The Age of Jackson and the Party Machine

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					Today’s Lecture:

Jackson, Agrarian Ideology and Party Machine

Number:

12

Lecture Organization: • Class Announcements • Brief Review • Jackson and the Democrats • 1828 Campaign • Jackson’s Legacy • The Campaign as Spectacle

• The Party Machine
Time

Class Announcements

exam -- results will be posted late Friday -- if you need them sooner, call 937-775-4222 4-digit code -- hand it in on a piece of paper -- grades will be on the website on Friday

Class Announcements

essay -- hand in by Wednesday. -- Hand in first draft and comment sheet (Hand in notes again if you took them back)

Class Announcements

notes -- graded and returned next week Website -- will be current by Sunday night

Questions?
Time

Brief Review

ideology -- Jefferson v. Hamilton dispute -- agrarian ideology v. federalists parties and campaigns -- virtue politics giving way to party politics electoral college -- had to amend the Constitution to change the way votes are cast (12th Amendment) -- It had been contemplated to be a merit select board (nonpartisan)

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Part I: The Age of Jackson

Jackson and Democrats

intro -- Jackson is the president who is on the $20.

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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Jackson and Democrats

Agrarian Ideology -- pro-slavery; anti-banks and manufacturing; against federal-government spending for highways, education, etc. -- believes that Jefferson’s Republican party has lost its soul (believes it has become corrupt) (explain why)

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Jackson and Democrats

race and slavery -- unabashed slavery supporter -- not only owns slaves, but, for a while, has a business that sells them • distinction between owning and selling (compare to psychology of drug transactions today)

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Jackson and Democrats

war hero -- Indian “removal” -- Battle of New Orleans -- Taking Florida from Spain

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(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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Jackson and Democrats

1824 Campaign -- John Quincy Adams wins (son of John Adams) -- Jackson feels railroaded (he won most of the votes).

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(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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Jackson and Democrats

Democratic party -- Jackson and his supporters form the Democratic party -- populist rhetoric

Time 1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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Parties & Ideology

role of parties -- political parties are what organize the forces that compete for hegemony -- parties are the vehicles that organize the political marketplace

3/12/2007

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1776-1787
Impulse A Political “goop”

Impulse B

Impulse A

Social deference (somewhat)

Finance Capitalism

strong central government

anti-slavery

Impulse B

populist!

Agrarian Ideology

state’s rights

pro-slavery

Impulse B Impulse A

“Federalists” “National Republicans” (1812-1824) Whigs (1832 – 1856) Republican Party (Lincoln)

“Republicans” (Jefferson) Democrats (1830s – 1860s)

Time

1828 Campaign

1828 Campaign -- John Quincy Adams runs for re-election -- vicious campaign

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(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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1828 Campaign

campaign attacks by Adams • published letters showing Jackson couldn’t spell • how many people he killed in duels or otherwise (soldiers executed) (pamphlet with coffins printed on it for every person killed) • that he sold slaves

• marital status of his wife (adulterers living in sin)
• “ruffian” or “oaf”
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1828 Campaign

campaign attacks by Jackson -- monarchist (means “elitist”) -- spendthrift (too much taxing and spending) -- corrupt, dishonest politician

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1828 Campaign

Jackson’s campaign organization Jacksonians spent nearly 1 million dollars Two centralized committees in Nashville and Washington First Rapid Response Team. (Bill Clinton?)

