America's First Ideological Dispute

Document Sample
America's First Ideological Dispute Powered By Docstoc
					Today’s Lecture:

Race and Ideology in the New Republic

Number:

10

Lecture Organization: • Class Announcements • Understanding Colonial Economics • How Did Slavery Start?

• The Statistics
• Agrarian Ideology

• Federalist Ideology • America’s First Ideological Divide
Time

• Ideology and Hegemony

Part II: Development of American Politics

Understanding Colonial Economics

colonial economics -- To understand American slavery, we must also understand something about colonial economics

Understanding Colonial Economics

labor/land ratio -- England has a land problem; we have a labor problem subsistence-plus farming

-- 95% live off the land; sell the rest at the local farmer’s market
-- no mass production (production for sale) substantial barter economy -- economics is about trading something more than buying it -- there isn’t much money used

Understanding Colonial Economics

competing economic models -- there are different economic models in the colonies single cash crop farming • Rice in the deep south (later cotton) -- labor needs are horribly intense -- hard labor

Understanding Colonial Economics

competing economic models -- there are different economic models in the colonies diversified-crop farming • grains, corn, produce, etc. -- less labor involved

Understanding Colonial Economics

competing economic models -- there are different economic models in the colonies merchant commerce -- sea port towns -- economy is more liquid (foreign currency)

New England
Rural middle north

Upper South Deep South

• Port towns (sea merchants) • very little slavery (house slavery) • Diversified crops & grain farming • (different labor needs – very little slavery) • Single-crop plantation model (tobacco); • Slavery • Single-crop plantation model (rice, cotton later); • Slavery

Understanding Colonial Economics

new, emergent economic model finance capitalism -- capital-intensive, making money from money • stock markets • insurance • manufacturing • corporations

• banking

Understanding Colonial Economics

new, emergent economic model finance capitalism -- America doesn’t have banks until after the revolution. -- northeastern Americans wants to start making money the way the English do. -- the north will be the first to: • have banks • have the stock market • have railroads, canals, technology, corporations, etc -- think of where the industrial belt is?

Understanding Colonial Economics

plantation slavery -- there is one exception to the claim that the American colonies were using subsistence-plus farming … -- plantation farmers were an elite group -- culturally, they were mimicking the aristocratic barons in England [explain this] • gentrified elites in the culture [explain that] • mention Jefferson and Monticello

Understanding Colonial Economics

plantation slavery consignment system -- planters had to send cash crops to England for sale [explain why – mercantilism] -- received consumer goods in return • Wedgewood china, leather saddles, new suits, etc. (English and Scottish brokers would do the transaction)

-- planter took all the risks
• insurance, bad crop year, bad price (market), running debts

Understanding Colonial Economics

plantation slavery consignment system debtor-creditor relationship

-- vicious back then
• debtor’s prisons • debts passed on to sons via inheritance -- farmers were always getting deeper in debt to these banking and financial interests

Understanding Colonial Economics

plantation slavery consignment system debtor-creditor relationship

-- planters who were in debt:
• Jefferson died horribly in debt (but also spent lavishly) • Washington plantation (Mount Vernon) was losing money for over a decade after the revolutionary war

Understanding Colonial Economics

how slavery fits in the north -- 10% of the African American slave population -- “House Slavery” -- Begins to dies out around the time of the revolution (roughly). -- not coincidentally, the north begins to adopt the new institutions faster.

Understanding Colonial Economics

how slavery fits in the south -- 90% of the African American slave population -- Plantation Slavery -- Will not die out around the time of the revolution -- Will shun the new institutions -- It will try to expand slavery and cling to an outmoded economic model through the 1800s.
Time

How Did Slavery Start

the slave trade -- think about how descendants of non-enslaved Americans arrived here versus how descendants of slaves arrived here

of defiant captives. Slaves were branded like farm animals. [Source: for rum, codfish, salt, and Spanish money. Arabs ran slave markets Kenneth Davis]. West on Indies West Africa’s west coast. [Source: Kenneth Davis]. Africa years Break-in period was 3

