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Maryland Statute of Limitations for Criminal Proceedings - PowerPoint

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                                                                                 American Bar Association
                                                                        Forum on the Construction Industry

                                                                                 2008 Annual Meeting



    RESPONDING TO A CATASTROPHIC
                        ACCIDENT

                                                                                      Stephen C. Yohay
                                                             Thelen, Reid, Brown, Raysman & Steiner, LLP

                                                                                         David E. Jones
                                                           Ogletree, Deakins, Nash, Smoak & Stewart, P.C.

                                                                                         Aaron A. Dean
                                                                Fabayanske, Westa, Hart & Thomson,1P.A.
                             American Bar Association
                    Forum on the Construction Industry

                             2008 Annual Meeting



RESPONDING TO A CATASTROPHIC
                    ACCIDENT
     THE OSHA INSPECTION PROCESS



                                  Stephen C. Yohay
         Thelen, Reid, Brown, Raysman & Steiner, LLP
                                    Washington, DC

                                                 2
3
4
5
MANAGING THE OSHA INSPECTION
PROCESS

     • Report fatality or three hospitalizations to
       OSHA

     • Six-month statute of limitations

     • OSHA access to jobsite

        – Plain View doctrine

        – Consent to Inspection

     • Opening Conference
                                                      6
THE “WALKAROUND”
   • Right to accompany Compliance Officers

   • OSHA photographs and videotapes

   • Preserving the physical evidence

   • Testing physical evidence

   • May OSHA shut down a jobsite?


                                              7
OSHA “DISCOVERY”
   • Requests for document and other evidence

   • OSHA interviews of non-supervisory
     employees

   • OSHA interviews of supervisory employees

     – Imputation of knowledge

     – Admissions

     – Recordings and statements
                                                8
EMPLOYER’S OBLIGATIONS UNDER
OSHA

      • OSHA Standards

      • General Duty Clause

      • Criminal Liability




                               9
                              American Bar Association
                     Forum on the Construction Industry

                              2008 Annual Meeting



RESPONDING TO A CATASTROPHIC
                    ACCIDENT
     POST-INSPECTION PROCEDURES



                                David E. Jones, Esq.
       Ogeletree, Deakins, Nash, Smoak & Stewart, P.C.
                                          Atlanta, GA

                                                 10
POST-INSPECTION PROCEDURES
      • Closing conference

      • Issuance of citations

      • Other than serious

      • Serious

      • Willful

      • Repeat

      • Abatement

                                11
U.S. Department of Labor
 Citation and Notification
        of Penalty




                         12
EVALUATING CITATIONS

     • Violation of an OSHA standard

     • Violation of the General Duty Clause

     • Defenses

     • Unpreventable Employee Misconduct

     • Infeasibility



                                              13
DEFENSES

    • Greater Hazard

    • Statute of Limitations

    • Vindictive Prosecution

    • Multi-Employer




                               14
INFORMAL CONFERENCE

     • Options upon receipt of citation

     • Timing of informal conference

     • Withdrawal of citation items

     • Changes in classification of items

     • Reduction of proposed penalties


                                            15
INFORMAL CONFERENCE              (cont'd)

     • Extension of abatement dates

     • Changes in factual specification

     • Collateral promises

     • Robust non-admissions clause

     • Informal Settlement Agreement

     • Notice of Contest

                                            16
17
LITIGATION OF OSHA CITATIONS
     • Role of OSH Review Commission

     • Role of Solicitor of Labor

     • Pleadings

     • Discovery

     • Evidentiary hearing

     • Simplified proceedings

     • Review and appeals

                                       18
DECISION TO LITIGATE

    • Amount of proposed penalties

    • Effect on ongoing operations

    • Potential for repeat violations

    • Impact on future work opportunities




                                            19
DECISION TO LITIGATE (cont'd)

      • Potential for civil and criminal actions

      • Time, expense and burden of litigation

      • Ongoing relationship with OSHA




                                                   20
                          American Bar Association
                 Forum on the Construction Industry

                          2008 Annual Meeting



RESPONDING TO A CATASTROPHIC
                    ACCIDENT
                  OSHA STATE PLANS




                                  Aaron A. Dean
          Fabyanske, Westra, Hart & Thomson, P.A.
                                  Minneapolis, MN
                                             21
STATE PLANS
    • OSHA Act of 1970

    • Federal vs. state authority

    • Compromise solution

       – States may enforce workplace safety rules

       – Demonstrate “at least as effective” as OSHA
         federal



                                                     22
PROCESS FOR APPROVAL

     • Need approval by U.S. Secretary of Labor

     • Application by state for approval

     • Period of joint federal/state jurisdiction

     • Rejection or approval of state plan

     • State may voluntarily withdraw its approved
       plan



                                                     23
STATE PLAN STATES

    • 22 States and Territories with full plans: Alaska,
      Arizona, California, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky,
      Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New
      Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, Puerto Rico, South
      Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia,
      Washington, and Wyoming

    • 4 States cover public employees only: Connecticut,
      New Jersey, New York, and Virgin Islands




                                                              24
ARE STATE PLANS SIMILAR TO
FEDERAL OSHA?

     • Federal OSHA establishes a floor

     • State plans may exceed Federal OSHA
       requirements

     • Most frequently, states adopt CFR
       standards




                                             25
EXAMPLE OF HIGHER STANDARDS
     • Jurisdictional (public employers)

     • Boiler standards

     • Elevator standards

     • State specific statutes

        – AWAIR

        – Permissible Exposure Limits

        – Employee Right-to-Know

        – Safety Committees
                                           26
EXAMPLE OF LOWER STANDARDS
IN STATE PLANS

    • No “general duty” clause required in state
      plans


    • Fine reduction programs




                                                   27
MINNESOTA’S STATE PLAN AS AN
EXAMPLE
     • Background

       – MnOSHA (1973)

       – Final federal approval (1985)

       – Minnesota Department of Labor (DLI)
         continues to enforce/administer Minnesota’s
         state plan




                                                       28
KEY DIFFERENCES (PROCESS)
     • Similar inspection/investigation process

        – unannounced

        – announced

     • “Red Tag” authority to shut down job site

     • Federal OSHA cannot shut down a job site
       without a federal court order

     • Broader criminal penalties

     • Minnesota House File 16 Bill
                                                   29

				
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