwarder
   Customs Broker
              International Packaging

   Bill of Lading
   Certificate of Origin
   Export Declaration
   Insurance Certificate
   Destination Control
    Statement
              Wholesalers and Retailers

   Wholesalers               Retailers
    –   Rack Jobber            –   Convenience
    –   Cash/Carry             –   Department
    –   Merchant               –   Discount
    –   Specialty              –   Specialty
    –   Agent                  –   Supermarket
                               –   Franchise
                               –   Factory
                   Retailer Location

   Downtown
   Regional
   Community
   Strip Mall
   Within other store
              Advertising Goals

 Inform
 Persuade
 Reinforce
                          Media Planning

   Finding the best way to get message to target
    market
    –   Media/Medium
            Television
            Radio
            Direct
            Print
    –   Media Vehicle (specific)
               Media Scheduling

 Continuity
 Flighting
 Pulsing
              Media Buying Terms

   Reach: measure of number of different audience
    members with opportunity to see/hear an ad
    within a given time period
   Frequency: number of times ad is repeated in
    given time period
   Coverage: potential audience that may receive a
    message through media vehicle.
              Rules of Thumb

 Minimum of
  frequency of three
 Emphasize
  frequency over
  reach
                       Magazines

   Classified by audience or geography
   Color: 1, 2 or 4 (full)
   Advantages: selectivity, quality, shelf life, prestige,
    reach, and research
   Disadvantages: cost, frequency, lead time, and
    clutter
                 Magazine Terms

   Covers: 1, 2, 3, and 4
   Bleed: going into margins
   Gatefold: folds onto previous page
   Split run: for test markets
   Gutter: bound center of magazine
   Spread: two pages across the gutter
                     Newspapers

   Daily, Weekly, or Sunday
   Size: Tabloid or Broadsheet
   Three types of ads:
    –   Display
    –   Classified
    –   Inserts
                   Newspapers

   Advantages:               Disadvantages
     – Frequency                – Quality
     – Lead time                – Color
     – Targeting                – Life span
     – Range of coverage        – Wasted coverage
     – Reader data              – Clutter
                 Television

   Network
   Public
   Syndicated
   Cable
                      Television

   Advantages                Disadvantages
     – Sound/vision             – Clutter
     – Frequency                – Zipping/Zapping
     – Reach                    – Production costs
     – Creativity               – Selectivity
        Forms of television advertising

   Sponsorship
   Participation
   Spots
                AC Nielsen Ratings

   Rating: Percent of households tuned to specific
    program during a time period
   Share: Percent of households using television in
    specific period.
                Radio

   AM
   FM
   Satellite
   Web
                           Radio

   Advantages                   Disadvantages
     – Lead time                   – Visual
     – Cost                        – Attention
     – Segmenting                  – Fragmentation
     – Loyalty                     – Clutter
     – Frequency                   – Half heard
     – Commuter audience           – Buying issues
                  Arbitron Ratings

   Rating: percent of listeners in population in
    geographic area with radio
   Share: percent of total listeners with radio on
                Direct Marketing

   House list: firm’s own customers
   Response list: Other firm’s house lists
   Compiled list: members of list have common
    characteristics typically purchased
              Direct Mail Package

   Envelope
   Letter
   Brochure
   Response Device
              Outdoor Advertising

   Advantages             Disadvantages
     – Coverage              – Waste coverage
     – Frequency             – Image
     – Geography             – Total cost
     – Creativity            – Short message
     – Reminder
                   Other places

   Internet
   Directory
   Transit
   Promotional Products
Children’s Television Act of 1990

   Maximum of 10.5 minutes
    per hour on weekdays
   Maximum of 12 minutes
    per hour on weekends
   Enhance parental
    relationship
   Can not exploit
    imagination
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

   Deceptive Advertising: Representation, omission,
    or practice that is likely to mislead consumers
    –   Consent order
    –   Cease and decist order
    –   Corrective advertising
                        Puffery

