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Organic light-emitting diode

Organic light-emitting diode
History
A. Bernanose and co-workers at Université de Nancy, France, first produced electroluminescence in organic materials in the early 1950s by applying high-voltage alternating current (AC) fields in air to acridine orange and quinacridine either deposited on or dissolved in cellulose or cellophane thin films. They proposed a mechanism of either direct excitation of the dye molecules or excitation of electrons.[2][3][4][5] In 1960[6][7], Martin Pope and his group made the seminal discovery of ohmic, dark injecting electrode contacts to organic crystals[8], and described the necessary energetic requirements (work functions) for hole and electron injecting electrode contacts. Dark injecting hole and electron injecting electrode contacts are the basis of all current OLED devices, molecular and polymeric, as will be pointed out in the description of the requirements for the construction of successful OLEDs. In 1963, Martin Pope and his group made the first observation of direct current (DC) electroluminescence, under vacuum, on a pure, single crystal of anthracene, and also on anthracene crystal doped with tetracene[9]. The injecting electrode was a small area silver electrode, at 400 V DC, and the proposed mechanism was field accelerated electron excitation of molecular fluorescence. In 1965[10], Martin Pope and his group refined their experiment and showed that in the absence of an external electric field, the electroluminescence in anthracene single crystal was caused by the recombination of a thermalized electron and hole. This paper proved conclusively that the conducting level of anthracene is higher in energy than the exciton energy level. Also in 1965[11], W. Helfrich and W.G. Schneider produced double injection recombination electroluminescence for the first time, in an anthracene single crystal using hole and electron injecting electrodes whose work functions satisfied the requirements specified by Pope’s group. Electroluminescent materials can be insulators or doped

A 3.8 cm (1.5 in) OLED Screen An organic light emitting diode (OLED), also light emitting polymer (LEP) and organic electro luminescence (OEL), is any light emitting diode (LED) whose emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds. The layer usually contains a polymer substance that allows suitable organic compounds to be deposited. They are deposited in rows and columns onto a flat carrier by a simple "printing" process. The resulting matrix of pixels can emit light of different colors. Such systems can be used in television screens, computer displays, small, portable system screens such as cell phones and PDAs, advertising, information and indication. OLEDs can also be used in light sources for general space illumination, and large-area light-emitting elements. OLEDs typically emit less light per area than inorganic solid-state based LEDs which are usually designed for use as point-light sources. A significant benefit of OLED displays over traditional liquid crystal displays (LCDs) is that OLEDs do not require a backlight to function. Thus they draw far less power and, when powered from a battery, can operate longer on the same charge. Because there is no need for a backlight, an OLED display can be much thinner than an LCD panel. Degradation of OLED materials has limited their use so far.[1]

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insulators[12]. The Helfrich and Schneider paper is the forerunner of all double injection induced OLED devices. In 1965, researchers at Dow Chemical developed high voltage (500-1500 V) AC driven (100-3000 Hz), electrically insulated thin (1 mil) layers of a melted phosphor consisting of ground anthracene powder, tetracene, and graphite powder[13]. Their proposed mechanism was electronic excitation at the contacts between the graphite particles and the anthracene molecules. Conductivity of such materials limited light output until more conductive organic materials became available, especially the polyacetylene, polypyrrole, and polyaniline "Blacks". In a 1963 series of papers, Weiss et al. first reported high conductivity in iodine-doped oxidized polypyrrole.[14][15][16] They achieved a conductivity of 1 S/cm. Unfortunately, this discovery was "lost", as was a 1974 report[17] of a melanin-based bistable switch with a high conductivity "ON" state. This material emitted a flash of light when it switched. In a subsequent 1977 paper, Hideki Shirakawa et al. reported high conductivity in similarly oxidized and iodine-doped polyacetylene.[18] Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid & Hideki Shirakawa received the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "The discovery and development of conductive organic polymers". The Nobel citation made no reference to the earlier discoveries.[19] The first attempt to create a polymer LED was by Roger Partridge at the UK’s National Physical Laboratory. The project succeeded, being patented in 1975[20] though publication was delayed until 1983.[21] The first diode device was invented at Eastman Kodak by Dr. Ching W Tang and Steven Van Slyke in the 1980s.[22] This diode, giving rise to the term "OLED" used a novel two-layer structure with separate hole transporting and electron transporting layers such that recombination and light emission occurred in the middle of the organic layer. This resulted in a reduction in operating voltage and improvements in efficiency, and started the current era of OLED research and device production. Later, this concept was adapted for use with polymers culminated in the Burroughes et al. 1990 paper in the journal Nature reporting a very-high-efficiency green-lightemitting polymer.[23]