The Colonial Voyage Transaction European Triangle The The The Voyage: Sugar and Molasses were Who were slaves? – turned into Rum area sent to Slave-training and sardines Treatment – Packed in like Colonial Europe and Africa for more … prisoners of war, tribal royalty, prizes of war taken by neighboring America Those who attempted to fleeslaves. were fitted with an Anklet and a spike The most brutal of slave or enemy tribesman, criminals, debtors, subjects of African kings and Small coffin (18 seal the lips driven through the foot. Another device used a spike toinches of colonies local chieftains. They were sold as space to Arab coastal traders prisoners
Journey: 6-10 weeks

Rum. Elites – enslaved Slaves coming fromprovisions this African Political Cotton,area Returned with sugar, molasses, transaction relied upon Thrown over if Raw The people for trade wereran lowtwice the value worth Grains, profits from Caribbean islands, “middle men” Materials and other and “seasoned” slaves. Goods. African Holocaust
Time
5/21/2009 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 19

The Statistics

1. 1776: 500,000 African-American slaves -- about 1 in 6 of the population -- about 4 million total colonists -- 1790: 700,000 African-American slaves. -- doubling every 20 - 25 yrs. (exponential rate) 2. Region: -- 90% lived south of the Potomac -- Virginia: -- 40% of its total population
5/21/2009

-- 292,000 slavesCopyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. (the largest numerical population).

20

The Statistics
-- Had the largest free population (12,000). -- South Carolina: 60% of the population. 3. Civil war period … 4 million! -- Vast majority due to reproduction -- Slave trade is made illegal in 1808. 4. Who participated? -- 1 in 4 causations in the South owned slaves -- distribution: -- 5 ½ million whites in slave states in 1860
5/21/2009

-- only 46,000 held more than 202007. Copyright, Sean Wilson. slaves. (.008%)

21

The Statistics
-- some participants were also African-American -- 3,800 black slave owners were registered in the 1840 William Ellison – Census -- born into slavery 1. was William Ellison 2. He bought he and his family’s freedom by repairing cotton gins 3. over time, he earned enough money to buy a plantation and own his own slaves 4. He had 60 slaves and ranked as the top 1 percent of slaveholders
[source: – Michael P. Johnson and James L. Eroark, Black Masters, 1984)].

Time
5/21/2009
Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 22

American Ideology

Agrarian Ideology

Review
What was the war about

nationhood

independence

Should we even form the government?

-- anti-Federalists said “no” -- others said “only if it is weak”

Agrarian Ideology

The Hamilton/Jefferson Dispute -- After Washington becomes president, there is a dispute in the think about how descendants of non-enslaved Americans arrived here versus how descendants of slaves arrived here

Agrarian Ideology

Agrarian Ideology -- to understand what this is, we must understand the world in which plantation slave owners lived -- we must understand “plantation political psychology”

3/12/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

26

Agrarian Ideology

Agrarian Ideology
consignment system

-- plantation farmers had to use this system (explain it) -- the farmer took all of the risks

3/12/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

27

Agrarian Ideology

Agrarian Ideology
the new financial institutions

-- the new financial institutions emanate from England -- banks are new in colonial America; farmers regarded them with suspicion -- It’s not just banks; it is all the new financial entities: stock markets, stock trading, insurance – anything where money itself makes money

-- thought this to be a kind of “gambling”
3/12/2007
(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 28

The New Capitalism --

Corporations -- Governor Clinton of New York said he distrusted the idea of a “corporation,” because it seemed to be a shady conspiracy against the common good.
Banks -- Virginia planters hated bankers and banking. They thought it was the "prostitution of money for illicit gain."

3/12/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

29

Agrarian Ideology

Agrarian Ideology
the new financial institutions

-- threatened planter hegemony: Land is no longer power; finance is Bill Gates is now king, not Lord Jefferson -- debtor/creditor relationship is vicious

3/12/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

30

Agrarian Ideology

Agrarian Ideology
Jefferson’s notion of “virtue”

-- he sees three worlds: (a) the wild; (b) the urban; and (c) the rural

-- only those who work the land can have virtue

3/12/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

31

Agrarian Ideology

Agrarian Ideology
urbanization

-- the cities are like sores on the body
Jefferson against urbanization --

Jefferson made this analogy: cities are to a nation what sores are to the body. The less you have of them, the more healthy you are. Jefferson writes: “those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of god, possessing substantial and genuine virtue.”
3/12/2007
(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 32