   Exaggeration beyond what
    average consumer would
    believe
   Use quick superlatives
    (best, most effective,
    quickest acting)
                      Ethics

   Stereotyping
   Offensive products/message
   Encourage materialism
Advertising vs. Sales Promotions

   Advertising              Sales promotions
     – Emotion                 – Action
     – Information             – Rational appeal
     – Image                   – Short term
     – Loyalty                 – Break down loyalty
     – Intangible value        – Tangible
                               – New brand introduction
                    Sales Promotions

   Direct inducement that
    offers extra value for using
    a product
   Growing due to retailer
    power and brand loyalty
    decline
            Consumer Promotions

   Coupons              Bonus
   Contests             Price off
   Sweepstakes          Sponsorship
   Rebate               Ambush
            Trade Promotions

 Contests            Promotional
 Spiffs               allowance
 Buying allowance    Slotting allowance
                      Trade shows
                     Market Research

   Secondary
   Physical Research
    –   Pupil dilation
    –   Galvanic skin response
    –   Brain waves
   Diagnostics Testing
    –   Laboratory
    –   Field
    5 Steps of Primary Market Research

   Define the Question
   Select a Research Method
   Collect Data
   Analyze Data
   Draw Conclusions
            Secondary Data


   Data found in already published sources
   Information on:
    –   Population
    –   Family size
    –   Household income
    –   Industry forecasts
        Where Can You Find Secondary Data?

   Publications from US Government
    –   Census
   Books about specific industries
   Info on web sites
   Specialized magazines
   Newspapers
Advantages and Disadvantages

+ Relatively cheap
+ Conducted quickly
___________________________
- Not collected for your purpose
- Untargeted
- Difficult to make comparisons
    Secondary Research

   US Census

   Heart of Wisconsin

   Economic Research Bureau
                      Primary Data

   Information collected for the first time for a
    specific purpose

   Why?
    –   Identify and understand target markets
What makes a great salesperson?

   Tactful communication
   Technical skills
   Problem solving
   Our future
   Accept responsibility
   Plan future
   Low emergencies
                 Public Relations

   Press release
   Lobbyist
   Product publications
   Consulting
   Corporate communications (10-K)
Operations Planning

   Preliminary planning (forecast based)
   Master schedule (quarterly)
   Detailed production plan (weekly)
   Release and dispatch of order (daily)
   Progress surveillance and adjustment (post)
History of Operations Management

   1776:   Division of labor
   1790:   Interchangeable parts
   1912:   Scheduling chart
   1913:   Assembly line
   1930:   Worker motivation studies
   1980:   Quality control
   1990:   Internet
   2000:   Globalization
         Types of Manufacturing

 Continuous
 Repetitive
 Intermittent
 Custom
Locating the Manufacturing Facility

   Raw Materials       Land Costs
   Transportation      Building Costs
   Energy Supply       Customer Base
   Water Supply        Labor Force
   Rail Access         Economic Factors
                         –   Taxes
                         –   Incentives
                  Facility Layout

   Raw Materials and
    storage
   Process lines and work
    in process
   Finished products,
    warehousing, and
    shipping
                  Basic Layout Types

   Product
    –   Assembly line
    –   U shaped
   Process
    –   Departmental
   Fixed Position (items are stationary)
                How Much Capacity?

   Human Factors           Customer base
   Scheduling Factors      Product/service factors
   Process factors         External factors
                   Break-Even Point

   Total Volume of output at
    which total cost and total
    revenue are equal

   Fixed cost/(revenue-
    Variable cost)
               Working Conditions

   Temperature/Humidity
   Ventilation
   Illumination
   Noise/Vibration
   Breaks
   Safety
   Environment
                      Productivity

   Output/Input
   Quantity of production at
    standard
    cost/(labor+materials+over
    head)
            Improving Productivity