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1828 Campaign

Jackson campaign activities First time someone ran as an outsider (“clean up Washington”)

Campaign biographies – biographical sketch
“Hickory clubs” (nickname: “old Hickory)” Jugs and Plates with the heroes picture on it

Rallies celebrating the battle of New Orleans (for a while, as popular as July 4th)

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Time

Jackson’s Legacy

Jackson comes to power -- the inauguration …
“Willie Nelson” Day at the White House --

“So many people attended the inaugurations that when he went off into the white house, that there were thousands of people following going through the white house. They left it a wreck with mud and everything tracked in. Justice Story notes his objection to it: “the reign of King mob,” talking about the democratization effect -- a kind of pitiful idiocy and was glad to have left the scene”
Source: H.W. Brands
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Jackson’s Legacy

the spoils system -- brooms on the trains: clean up Washington -- first “anti-Washington” campaign ever waged -- “to the victor goes the spoil” (explain)

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Spoils as reform? In the post civil war life, Americans began to view this as a kind of corruption. Jackson had started it as a way to get rid of corruption. This was considered “cleaning house” when it began. When he came into office on the train, he had broom sticks attached to the outside of the train, symbolizing that he was coming to clean it up. When he fired a bunch of people and put his people in, that started the spoils system.

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Kick backs as normal party business: There was great removal of people from government positions. This is when the spoils system emerges: the dolling out of government jobs based upon which party won. Subsequent presidents after Jackson would exceed his removal level and this practice would become institutionalized, so much so that it was not uncommon to have an appointee kick back part of his salary (say 10%) to the Democratic party as payment for getting the job.

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(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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Jackson’s Legacy

public works -- against federal government spending (compare: Federalists, national republicans, Lincoln, etc.)

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(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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Jackson’s Legacy

race and slavery -- Roger Taney to the Supreme Court (author of Dred Scott)

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(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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Jackson’s Legacy

national bank -- not renew its charter -- pull the money out and put it in pet state banks

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Jackson’s Legacy

buying western lands -- can only use gold -- helped depress the economy

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Jackson’s Legacy

the Whigs -- the anti-Jackson forces gather to form the Whigs

Question: Question: Why call Why now? themselves the Whigs?
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Jackson’s Legacy

Jacksonian Democracy

voting
Property qualifications all but eliminated Secret ballot is established Polling infrastructure is superior to colonial times

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Jackson’s Legacy

Jacksonian Democracy

race and voting
the American revolution had opened up voting to free African Americans in many states (even to women in New Jersey)

But in the 1800s, some of this was closed again

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(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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Voting in Early America -In 1790, free African American men could vote on equal terms with whites in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and North Carolina. Free African American men were enfranchised in the new states of Kentucky in 1792 and Tennessee in 1796, although the right was removed in Kentucky in 1798 and in Tennessee in 1834. Source: Alexander Keyssar’s, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States. (Noted in The Rise of American Democracy: Jeffreson to Lincoln by Sean Wilentz.)

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Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.

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Jackson’s Legacy

Jacksonian Democracy

presidential elections
1825 = 3/4ths of the electors popularly elected 1828 = all of them popularly elected President = popularity contest

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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Jackson’s Legacy

Jacksonian Democracy

less oligarchy
-- many states made judges run for election -- fewer appointed offices

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(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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Jackson’s Legacy

Jacksonian Democracy

professional parties
-- permanent two-party system • recruit candidates; • create the message; • conduct and wage the campaign -- Democratic party permanently institutionalized

Time 1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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The Campaign as Spectacle

The Whigs Intervene William Henry Harrison -- Old war hero -- First candidate to manufacture a marketing image

(portrayed himself as a “common man” even though, in thruth, he was a Virginia elite)
-- “Log cabin and hard cider campaign theme”

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They flooded the electorate with posters and badges extolling the virtues of their colorful, down-home "log cabin and hard cider" candidate, the hero of Tippecanoe. In their image remaking of Harrison, the Whigs misrepresented him to the electorate. Harrison was actually from an established Virginia family, a learned student of classics, and a man who enjoyed luxurious living to the point that he was continually in debt. But voters wanted to identify with a war hero who shared their down-to-earth values. Hence, the Whigs' strategy worked. They offered to the electorate "Old Tip," transforming a genteel blue blood into "One of us." It became the first true use of political "handling," or public image-making, in an American presidential race.