Agrarian Ideology

Agrarian Ideology
urbanization

-- London scared the hell out of him: • diplomat while the constitution was being written • The largest cities in colonial America were 30,000 to 50,000 units – not that big. • London had over a million people

3/12/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

33

Agrarian Ideology

Agrarian Ideology
urbanization

-- London scared the hell out of him: • Britain was the first to develop urbanization, manufacturing, banking, stock trading, etc. The cities were now becoming cosmopolitan • There were drunks, homeless, and an underclass • Colonial America had avoided this.

3/12/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

34

Agrarian Ideology

Agrarian Ideology
manufacturing

-- is starting to happen in Britain: • clothing mills with 1,300 people employed

• invention of interchangeable parts
• giving Britain an economic advantage over the world

Time
3/12/2007
(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 35

Federalist Ideology
Federalist Ideology

-- Washington’s most important advisor is Alexander Hamilton
-- born in West Indies -- Father is absent -- Mother dies around 12 or 13 (both are sick) -- Gets an internship with a trading company (Bateman & Kruger) -- learns finance quickly

Federalist Ideology
Federalist Ideology -- Hamilton had always been suspicious of single cash-crop slave economies (mention his experience in the West Indies) -- Hamilton wants the new institutions of finance to be built here. -- Hamilton wants to follow the path of England -- He saw what the new institutions did to make England powerful

Federalist Ideology
Federalist Ideology • National Bank (Just like England)

-- you can’t start a bank until you have an extremely large pool of capital ($10 to 12 million?). The government is really the only one who can do this at first. -- tax the people, turn it over to bankers, who then can operate the bank, making a profit -- stock shares in the bank, bank notes that make the economy more liquid (trade them), regulates the money supply. Huge, huge institution.

Jefferson against finance capitalism -Once the bank opened up and made a public offering of stock, the stock sold out in a hour. People lined up at the courthouse trying to buy it and were upset that none was left. Jefferson saw it not as a triumph but a waste of money. He said it was strange that in a country that cannot afford to pay its debts or properly clothe its army that it would waste money on what he called "gambling." When the price of shares went through the roof in August, this caused Jefferson and Madison to be horrified at how the "stockjobbers" were scamming to take people's money. This was viewed as immoral and something that was hurting good, honest work. When the panic of 1792 hit, Jefferson remarked "that the credit and faith of the nation seemed to be dependent upon gambling scoundrels.“ Amid the crash in March, Madison was saying: this proves that the gambling system doesn't work.

Federalist Ideology
Federalist Ideology

Hamilton’s influence • National Bank (Just like England)
Manufacturing and Alsoindustrial in New York • Stock markets the ends up revolution had started in England in the late 1600s and early 1700s: • corporations New way of doing business (clothing mills with 1,300 people employed) • manufacturing (invention of interchangeable parts) -- Hamilton is encouraging the development of (gives Britain (explain) manufacturing an advantage) What course mill opens in 1791 -- First flax would America take?

Federalist Ideology
Federalist Ideology

Hamilton’s influence • National Bank (Just like England)
• Stock markets • corporations • manufacturing • urbanization Also ends up in New York New way of doing business Just getting started Just getting started

The New Capitalism -A speculative craze was unleashed in New York and in other commercial centers. Jefferson said that America was being transformed into a “gaming table”-- a corrupt squadron of paper dealers that he called “stock jobbers.” Importantly, these types of speculators were now starting to show up in the Congress, and Jefferson could see them having an increasing presence there. For Jefferson, the American character was defined by frugality and industry [meaning labor -- hard work on the farm]. Hamilton was therefore taking America on the same adulterated path that Europe had taken. Jefferson was thinking specifically of his British experience: seeing the cities get bigger and being full of laborers who were poor and exploited by the ones who made the money, these banking and commercial interests. If this was how American society would be transformed, it would begin to look like London -- a large gap between haves and have nots