   Develop measures/goals
   Improve bottlenecks first
   Establish reasonable improvement goals
   Measure improvements and publicize them
                          Forecasting

   Qualitative
    –   Subjective inputs
    –   Executive judgment
   Quantitative
    –   Historical data
    –   Customer input
           Forecast Factors to Consider

   Trend
   Seasonality
   Cycles
   Irregular Variations
                    Standardization

   Extent to which there is absence of variety in a
    product or service
    –   McDonalds
    –   Car Wash
                 Financial Activities

   Financial Accounting
   Managing Stocks and
    Bonds
          Financial Accounting

 Assets=Liabilities+Owner’s Equity


Assets: things that are owned
Liabilities: things that are owed
Equity: value of the business
         Financial Statements

                       liabilities, equity)
 Balance Sheet (assets,
 Income Statement (revenue, costs,
  expenses, and taxes)
 Statement of Cash Flow (actual cash)
                      Profit or Loss

   Profit is calculated as follows:
                Revenue
            - Costs and Expenses
            = Profit

   Profits can be increased by
    –   increasing revenue.
    –   decreasing costs and expenses.
                       Managing Stocks
   Common stock
   Preferred stock
     – Participating
     – Cumulative


   Dividend: profits of corporation that shareholder receives
   Par value: assigned dollar value that is printed on stock certificate
    (often is arbitrary)
   Market price: exchange trading price
                    Managing Bonds

   Debentures: corporate bonds that are backed by the
    general credit standing of a corporation

   maturity date: when the bond expires and will be repaid
   face value: amount bondholder will receive at end of term
   interest rate: percentage of face value that will be repaid to
    bondholder
               Technology Activities

   Manage hardware
   Manage software
   Database management
   Manage network
   Manage help desk
   Emergency planning
   Manage access to network
   Manage network output
                           Hardware

   Mainframes
   Monitor
   Keyboard
   Mouse
   Laptops
   Scanners
   Printers/Copiers/Fax
    Machines
                  Software

   Application
   System
   Custom
                   Inside the Box

   Power Supply
   Motherboard
   Expansion slots and cards
   CPU (chips, processors, and circuits)
   Memory
   Ports
   BUS
         Central Processing Unit (CPU)

   The main chip that manages information in the
    computer
   Routes directions to all the parts of PC
   Speed is measured in Megahertz (MHz)
   One MHz=one million clock ticks per second
       Random Access Memory (RAM)

   Temporarily stores information while you are
    working
   Disappears when turn off PC
   The higher the better
   Not the same as disk size
                                  Ports

   Serial                                 Parallel
     –   Mouse, modem, scanner, or          –   Printer of tape drive
         printer                            –   Female connector (25 holes)
     –   Male connector (9 or 25 pin)
                                    BUS

   Electronic communication path
    –   Width (bits)
            Amount of data traveling
    –   Speed (MHz)
            How fast data can go
                            Monitor

   Consider resolution (dots
    per inch)
   Size is measured diagonally
    across the screen
    –   14” to 21” most common
    –   size=cost
                   Types of Printers

   Speed vs. quality
    –   Dot Matrix
    –   InkJet
    –   Laser
    –   Thermal Color
                 Dot Matrix

   Least cost
   Noise
   1-3 PPM
                         InkJet

   Ink spray
   1-6 PPM
   Color is available
   Can smudge
   Better quality
                        Laser

   High quality
   Up to 12 PPM
   High cost
   Uses laser to form images
                 Keyboard/Mouse

   Mouse ball bottom or top?
   Wrist rest?
   Natural keyboard or traditional?
               Networks

   LAN
   WAN
   Internet
         Network Interface Card (NIC)

   Uses electronic circuitry to send and receive
    network messages
   Connects directly to the network cable
   Plugs into a main board expansion slot inside the
    computer
               Network Standards

   Ethernet: Every workstation examines the address,
    but only the one which is it addressed reads the
    message
   Token Ring: Message passes through all network
    stations

				
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