Organic light-emitting diode

Working principle
A typical OLED is composed of an emissive layer, a conductive layer, a substrate, and anode and cathode terminals. The layers are made of organic molecules that conduct electricity. The layers have conductivity levels ranging from insulators to conductors, so OLEDs are considered organic semiconductors. The first, most basic OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer, for example the first light-emitting polymer device synthesised by Burroughs et al. involved a single layer of poly(p-phenylene vinylene). Multilayer OLEDs can have more than two layers to improve device efficiency. As well as conductive properties, layers may be chosen to aid charge injection at electrodes by providing a more gradual electronic profile,[24] or block a charge from reaching the opposite electrode and being wasted.[25]

Schematic of a 2-layer OLED: 1. Cathode (−), 2. Emissive Layer, 3. Emission of radiation, 4. Conductive Layer, 5. Anode (+) A voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. This causes a current of electrons to flow through the device from cathode to anode. Thus, the cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer and the anode withdraws electrons from the conductive layer; in other words, the anode gives electron holes to the conductive layer. Soon, the emissive layer becomes negatively charged, while the conductive layer becomes rich in positively charged holes. Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine. This happens closer to the emissive layer, because in organic semiconductors holes are more mobile than electrons. The recombination causes a drop in the energy levels of electrons, accompanied by an emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. That is why this layer is called emissive.

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The device does not work when the anode is put at a negative potential with respect to the cathode. In this condition, holes move to the anode and electrons to the cathode, so they are moving away from each other and do not recombine. Indium tin oxide is commonly used as the anode material. It is transparent to visible light and has a high work function which promotes injection of holes into the polymer layer. Metals such as aluminium and calcium are often used for the cathode as they have low work functions which promote injection of electrons into the polymer layer.[26] Just like passive-matrix LCD versus activematrix LCD, OLEDs can be categorized into passive-matrix and active-matrix displays. Active-matrix OLEDs (AMOLED) require a thin film transistor backplane to switch the individual pixel on or off, and can make higher resolution and larger size displays possible.

Organic light-emitting diode

LEP display showing partial failure

Material technologies
Small molecules
OLED technology using small molecules was first developed at Eastman Kodak Company by Dr. Ching W. Tang. The production of small-molecule displays often involves vacuum deposition, which makes the production process more expensive than other processing techniques (see below). Since this is typically carried out on glass substrates, these displays are also not flexible, though this limitation is not inherent to small-molecule organic materials. The term OLED traditionally refers to this type of device, though some are using the term SM-OLED. Molecules commonly used in OLEDs include organo-metallic chelates (for example Alq3, used in the first organic light-emitting device)[22] and conjugated dendrimers. Recently a hybrid light-emitting layer has been developed that uses nonconductive polymers doped with light-emitting, conductive molecules. The polymer is used for its production and mechanical advantages without worrying about optical properties. The small molecules then emit the light and have the same longevity that they have in the SM-OLEDs.

An old OLED display showing wear Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED), also light-emitting polymers (LEP), involve an electroluminescent conductive polymer that emits light when connected to an external voltage source. They are used as a thin film for full-spectrum color displays and require a relatively small amount of power for the light produced. No vacuum is required, and the emissive materials can be applied on the substrate by a technique derived from commercial inkjet printing.[27][28] The substrate used can be flexible, such as PET.[29] Thus flexible PLED displays, also called Flexible OLED (FOLED), may be produced inexpensively. Typical polymers used in PLED displays include derivatives of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) and polyfluorene. Substitution of side chains onto the polymer backbone may determine the color of emitted light[30] or the stability and solubility of the polymer for performance and ease of processing.[31]

Polymer light-emitting diodes
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Organic light-emitting diode

Phosphorescent materials
Phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) uses the principle of electrophosphorescence to convert electrical energy in an OLED into light in a highly efficient manner.

Transparent OLED
Transparent organic light-emitting device (TOLED) uses a proprietary transparent contact to create displays that can be made to be top-only emitting, bottom-only emitting, or both top and bottom emitting (transparent). TOLEDs can greatly improve contrast, making it much easier to view displays in bright sunlight. This technology is used in Heads-up displays.