Federalist Ideology
Other portions of the Federalist Agenda

• Assumption Bill
(implicit idea: federal government is more important?) • Whiskey Tax (took that revenue stream from states) • Jay’s Treaty (Now were friends with Britain again) • Quaker Petition (tried to abolish slavery)

Federalist Ideology
Other portions of the Federalist Agenda

• Building a National Judiciary
dividing up the country in “circuits” soon they will be trying to create lower federal trial courts (looked very monarchical in your local community, especially given the way courts worked in England) (note: in many colonies, Royal Governors had appointed judges and magistrates)
Time

America’s First Ideological Divide

Jefferson has had “enough” -- The Virginians believe that they made a big mistake joining the government. They were “duped.”

3/12/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

45

America’s First Ideological Divide

Jefferson has had “enough”
Jefferson acts to counter Hamilton

-- Hires a newspaper “hitman”
Newspaper “hitman” -Jefferson hires someone in the state department to be set up as a newspaper writer who will tear down the Federalist cause and its proponents. Themes coming from the newspaper are that Hamilton is working behind the scenes, corrupting Washington, the aging patriarch, and is planning to establish monarchy. (You could also interpret the writings as Hamilton trying to become king).
3/12/2007
(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 46

America’s First Ideological Divide

Jefferson has had “enough”
Jefferson acts to counter Hamilton

-- Hires a newspaper “hitman” … feeds him government contracts (public notices, printing jobs) to keep the paper profitable -- organizes the anti-Hamilton sentiment in the political marketplace

3/12/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

47

America’s First Ideological Divide

Jefferson has had “enough”
rise of political parties

-- originally thought to be “conspiratorial,” and to lack virtue -- begin as societies, pre-parties

(“Adam’s men” “Jefferson’s men”)
-- forms into “Democratic-Republican” party (Jeffersonian Republicans)

3/12/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

48

Impulses: • Ben Franklin Two basic sentiments….. • Centralizing • • Thomas Jefferson • John Adams national authority State autonomy -- strong federal • • James Madison logic”George Washington institutions -- “confederacy Impulses: (taxation, standing army) • • Patrick HenryModel • Alexander Hamilton Old Economic Federalist Anti-Federalist “Republican” • New Economic Model • John Jay • James Monroe -- hegemonic • John-- anti-slavery Marshall • Governor Clinton -- pro-slavery -- new British Mostly “team up” Parties Develop! -- anti “new institutions” northern; with institutions: Would Political geographic opposites Some southern support markets, etc) (banking, stock • Favor France over BritainSouth Carolina) (e.g., • Neutrality with Britain Time
5/21/2009 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007 49

Ideology and Hegemony
“hegemony”

Question: Answer: What does the word Dominant Social “hegemony” mean?

Opinion and Value Structure
50

3/12/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

Parties, Ideology and Hegemony
“hegemony” -- example: Pittsburgh Steeler fans.

Answers:

Question:

What is the greatest What is hegemonic footballSteelerever? among team fans? How high should jack Lambert be on linebacker lists?
3/12/2007
(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 51

Ideology and Hegemony
“hegemony” -- example: Alabama

Question: Question: What is political What is the dominant hegemony like in social opinion about Alabama? Obama in that state?
3/12/2007
(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 52

Ideology and Hegemony
“agrarian political hegemony” -- When America first started, the federalists established the first American political hegemony -- By the time Jefferson ascends, a new political hegemony will exist (agrarian ideology) -- agrarian ideology will pretty much dominate American politics (with a few exceptions) until Lincoln will destroy it in the civil war. -- federalist party will pretty much die out after 1812 (wanted to secede from the union)
3/12/2007
(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 53

Ideology and Hegemony

role of parties -- political parties are what organize the forces that compete for hegemony -- parties are the vehicles that organize the political marketplace

3/12/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

54

1776-1787
Impulse A Political “goop”

Impulse B

Impulse A

Social deference (somewhat)

Finance Capitalism

strong central government

anti-slavery

Impulse B

populist!

Agrarian Ideology

state’s rights

pro-slavery

Impulse B Impulse A

“Federalists” “National Republicans” (1812-1824)

“Republicans” (Jefferson)


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:194
posted:5/22/2009
language:English
pages:68