While Van Buren tried to run an intelligent, issues-driven campaign -- not the best of strategies when one's country is mired in depression -- Harrison's went straight for the emotional heart. Since Jackson's 1832 presidential campaign, politics had become a form of entertainment for the masses. Campaign rallies, meetings, bonfires and barbecues were now firmly entrenched in American life. The Whigs employed these tactics from Jackson (whose campaign was managed by Van Buren) to turn the tables on the Democrats. One group of Whig party members pushed a ten foot, paper and tin ball emblazoned with pro-Harrison slogans for hundreds of miles. Others handed out whiskey in log cabinshaped bottles supplied by the E.C. Booz distillery. (Thus came two additions to the American vocabulary: "keep the ball rolling" and "booze.")

The Whigs mass-marketed their candidate, flooding America with cups, plates, flags, and sewing boxes with Old Tip pictured on them. Countless popular songs left little doubt who the Whigs were for and against. The name-calling came next: Van Buren was called "Martin Van Ruin" and "A First-Rate Second Rate Man." Above all else, Harrison inspired the first and most famous of campaign slogans: "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too."
Meanwhile, Van Buren stayed in the White House, trying to appear above all the indignities. In contrast, Harrison got into the act on the campaign trail, sharing and entertaining the public with his impressions of Native American war whoops (loud calls). These sorts of events were popular because they took people's minds off the nation's economic troubles. In June 1840, a Harrison rally at the site of the Tippecanoe battle drew 60,000 people! By the end of the campaign, there were parades three miles long of voters singing, chanting and drinking.

Jackson „s response:
this was demeaning democracy!

Two Election Models

Model A

Model B

• virtue, • enlightenment, • statesmen • control over passion

• show your passion
• selfishness is good • democracy is about selfishness competing with selfishness • passion and counter passion • whoever wins the public spectacle deserves to govern
Time

-- paternalistic?
-- some know better than others; listen to your social betters?

Part II: The Party Machine

Party Machines
Tammany Hall intro -- The role that parties play today is not the same as in the mid-to-late 1800s

-- parties as “union halls” for politics

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Party Machines
Tammany Hall -- political machine that developed in the late 1800s through early 1900s in New York City
Tammany Hall – Democratic Political Machine: Dominated New York City politics from 1854 through the election of 1934. (80 yrs.). In New York City Democratic organization in the l920's numbered 32,000 committee men spread over five counties. The amount of patronage in l888 for just the city county containing Manhattan and a slice of the Bronx was 12,000 municipal jobs and a payroll of twelve million dollars. At the time this was a bigger resource distribution than the Andrew Carnegie iron and steel works. (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 55 1/18/2007

Plunkitt of Tammany Hall: There's only one way to hold a district: you must study human nature and act accordin'. You can't study human nature in books. Books is a hindrance more than anything else. If you have been to college, so much the worse for you. You'll have to unlearn all you learned before you can get right down-to human nature, and unlearnin' takes a lot of time. To learn real human nature you have to go among the people, see them and be seen. .I know every man, woman, and child in the Fifteenth District, except them that's been born this summer – and I know some of them, too. I know what they like and what they don't like, what they are strong at and what they are weak in, and I reach them by approachin' at the right side.

For instance, here's how I gather in the young men. I hear of a young feller that's proud of his voice, thinks that he can sing fine. I ask him to come around to Washington Hall and join our Glee Club. He comes and sings, and he's a follower of Plunkitt for life. Another young feller gains a reputation as a baseball player in a vacant lot. I bring him into our baseball dub. That fixes him. You'll find him workin' for my ticket at the polls next election day. Then there's the feller that likes rowin' on the river, the young feller that makes a name as a waltzer on his block, the young feller that's handy with his dukes-I rope thern all in by givin' them opportunities to show themselves off. I don't trouble them with political arguments. I just study human nature and act accordin'.

