Today‟s Lecture: The Development of American Political Culture – From Virtue to Partisanship Number: 11 Lecture Organization: • Class Announcements • Campaigns in Early America • Development of Political Parties • Social Deference • The Ascendancy of Jefferson • Electoral College and Political Parties • Jefferson\Burr Problem Time Class Announcements exam -- results are back -- median looks like a 77% 4-digit code -- hand it in on a piece of paper -- grades will be on the website on Friday Class Announcements essay -- meetings tomorrow may overlap (15 minute wait?) -- finished essays are due on next Wednesday (20th) in my office. -- hand in the old copy that I marked on as well. (If I tell you to listen to a lecture segment again, make sure you do it) Class Announcements notes -- graded and returned next week -- (if you need them for the essay, get them when you see me) Questions? Time Part I: Development of Parties and Campaigns “Campaigns” in Early America Parties lack virtue -- framers thought that political parties cheapened politics -- organized passion & pursuit of selfishness were not the ways of enlightened statesmen “Campaigns” in Early America campaigns? -- to “campaign” was thought to be “odious” (dirty and scandalous) -- you should never “prostitute your views” (you shouldn’t get elected by promising things) (it was like cheating) -- campaigns are supposed to be the community’s referendum upon your good character, standing and virtue. “Campaigns” in Early America campaigns? two things to avoid • Ambition – showing that you WANT the office (if you want the power, you are unfit for it) • Solicitation – promising favors to get someone’s recognition of your virtue. (if you promised something, it would prevent you from judging the common good. You would be supporting local or parochial interests.) “Virtue” = control over passion, ambition “Campaigns” in Early America campaigns? basic conclusion -- there are no “campaigns” as we understand them in early American history. • no parties • no rallies • no campaign promises • no advertisements • no policy platforms Question: Answer: How does someone Insiders will do most of become elected then? the work (explain) “Campaigns” in Early America campaigns in early American history example: Madison -- election to the state ratifying convention in VA -- originally did not want to run (tell why) -- changed his mind (constitution was in trouble) circle of insiders: •recruited him to run •announced to the public that he was available and would accept their choice -- Madison showed up on election day and won “Campaigns” in Early America voting who voted? -- around 1776, only those with a certain amount of property could vote: • In Virginia, the requirement was either: -- 28 acres of land; or -- (something else); or -- having a house in the city “Campaigns” in Early America voting how did they vote? -- no secret ballot -- voting amounted to a public pronouncement -- sheriff or someone would call out your name, you would raise your hand and say “Jefferson” -- they called this the “poll” (the location of the poll is unclear: either at the courthouse or on the candidates land? explain) “Campaigns” in Early America voting the planter barbecue -- two planters spread the word that they would accept the office -- the voters choose which barbecue to attend -- rum, cakes, food, etc. -- get drunk and then say “Jefferson” when they call your name “Campaigns” in Early America voting the planter barbecue -- the candidate would then make a public appearance and a speech -- the job of the voters is to pick which one has more stature or virtue (sort of like an elite popularity contest) “Campaigns” in Early America voting compare: in castigated social orders -- Rome: voting as labor. (cf: taking out the trash) (you do the work of your patrician over lord) -- Feudalism: voting as expected labor. (your Lord provides you work; you must support your Lord in his endeavors) “Campaigns” in Early America voting compare: after the English revolution -- voting is more about a legitimate structured choice. (pick amount two statesmen, either a Whig or Tory) (either choice is allowed) -- it is the same in early America (1776), but there are no parties. Time Washington‟s Victory The (s)election of Washington electors: -- 5 of the 13 colonies allowed for some kind of direct election of the electors. (selecting statesmen to be electors; not “pledged” delegates) Washington‟s Victory The (s)election of Washington campaign -- no campaign. • no public speeches • no policy promises! • no agenda to advertise -- all that happened was that insiders verified that Washington would serve, if selected. Washington and Virtue -Notion: if you say you want the office (presidency), it was bad. The forthright expression of political ambition was a sign that you lacked the ability to control your passions. Anyone who actively campaigned for office was showing himself to be inherently unworthy of the office. There was a stuffy, “aristocratic” assumption