Reducing the Environmental Risks of Pest Management Joseph K Bagdon Pest Management Specialist NRCS National Water Climate Center Amherst Massachusetts by jle31578


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									Reducing the Environmental
 Risks of Pest Management
            Joseph K. Bagdon
       Pest Management Specialist
    NRCS National Water & Climate Center
         Amherst, Massachusetts

    Environmental Risk Analysis
   Pest Management
    • Can impact soil, water and air quality
      – Plants
      – Animals
      – Humans
    • Direct impacts
      – Plants
      – Animals
      – Humans
    Environmental Risk Analysis
   Pest Management
    • Biological control risks
    • Cultural control risks
       – Soil quality aspects of tillage for weed control
          • evaluate with RUSLE 2, WEQ, SCI
    • Pesticide control risks
       – Air quality
          • Air Quality Technical Note - drift and volatilization
       – Water quality
          • evaluate with Windows Pesticide Screening Tool
                   Pesticide Environmental Risk - Water Quality

              10                                      "Acceptable"

Conc. (ppb)




                    1   4   7   10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49
Trend Analysis - Progress?
   “Environmental Indicators of Pesticide
    Leaching and Runoff from Farm Fields”
    • Kellogg, Nehring, Grube, Goss, and
      Plotkin, January 2002
    • Environmental risk indicators for 1960
      through 1997 based on:
       – The National Pesticide Loss Database
       – Annual estimates of pesticide use from Doane
         farm panel and USDA pesticide use surveys
Trend Analysis - Progress?
    – Annual county estimates of acres planted
    – Soils data from National Resources Inventory
    – Irrigation from National Resources Inventory
    – Water quality thresholds corresponding to
      drinking water standards (or equivalent derived
      from mammalian chronic toxicity data) and the
      maximum safe levels for chronic pesticide
      exposure to fish, algae and crustaceans
Trend Analysis - Progress?
   “Trends in the Potential for
    Environmental Risk from Pesticide Loss
    from Farm Fields”
    • Kellogg, Nehring, Grube, Plotkin, Goss and
      Wallace, January 1999
So what can we do about risk?
   EPA Pesticide Registration Process
   USDA
    • CSREES/Extension - IPM
    • NRCS - New pest management policy
       – Environmentally sensitive pest management in
         site-specific conservation planning
       – Mitigation techniques, including IPM
       – Integrate pest management into the rest of the
         conservation plan
What is NRCS Pest Management?
   A component of Conservation Planning
   Pest Management Standard (595) applies
    wherever pests will be managed and it
    requires IPM where it is available
   More than just efficacy and economics
   RMS plans must address all pest
    management related resource concerns
   Farm Bill programs (EQIP and CSP) can be
    used to help producers implement
    environmentally friendly pest management
    Pest Management Component
       of a Conservation Plan
   Minimum “Plans and Specifications” for the
    Pest Management (595) Standard include:
    • Environmental risk analysis, with approved
      tools and/or procedures, for probable pest
      management recommendations by crop (if
      applicable) and pest.
    • Interpretation of the environmental risk
      analysis and identification of appropriate
      mitigation techniques.
    Environmental Risk Analysis
   Windows Pesticide Screening Tool
    • WIN-PST provides:
      – Soil/Pesticide Loss Ratings
         • the potential to move offsite
      – Soil/Pesticide Hazard Ratings
         • offsite movement potential combined with exposure
           adjusted toxicity rating
    • Based on the Soil/Pesticide Interaction
      Screening Procedure II (SPISP II)
Soil Rating           Pesticide Rating

          Interaction Rating

 Exposure Adjusted Toxicity Rating

    WIN-PST Hazard Rating
              WIN-PST Factors:
   Climate/Irrigation
    •   High/Low Probability of Rainfall
    •   High/Low Efficiency Irrigation
   Site Conditions
    •   Crop Residue Management
   Soil
    •   High Water Table (apparent)
    •   Macropores (site-specific)
    •   Slope (>15%)
                WIN-PST Factors:
   Pesticide
    •   Toxicity
         –   Humans
         –   Fish
    •   Management
         –   Soil Incorporation
         –   Foliar Application
         –   Banded Application
         –   “Standard”, Low Rate or Ultra Low Rate
 Environmental Risk Analysis
WIN-PST only provides risk estimates for
  pesticide losses in water that moves:
 beyond the edge of the field
 below the bottom of the root zone
    Environmental Risk Analysis
Conservation planners must also address:
 distance to the identified water resource
 flow path characteristics
    • through the vadose zone
    • from the edge of the field to the water body
 characteristics of the watershed
 characteristics of the waterbody
    Environmental Risk Analysis
Conservation planners must identify
  specific resource concerns and what
  level of treatment will be needed:
 Ground Water?
    • Human drinking water and/or fish habitat?
   Surface Water?
    • Human drinking water and/or fish habitat?
    • Solution and/or adsorbed losses impacting
      aquatic species?
Mitigating Pesticide Environmental Risk:
   Mitigation
    • The process of minimizing the potential for harmful
      impacts of pest management activities on soil,
      water, air, plant, and animal resources through the
      application of conservation practices and/or
      management techniques.
   Mitigation Techniques
       – Management Techniques
          • Pesticide application method, rate and timing, etc.
       – Conservation Practices
          • Residue Management, Filter Strip, Irrigation Water
            Management, etc.
Appropriate Mitigation Techniques
   Mitigation Effectiveness Guide -
    Reducing Pesticide Impacts on Water Quality:
    • Management Techniques (9 categories)
    • Conservation Practices (74 practices)
         In the field
         At the edge of the field
    • Relative effectiveness by pesticide loss pathway:
         <blank> is no effect
         + or - slight effect on the resource (up to 15% change)
         ++ or -- moderate effect on the resource (up to 25%)
         +++ or --- is significant effect on the resource (up to 50%)
Appropriate Mitigation Techniques

   Management Techniques - example
    • Substitution
          Alternative low risk pesticides
          Low risk cultural controls
          Low risk biological controls
      – Significant effect on leaching (+++)
      – Significant effect on solution runoff (+++)
      – Significant effect on adsorbed runoff (+++)
Appropriate Mitigation Techniques

   Conservation Practices - example
    • Residue Management, No-till and Strip-Till
           Increases infiltration
           Reduces soil erosion
           Builds soil organic matter
       – Slight effect on leaching (+)
       – Moderate effect on solution runoff (++)
       – Significant effect on adsorbed runoff (+++)
         NRCS Pest Management is:

   Evaluating site-specific environmental risks
   Balancing risks with appropriate mitigation
    based on Field Office Technical Guide
    (FOTG) quality criteria
   Always fully utilizing IPM!
     • prevention
     • avoidance
     • monitoring
     • suppression
For More Information:

   USDA-NRCS National Water & Climate Center
    • Water Quality
    • Pest Management
        –   NRCS Pest Management Policy
        –   WIN-PST: Windows Pesticide Screening Tool
        –   NAPRA: National Agricultural Pesticide Risk Analysis
        –   NWCC Core 4 Pest Management
        –   NEDC Pest Management Course Materials
        –   Links
              • Integrated Pest Management
              • Pesticide Data
              • Soils Data

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