But you may say this game won't work with the high-toned fellers, the fellers that go through college and then join the Citizens' Union. Of course it wouldn't work. I have a special treatment for them. I ain't like the medicine man that gives the same medicine for all diseases. ... Before telling you how I catch him, let me mention that before the election last year, the Citizens' Union said they had four hundred or five hundred enrolled voters in my district. They had a lovely headquarters, too, beautiful roll-top desks and the cutest rugs in the world. If I was accused of havin' contributed to fix up the nest for them, I wouldn't deny it under oath. What do I mean by that? Never mind. You can guess from the sequel, if you're sharp. Well, election day came. The Citizens' Union's candidate for Senator, who ran against me, just polled five votes in the district, while I polled something more than 14,000 votes.

What tells in holdin' your grip on your district is to go right down among the poor families and help them in the different ways they need help. I've got a regular system for this. If there's a fire in Ninth, Tenth, or Eleventh Avenue, for example, any hour of the day or night, I'm usually there with some of my election district captains as soon as the fire engines. If a family is burned out I don't ask whether they are Republicans or Democrats, and I don't refer them to the Charity Organization Society, which would investigate their case in a month or two and decide they were worthy of help about the time they are dead from starvation. I just get quarters for them, buy clothes for them if their clothes were burned up, and fix them up till they get things runnin' again. It's philanthropy, but it's politics, too-mighty good politics. Who can tell how many votes one of these fires bring me? The poor are the most grateful people in the world, and, let me tell you, they have more friends in their neighborhoods than the rich have in theirs.

... The consequence is that the poor look up to George W. Plunkitt as a father, come to him in trouble-and don't forget him on election day. Another thing, I can always get a job for a deservin' man. I make it a point to keep on the track of jobs, and it seldom happens that I don't have a few up my sleeve ready for use. I know every big employer in the district and in the whole city, for that matter, and they ain't in the habit of sayin' no to me when I ask them for a job. And the children-the little roses of the district! Do I forget them? Oh, no! They know me, every one of them, and they know that a sight of Uncle George and candy means the same thing. Some of them are the best kind of vote-getters. I'll tell you a case. Last year a little Eleventh Avenue rosebud, whose father is a Republican, caught hold of his whiskers on election day and said she wouldn't let go till he'd promise to vote for me. And she didn't.

Party Machines
Tammany Hall -- Basic idea: party controls: • jobs

• government services
(great depression broke it)

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Party Machines
nomination system -- parties elites (bosses) control the nomination system

Question: Imagine we had this system today. What nominated Might not behappens if a congressman would reagain. Can’t run forvote againstelection.favor of party in “conscious” (e.g., abortion)?
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Answer:

Party Machines
Czar leadership

Question: Question: Answer: Answer: Which branch that we are the Let’s imagine of government, How do we stick together? Congress. isTogether. make on Stern party discipline. – paper, How can we Stick more powerful us What can we inventwork like Make congress to keep ourselves more Congress? President or powerful than atogether? the union hall President?
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Party Machines
Czar leadership -- a system where the Speaker of the House has all kinds of crazy power (Czar = “Caesar”)

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Party Machines
Czar leadership -- Speaker’s prerogatives: • which committee worked on what Bill • when Bills would be voted upon

• who was a member of which committee
• how long you could debate • whether you could offer amendments “choke-hold” control on the procedural operations (C) Copyright and the perks of the office Sean Wilson. 2007.

1/18/2007

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Party Machines
Czar leadership -- happens in the late 1800s -- similar tendency in the Senate, although not as much (Senate has always been less hierarchical)

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Party Machines
The Point 1. Party is not a team; it is a union 2. Powerful structure that controls, organizes politics 3. Its primary responsibility:

A. organize the political marketplace
B. select candidates Question: C. Enforce conformity with the Union’s program Are parties like this today? D. Provide benefits (spoils, services) when you win 4. “A machine”
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Political Party

Jobs

Government services

Controlled candidates

Controlled governing institutions

Time


				
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