that any explicit projection of self interest in the political arena suggested a lack of control over one‟s own passions. Washington carried this ethos to an extreme. He would not publicly acknowledge that he wanted an interest in the office – demonstrating that he was in control of his ambitions – but he was, in fact, privately preparing to serve. source: Ellis Washington‟s Victory The (s)election of Washington campaign -- the inside social network is the entity that performed the campaign function. Answer: -- primary quality: an election based upon your “character” Question: (revolutionary credentials) The “second best” is the VP. compare: If we had this system today, How is the vice president • hall of fameKerry selected? the VP election would be • selecting the Pope • academy awards (not the people’s choice) Washington‟s Victory The (s)election of Washington mechanics of the election: • each elector has two votes • the votes are not weighted! (they are not first and second place votes) • you cast your votes for the best two, and the first place is the president, the second place is VP • can’t vote for the same person twice, and one vote has to be outside of your state Washington‟s Victory The (s)election of Washington the results -- Washington received all 69 votes; Adams was second with 34. -- Washington was unanimous for re-election, too (although there may have been one or more abstentions) Time Development of Political Parties Parties develop -- political parties will develop in America (rather quickly) -- to understand this, we have to understand two things: • “agrarian ideology” (Thomas Jefferson) • federalist ideology (Alexander Hamilton) 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 25 Development of Political Parties Washington’s re-election (1792): -- no “campaign” -- but Adams is being contested as the #2 person (“Republicans” wanted George Clinton from NY) (“Republicans” in Congress work behind the scenes) results: -- Washington unanimous (3 abstentions) -- Adams = 77; Clinton = 50. -- Adams had won only 7 votes in the south 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 26 Development of Political Parties The Adams Election (1796) changing atmosphere -- Republican and Federalist party press -- development of “societies” (pre-parties) • first election where you have “Adams men” and Jefferson’s men” 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 28 Development of Political Parties The Adams Election (1796) Adams campaign themes “Jefferson was Godless” “Jefferson was a weak and wavering character” “This election is about keeping the Virginia philosopher from the chair” “Jefferson was a philosopher, not a statesmen” South Carolina federalist quoted – “Jefferson was more fit to be president of a college or University rather than president of the United States.(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 29 3/12/2007 Development of Political Parties The Adams Election (1796) Jefferson campaign themes Adams wanted to establish a national church “Keep the monocrats out of office” “Jefferson is the true Republican” “John Quincy Adams is being planned to be the new heir” PA handbills calling Adams, “The Duke of Braintree” “His Rotundity” 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 30 Development of Political Parties The Adams Election (1796) The Campaign -- no presidential campaigning. (both candidates publicly denied they wanted the office!) -- both remained at home during the “campaign” (Monticello, Braintree) -- no public statements or letters -- no policy positions offered 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 31 Development of Political Parties The Adams Election (1796) The electoral landscape -- 9 out of 16 states appointed electors (7 allowed for election) -- 70 electoral votes needed to win pre-game show: -- Adams has 49 “locked” (New England, Delaware and New Jersey) -- Jefferson has 42 (TN, KT, GA and most of VA and NC) (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 3/12/2007 32 Development of Political Parties The Adams Election (1796) The electoral landscape PA surprise -- Federalists thought they had PA -- Changed the election laws: instead of electing one elector per district, they did one general ballot. -- Republican strategy • run high profile candidates • printing sample ballots (50,000) 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. Jefferson wins PA! 33 Development of Political Parties The Adams Election (1796) results -- nearly 40% of the electors cast votes against their supposed affiliation [source: John Ferling]. -- Adams barely wins: 71 – 68 -- Adams wins every elector in the north except PA; and only 2 from the South -- The two electors from the South are what allow him to win 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 34 Time Social Deference English Deference -- giving the wall to your Lord -- bow or curtsey (depth determined how good it was) -- hat tipping, step aside -- French Revolution: citizen and