Patterning technologies
Patternable OLED
Patternable organic light-emitting device (POLED) uses a light or heat activated electroactive layer. A latent material (PEDOTTMA) is included in this layer that, upon activation, becomes highly efficient as a hole injection layer. Using this process, light-emitting devices with arbitrary patterns can be prepared.[32]

Stacked OLED
Stacked OLED (SOLED) uses a pixel architecture that stacks the red, green, and blue subpixels on top of one another instead of next to one another, leading to substantial increase in gamut and color depth, and greatly reducing pixel gap. At the moment, all display technologies have the RGB (and RGBW) pixels mapped next to each other.

Inkjet
See "Polymer light-emitting diodes" section above.

Inverted OLED
In contrast to a conventional OLED, in which the anode is placed on the substrate, an Inverted OLED (IOLED) uses a bottom cathode that can be connected to the drain end of an n-channel TFT especially for the low cost amorphous silicon TFT backplane useful in the manufacturing of AMOLED displays.[39] • AM OLED = Active Matrix OLED device • FOLED = Flexible Organic Light Emitting Diode (UDC) • OLED = Organic Light Emitting Diode/ Device/Display • PhOLED = Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diode (UDC) • PLED = Polymer Light Emitting Diode (CDT) • PM OLED = Passive Matrix OLED device • POLED = Polymer Organic Light Emitting Diode (CDT) • RCOLED = Resonant Color Organic Light Emitting Diode • SmOLED = Small Molecule Organic Light Emitting Diode (Kodak) • SOLED = Stacked Organic Light Emitting Diode (UDC) • TOLED = Transparent Organic Light Emitting Diode (UDC) • NOID = Neon Organic Iodine Diode (CDT)

Laser patterning
Color patterning by means of laser, such as radiation-induced sublimation transfer [33] (RIST).

Backplane technologies
For a high resolution display like a TV, a TFT backplane is necessary to drive the pixels correctly. Currently LTPS-TFT (low temperature poly silicon) is used for commercial AMOLED displays. LTPS-TFT has variation of the performance in a display, so various compensation circuits have been reported.[34] Due to the size limitation of the excimer laser used for LTPS, the AMOLED size was limited. To cope with the hurdle related to the panel size, amorphous-silicon/microcrystalline-silicon backplanes have been reported with large display prototype demonstrations.[35][36]

OLED Structures
Bottom emission/Top emission
Bottom emission uses a transparent or semitransparent bottom electrode to get the light through a transparent substrate. Top emission[37][38] uses a transparent or semi-transparent top electrode to get the light through the counter substrate.

Advantages
The radically different manufacturing process of OLEDs lends itself to many

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advantages over flat-panel displays made with LCD technology. Since OLEDs can be printed onto any suitable substrate using an inkjet printer or even screen printing technologies,[40] they can theoretically have a significantly lower cost than LCDs or plasma displays. Printing OLEDs onto flexible substrates opens the door to new applications such as roll-up displays and displays embedded in fabrics or clothing. OLEDs enable a greater range of colors, gamut, brightness, contrast (both DR and static) and viewing angle than LCDs because OLED pixels directly emit light. OLED pixel colors appear correct and unshifted, even as the viewing angle approaches 90 degrees from normal. LCDs use a backlight and cannot show true black, while an off OLED element produces no light and consumes no power. Energy is also wasted in LCDs because they require polarizers that filter out about half of the light emitted by the backlight. Additionally, color filters in most color LCDs filter out two-thirds of the light; technology to separate backlight colors by diffraction has not been widely adopted. OLEDs also have a faster response time than standard LCD screens. Whereas the fastest LCD displays currently have a 2ms response time (manufacturer’s quote), an OLED can have less than 0.01ms response time.[41]

Organic light-emitting diode
luminance for over 198,000 hours for green OLEDs and 62,000 hours for blue OLEDs.[45] The intrusion of water into displays can damage or destroy the organic materials. Therefore, improved sealing processes are important for practical manufacturing and may limit the longevity of more flexible displays.[46]