citizeness -- American revolution: • handshakes instead of bows • “mister and misses” 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 36 Social Deference symbols of majesty -- Politicians – abandon the symbols of majesty •Jefferson’s clothes and mannerisms •Adams Inauguration 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 37 Adams Inauguration – Resolved to keep things as understated as possible, he had ridden to congress hall from his lodgings at the Francis hotel in a simple but elegant enough carriage drawn by just two horses. The grand carriage and six white horses of Washington's first inauguration had been dispensed with. Nor would Adams would allow an official rescue to march in procession with him. As he confided to Abigail, “he wanted few if any of the court trappings of his predecessor.” Upon learning that she had had the Quincy coat of arms painted on her carriage at home, he told her to have it painted out. “They shall have a republican president in earnest.” Source – David McCullough Time 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 38 The Ascendency of Jefferson Election of 1800 -- watershed election -- first and last time a Pres and VP run against each other -- one of the dirtiest campaigns in American history? 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 39 The Ascendency of Jefferson changing atmosphere -- Jefferson changes his clothing -- Republican and Federalist party press -- teams: Jefferson/Burr v. Adams/Pinkney 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 40 The Ascendency of Jefferson event campaigning political dinners Republicans would organize large, festive dinners for people to toast Republicans candidates 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 41 The Ascendency of Jefferson event campaigning parades Federalists more likely to do formal street parades Republicans also paraded – but different style: artisans showing liberty under siege 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 42 The Ascendency of Jefferson event campaigning liberty trees Republicans would plant liberty trees and poles 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 43 The Ascendency of Jefferson campaign themes “Jefferson was a godless infidel” (apparent reference to relations with Sally Hemings) “Adams wanted to establish a national church” (puritan) 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 44 The Ascendency of Jefferson candidates campaigning? -- Aaron Burr speaking at rallies in a municipal election in New York City (unheard of) 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 45 The Ascendency of Jefferson federalists believe this was cheating the idea of printing pamphlets, getting people to the polls, etc. – this was all thought to be a kind of cheating 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 46 The Ascendency of Jefferson political machine in NY? -- centralized Republican committee system • local committees in each ward (organizational structure) -- get out the vote: • Burr and the organization are transporting people to the polls. -- door-to-door (list of houses to hit) 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 47 The Ascendency of Jefferson the start of the “campaign” -- In 1796, “campaign” didn’t start until 100 days before the election, after Washington said he would retire. Now, Abigail Adams electioneering had begun 13 months before election day in November of 1799 Candidates still home during the election 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 48 The Ascendency of Jefferson electoral landscape -- popularly elected in only 5 states (down from 7) •GA PA and MASS rescinded popular voting; KY authorized it. -- secret ballot coming around, but not always in use – votes are declared in public (CT) 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 49 The Ascendency of Jefferson electoral landscape trouble in New York -- state legislature selected the electors in NY; and NY now had a Republican government (Clinton) 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 50 The Ascendency of Jefferson electoral landscape Adams shifts to the center -- avoided war with France, greatly perturbed the federalists and Hamilton who were wanting war with France. 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 51 The Ascendency of Jefferson election results Jefferson/ Burr = 73; Adams (65) and Pinckney (64) -- Adams would have won if he could have taken NY -- First election that was decided based upon the 3/5ths clause 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 52 The Ascendency of Jefferson election results party discipline -- only 1 elector defected out of 138 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 54 The Ascendency of Jefferson election results realignment evidence? -- -- 3 districts in New England voted republican Congressmen in 1798 -- working class, plain folks in more populous cities began to vote Republican (Democracy and elitism hurt the federalists) -- 1795, only 14% of the newspapers were republican; by 1800, that number rose to 40% -- Republicans take control of Congress. 