Technology demos
Samsung applications
In January 2005, Samsung announced the world’s largest OLED TV at the time, at 21-inches.[47] This OLED featured the highest resolution at 2.3 million pixels (WUXGA: wide ultra-extended graphics array) at the time. In addition, the company adopted AM-based technology for its low power consumption and high-resolution qualities. In January 2008, Samsung showcased the world’s largest and thinnest OLED TV at the time, at 31-inches and 4.3 mm.[48] In May 2008, Samsung unveiled a ultrathin 12.1inch laptop OLED display concept, with a 1,280 x 768 resolution with infinite contrast ratio.[49] According to Woo Jong Lee, Vice President of the Mobile Display Marketing Team at Samsung SDI, the company expects OLED displays to be used in notebook PCs as soon as 2010.[50] In October 2008, Samsung showcased the world’s thinnest OLED display, also the first to be ’flappable’ and bendable.[51] It measures just 0.05 mm (thinner than paper), yet a Samsung staff member said that it is "technically possible to make the panel thinner".[51] To achieve this thickness, Samsung etched an OLED panel that uses a normal glass substrate. The drive circuit was formed by low-temperature polysilicon TFTs. Also, low-molecular organic EL materials were employed. The pixel count of the display is 480 × 272. The contrast ratio is 100,000:1, and the luminance is 200 cd/m2. The color reproduction range is 100% of the NTSC standard. In October 2008, Samsung unveiled the world’s largest OLED Television at 40-inch with a Full HD resolution of 1920x1080 pixel.[52] In the FPD International, Samsung stated that its 40-inch OLED Panel is the largest size currently possible . The panel has a contrast ratio of 1,000,000:1, a color gamut

Disadvantages
The biggest technical problem for OLEDs is the limited lifetime of the organic materials.[42] In particular, blue OLEDs historically have had a lifetime of around 14,000 hours (5 years at 8 hours a day) when used for flatpanel displays, which is lower than typical lifetime of LCD, LED or PDP technology—each currently rated for about 60,000 hours, depending on manufacturer and model. Toshiba and Panasonic have come up with a way to solve this problem with a new technology that can double the lifespan of OLED displays, pushing its expected life past that of LCD displays.[43] A metal membrane helps deliver light from polymers in the substrate throughout the glass surface more efficiently than current OLEDs. The result is the same picture quality with half the brightness and a doubling of the screen’s expected life.[44] In 2007, experimental PLEDs were created which can sustain 400 cd/m² of

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of 107% NTSC and a luminance of 200 cd/m2 (peak luminance of 600 cd/m2).

Organic light-emitting diode
In April 2009, Sony demonstrated a 21" prototype at the Display Japan conference in Tokyo.[64]

Sony applications
In 2004 Sony released the Sony CLIÉ PEGVZ90, the first commercial device to feature an OLED screen. In 2006 Sony introduced the MZ-RH1 Portable Minidisc Recorder, which has an OLED screen.[53] At the Las Vegas CES 2007, Sony showcased 11-inch (28 cm, resolution 960×540) and 27-inch[54] (68.5 cm, full HD resolution at 1920×1080) models claiming million-toone contrast ratio and total thickness (including bezels) of 5 mm. Sony released a commercial version of this television in Japan in December, 2007.[55] Sony plans to begin manufacturing 1000 11-inch OLED TVs per month for market testing purposes.[56] Sony has begun selling an 11-inch OLED Digital TV (XEL-1) for $2499.99 CAD[57] On May 25, 2007, Sony publicly unveiled a video of a 2.5-inch flexible OLED screen which is only 0.3 millimeters thick.[58] The screen displayed images of a bicycle stunt and a picturesque lake while the screen was flexed. On October 1 2007, Sony announced it will sell 11-Inch OLED TVs for 200,000 yen (1,962.51 USD as of 4/1/08) from December 2007, only in Japan[59] and with an initial production of 2000 units per month. At the CES 2008, Sony showcased the Walkman® X series with 3” OLED touchscreen[60]. On April 16, 2008, at "Display 2008", Sony showed a 0.2 mm (0.0079 inch) thick 3.5 inch display with a resolution of 320x200 pixels and a 0.3 mm thick 11 inch display with 960x540 pixels resolution. That’s one-tenth the thickness of the XEL-1 (which is also 11 inch and the same resolution).[61][62] On October 4, 2008, Sony has published results of research it carried out with the Max Planck Institute over the possibility of mass-market bending displays, which could replace rigid LCDs and plasma screens. Eventually, bendable, transparent OLED screens could be stacked to produce 3D images and their outstanding characteristics means that their contrast ratio and viewing angles are far, far better than existing products [63].