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 55 The Ascendency of Jefferson election results democracy works? -- first time in American history that the losing party turned over power to the winners (rather important step for democracy) Time 3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 56 Electoral College and Political Parties Class Exercise -- Electoral College: • each person = two votes -- pretend that each of you are an elector … 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 57 1. Each hand represents one vote. Question: Question: Question: Question: How many for How many for How many for How many for McCain? Obama? Palin? Biden? 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 58 illustration Cast theFame Model Hall of votes Potential Presidents President Two votes each Vice President Electors 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 59 illustration Casting the votes Partisan Model Potential Presidents President ? Two votes each Team A Team B Question: Question: Electors Why have the choices Who do electors cast narrowed? their second place vote for? (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 60 Time 1/18/2007 Jefferson/Burr Problem They Tie -- Jefferson understood that the electors had a “gentlemen’s agreement to throw away one vote” The “gentlemen’s agreement” -Vote tally: Jefferson and Burr tied with 73; Adams = 65 and Pinkney = 64. At first, the framing generation thought the problem of ties would not occur because of a gentlemanly agreement: one of the electors in casting their ballots would throw away one of their ballots. Burr had promised Jefferson that one of his delegates would do just that. It wasn‟t done; there was a tie. 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 61 Jefferson/Burr Problem They Tie -- Burr, the scoundrel that he was, would not relinquish the idea that he was the president Burr the Scoundrel -Burr then starts campaigning with the federalists, saying „hey, go with me, not Jefferson -- i don‟t really stand for anything‟ [Paraphrase!]. He starts gaining steam. Burr‟s strategy was to find federalist allies. Some federalists were leaning toward burr because he was considered to be the lesser of two evils because of regionalism. They saw Virginians as hypocrites -- living this gentry lifestyle built upon slave labor, pushing the common man and “liberty.” At least Burr was not a slave owner and was northern. (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 62 1/18/2007 Jefferson/Burr Problem They Tie -- Jefferson contacts Adams for help Jefferson and Adams I -Jefferson then contacts Adams and asks him to stop this catastrophe. Adams replies, „all you have to do is agree to support the navy, remain neutral [between France and England], support the bank, and the presidency is yours.‟ Jefferson replies: I can‟t agree to be president by capitulation. I have to be free to make my own decisions.‟ 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 63 Jefferson/Burr Problem Voting Begins -- 8 states for Jefferson, 6 for Burr, 2 undecided. Who is in control? -When Jefferson and Burr tied, the Republicans did not have a majority in the House. But you have to vote by state, and the Republicans controlled 8 delegations and the Federalists 6, with two states deadlocked. There were 16 states in the union. MD and VT were deadlocked. MD‟s eight congressmen consisted of 5 federalists and 3 republicans. 1 of the federalists defected, making it 4-4. 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 64 Jefferson/Burr Problem Voting Begins -- Hamilton intervenes on behalf of Jefferson! • Burr is a scoundrel (no character, no virtue) • Jefferson may be on the wrong side of nearly everything, but at least he is honest and has virtue. • If you make a deal with Jefferson, he will abide by it; Burr does not have these qualities (translation: if Burr had an online exam, he would find a way to cheat) 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 65 Hamilton the honorable -James Baird was originally going to go for Burr, but Hamilton intervenes to tell him about Burr‟s suspicious character and his lack of virtue. „Burr had no virtue and was unprincipled,‟ Hamilton said. Hamilton then writes a second letter where he basically says, [paraphrase!] „Look, Jefferson is not all that bad; his bark is worse than his bite. He may be despicable for certain reasons, but the point is: he will not disband the power of the federal govt. .. Jefferson will not make the presidency weak or symbolic or only for foreign policy purposes.