Other companies
The Optimus Maximus keyboard developed by the Art. Lebedev Studio and released early 2008 uses 113 48×48-pixel OLEDs (10.1×10.1 mm) for its keys. OLEDs can be used in High-Resolution Holography (Volumetric display). Professor Orbit showed on May 12, 2007, EXPO Lisbon the potential application of these materials to reproduce three-dimensional video. OLEDs could also be used as solid-state light sources. OLED efficiency and lifetime already exceed those of incandescent light bulbs, and OLEDs are investigated worldwide as a source of general illumination; an example is the EU OLLA project.[65] On March 11, 2008 GE Global Research demonstrated the first successful roll-to-roll manufactured OLED, marking a major milestone towards cost effective production of commercial OLED technology. The four year, $13 million research project was carried out by GE Global Research, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc and the U.S. Commerce Department’s National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).[66][67] Chi Mei EL Corp of Tainan, Taiwan, demonstrated a 25" Low-Temperature Polycrystalline silicon Active Matrix OLED at the Society of Information Displays (SID) conference in Los Angeles, CA, USA on May 20–22, 2008.

Commercial uses
OLED technology is used in commercial applications such as small screens for mobile phones and portable digital audio players (MP3 players), car radios, digital cameras, and high-resolution microdisplays for headmounted displays. Such portable applications favor the high light output of OLEDs for readability in sunlight, and their low power drain. Portable displays are also used intermittently, so the lower lifespan of OLEDs is less important here. Prototypes have been made of flexible and rollable displays which use OLEDs’ unique characteristics. OLEDs have been used in most Motorola and Samsung color cell phones, as well as some LG and Sony Ericsson phones, notably the Z610i, and

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some models of the Sony Walkman.[68] It is also found in the Creative Zen V/V Plus series of MP3 players and iriver U10/clix. Nokia has also introduced recently some OLED products, including the 7900 Prism,the Nokia 8800 Arte, and the Nokia N85 which features an AMOLED display. On October 1, 2007, Sony became the first company to announce an OLED television for commercial sale. The XEL-1 11" OLED Digital Television sells for $2,499.99 in the United States and Canada. In January 2009, handheld computer manufacturer OQO introduced the smallest Windows Vista computer with an OLED display.[69] Newer OLED applications include signs and lighting.[70][71] Use of OLEDs may be subject to patents held by Eastman Kodak and others. Kodak has licensed its patents to other firms for commercialization.[72] The first OLED lights are commercialized in May 2009. Philips Lighting opened up a webshop, where OLED lighting samples under the brand name ’Lumiblade’ can be ordered online.[73]

Organic light-emitting diode
industry. Its core competencies of technology innovation, state of the art high volume manufacturing, strong emphasis on R&D and optimized supply chain have helped consolidate its industry leading position in the market."[78] The company has undertaken a number of R&D initiatives in the mobile displays segment and has been aggressively investing in R&D to advance AMOLED technology, realize cost saving and increase profitability. Currently, it holds more than 600 domestic patents, and more than 2800 international patents, making it the largest owner of AMOLED technology patents.[79] Its relationship with Samsung SSI, one of the largest electronic component and device manufacturers, has also given it a unique competitive advantage, the flexibility to get the maximum out of the two display technologies, thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) and AMOLEDs. By having the first commercially viable mass production of AMOLED panels, Samsung SDI has the first mover advantage. The company presently has the capability to manufacture 1.5 million two inch AMOLED panels per month and has targeted 5 million AMOLED panels per month by 2008.[80] With mobile handsets being the initial market for AMOLEDs, Samsung SDIs partnership with leading world mobile manufacturers.

Manufacturers
Samsung SDI
Samsung SDI, a subsidiary of Samsung Group, South Korea’s largest conglomerate, is the world’s largest OLED manufacturer, producing nearly every 1 in 2 OLED displays made in the world.[74] In October 2008, it unveiled the world’s largest OLED TV at 40-inch with a Full HD resolution of 1920x1080 pixel. It was the first company in the industry to develop and manufacture AMOLED displays[75] and has the world’s largest market share in both Passive Matrix OLEDs (PMOLED) and Active Matrix OLEDs (AMOLED).[76] The company is leading the world OLED industry, generating $100.2 million out of the total $475 million revenues in the global OLED market in 2006.[77] Furthermore, the company’s ability to generate economies of scale through vertical and horizontal integration has given it an edge over its competitors in the market place. Frost & Sullivan Research Analyst Abhigyan Sengupta notes that "Samsung SDI is among the select few companies to recognize the potential of OLEDs, and has been at the forefront of OLED technology innovations by leveraging its stronghold within the display

Toshiba Matsushita
According to reports by Bloomberg.com,[81] Toshiba Matsushita Display Technology Co. has announced that it intends to produce a million 2.5 inch OEL panels per month by Fall 2009. The screens will be produced for use in cellphones, GPS navigation systems, and other assorted mobile devices. The news broke after Japan’s Nikkei newspaper[82] reported that the Toshiba/Matsushita joint-venture have begun building OEL production lines in their Ishikawa Prefecture factories. Although Nikkei did not list a source for the announcement, it seems fairly certain that OEL technology is growing ever closer to mainlined viability. As it stands, Toshiba Matsushita Display Technology Co. will be among the first Japanese companies to mass produce OEL panels. While their initial run will be limited only to mobile sized screens, the process will presumably garner a refined, more cost effective means of production,

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which may lead to mainstream availability of larger OEL screens.

Organic light-emitting diode
[15] B. A. Bolto, D. E. Weiss, Electronic Conduction in Polymers. I. The Chemical Structure of Polypyrrole, Aus. J. Chem. 1963, 16, 1056. [16] B. A. Bolto, R. McNeill, D. E. Weiss, Electronic Conduction in Polymers. III. Electronic Properties of Polypyrrole, Aus. J. Chem. 1963, 16, 1090. [17] J. McGinness, P. Corry, P. Proctor, Amorphous Semiconductor Switching in Melanins, Science 1974, 183, 853. [18] H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang and A. J. Heeger, Synthesis of electrically conducting organic polymers: halogen derivatives of polyacetylene, (CH)x, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1977, 578–580. [19] The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000, retrieved on July 28, 2007. [20] US Patent 3995299 Radiation sources [21] R. H. Partridge, "Electroluminescence from polyvinylcarbazole films", 1, 2, 3 and 4, Polymer 1983 24, 733, 739, 748, 755 [22] ^ C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, Organic electroluminescent diodes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 1987, 51, 913. [23] J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, A. B. Holmes, Lightemitting diodes based on conjugated polymers, Nature 1990, 347, 539–541. [24] P. Piromreun, H. Oh, Y. L. Shen, G. G. Malliaras, J. C. Scott, and P. J. Brock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2403 (2000) [25] D. Ammermann, A. Böhler, W. Kowalsky, Multilayer Organic Light Emitting Diodes for Flat Panel Displays, Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik, TU Braunschweig, 1995. [26] R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, W. R. Salaneck, Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers, Nature 1999, 397, 121. [27] T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices, Appl. Phys. Lett. 1998, 72, 519. [28] J. Bharathan, Y. Yang, Polymer electroluminescent devices processed by inkjet printing: I. Polymer light-emitting logo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 1998, 72, 2660.

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Active-Matrix OLED (AMOLED) Comparison of display technology Conductive polymers Field emission display (FED) Flexible electronics List of light sources List of emerging technologies Molecular electronics Nano-emissive display Organic semiconductors PHOLED Printed electronics Steven Van Slyke Surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED)

References
[1] O. Prache, "Active matrix molecular OLED microdisplays", Displays Volume 22, Issue 2, May 2001, Pages 49–56. [2] A. Bernanose, M. Comte, P. Vouaux, J. Chim. Phys. 1953, 50, 64. [3] A. Bernanose, P. Vouaux, J. Chim. Phys. 1953, 50, 261. [4] A. Bernanose, J. Chim. Phys. 1955, 52, 396. [5] A. Bernanose, P. Vouaux, J. Chim. Phys. 1955, 52, 509. [6] H. Kallmann, M. Pope, J. Chem. Phys. 1960, 32, 300. [7] H. Kallmann, M. Pope, Nature, 1960, 31, 186. [8] P. Mark, W. Helfrich, J. Appl. Phys., 1962, 13(1), 205 [9] M. Pope, H. Kallmann, P. Magnante, J. Chem. Phys. 1963 38, 2042 [10] M. Sano, M. Pope, H. Kallmann, J. Chem Phys. 1965, 43, 2920 [11] W. Helfrich, W.G. Schneider, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1965, 14(7), 229 [12] G. Malliaras, R.H. Friend, Physics Today, 2005, 58(5), 53 [13] E. Gurnee, R. Fernandez, U.S. Patent 3,172,862 virture paintball has made a board using the oled , 1965. [14] R. McNeill, R. Siudak, J. H. Wardlaw, D. E. Weiss, Electronic Conduction in Polymers. I. The Chemical Structure of Polypyrrole, Aus. J. Chem. 1963, 16, 1056.

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Organic light-emitting diode
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Further reading

External links

ai_n27929051

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Structure and working principle of OLEDs and electroluminescent displays

Organic light-emitting diode
• Information for the public about the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000

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