‟ (In fact, that is exactly the way it turned out. J ran a tight ship in the executive -- J had more control over his cabinet and congress than Washington ever did). [source: Ferling and others] 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 66 Hamilton the honorable -Hamilton also says that there is no chance that Jefferson will be corrupted -- he may be a fanatic or misguided -- but he will at least be honest and act in good faith. Burr has suspicious character. Hamilton assures Baird that Jefferson will maintain the navy, maintain the present system of public credit, and will maintain neutrality. [the big issues]. Hamilton also writes, „make any use of this letter as you see fit,‟ which means that he should show it to other delegates. [source: Ferling and others] 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 67 Jefferson/Burr Problem The Deal -- the first attempt • Federalists propose allowing VT’s Congressman (Louis Morris) to switch sides in favor of Jefferson • in exchange for (1) neutrality; (2) financial plan; (3) navy; (4) keeping certain federal appointments 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 68 Jefferson/Burr Problem The Deal Time is running out -When the magical day in February came along, they had 2 days to try and figure it out. They took up 15 different votes, all of them coming out 8 for J, 6 for burr, 2 undecided. They came back and did a night session, casting 4 more ballots, the last one at 3:00 in the morning. The same outcome [source: Ferling and others] 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 69 Jefferson/Burr Problem The Deal -- Jefferson threatens secession Jefferson’s threats -Jefferson did talk with Adams on Saturday. J was conveying to Adams the view that what was happening in the congress was a Coup d'eta and that they were keeping the rightfully elected person from being the lawful leader, and that VA would secede and PA would go with them. The PA governor said he could arm 20,000 militia men. There was a threat of civil war. There was also the threat that VA and the other states would try to call another constitutional convention to write the document to make it more democratic. That scared the feds. This shook Adams and the others. 1/18/2007 [source: Ferling and others] (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 70 Jefferson/Burr Problem The Deal -- Delaware Baird to the rescue! -- he makes a last minute try on Saturday night Baird’s proposal -Delaware's congressman Baird is the one who blinked. On Saturday night, he tried to see if he could cut a deal that could switch his allegiance from burr to Jefferson. His terms: that the public credit be supported; that the navy continue to exist; and that no officers in the army would be dismissed merely because of their political alliances [source: Ferling and others] 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 71 Jefferson/Burr Problem Jefferson‟s Response? -- Jefferson’s response? -- classic Jefferson: (1) I’m too honorable to make deals like this (2) But lucky for you, those are my policy positions anyway -- the first attempt Baird’s proposal -The word came back from the courier that „Mr. Jefferson said that those are in fact his positions and his ideals‟ about the proper way to do things. 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 72 [source: Ferling and others] Jefferson/Burr Problem Jefferson‟s Response? -- The House had voted 35 times up to this point, with no change -- On the 36th ballot, Jefferson had won 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 73 Jefferson’s Victory -When Monday rolled around, the House balloted two additional times, but there was no change in the votes. (the 34th and 35th ballots). They adjourned for the day. An hour or so after that, the deadlock resolved. When Tuesday rolled around, everyone knew that the deadlock was broken. On the next ballot, Baird decided to abstain, taking DE from Burr. Additionally, none of the Federalists from MD, SC or VT cast ballots. This made MD and VT go to Jefferson. There were no Republicans in South Carolina‟s delegation, and that state decided to abstain. The final tally was Jefferson 10 states, Burr 4 states [Source: Ferling] 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 74 Jefferson/Burr Problem Jefferson‟s Response? -- Jefferson would continue to publicly deny that a deal was made 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 75 The rest of the story -Within days of the elections, Burr was notified that J had struck a deal to win the election, even though J himself had denied this [it is actually a semantic debate]. The “courier” republican was named Smith, and both he and Baird corroborated their story in court under oath in a defamation suit that occurred later on. There is also testimony or letters from another congressman confirming it. Once Jefferson took office, he never touched the bank of the US; he appeared to therefore have acquiesced to the Hamilton Financial Plan. He tolerated continued borrowing by the federal government. He also did not remove Federalist officers. Jefferson did seek a reduction of the navy, but within the parameters and limitations proposed by federalist legislators. [Source: Ferling] Time 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 76
"From Virtue to Partisan Politics"