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									                                  SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                            Life Science

        1st Quarter                       2nd Quarter                              3rd Quarter                        4th Quarter
           (Pages 2-5)                        (Pages 6-7)                            (Pages 8-13)                       (Pages 14-18)
LS. 1 a-j                Page 2   LS. 2 d                    Page 6       LS. 14 a-c              Page 9      LS. 6a-c               Page 15
Scientific method                 Cell processes                          Evolution and adaptation            Plants and photosynthesis
Metric measurements               and cell division
                                                                          LS. 5 a-c                 Page 10   LS. 7 a-d              Page 16
LS. 4 a-c                Page 3   LS 13 a-g                  Page 7-8     Classification                      Energy flow within food webs
Characteristics and needs of      Heredity,                                                                   Cycles of abiotic elements
living things                     DNA,                                    LS. 9 a-e               Page 11
                                  and genetics                            Interactions within a biological    LS. 10 a,b          Page 17
LS. 2 a-c                Page 4                                           community                           Biomes and ecosystems
Cell theory and structure of
cells                                                                     LS. 8 a,b             Page 12       LS. 11 a-c            Page 18
                                                                          Interactions among populations      Changes within an ecosystem
LS. 3 a,b                Page 5
Cellular organization                                                     LS. 10 c               Page 13      LS. 12 e             Page 19
                                                                          Adaptations for a specific          Environmental issues
                                                                          ecosystem

                                                                          LS. 12 a-d            Page 14
                                                                          Relationships between
                                                                          ecosystems and human activity




                                                                      1
                                         SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                                         FIRST QUARTER
SOL Number               SOL Objective
LS.1
                         The student will plan and conduct investigations in which:
                                              a)   data are organized into tables showing repeated trials and means;
Experimentation                               b)   variables are defined;
through the scientific                        c)   metric units (SI—International System of Units) are used;
method using metric                           d)   models are constructed to illustrate and explain phenomena;
measurements                                  e)   sources of experimental error are identified;
                                              f)   dependent variables, independent variables, and constants are
(Infused standard
                                              g)   identified;
throughout all                                h)   variables are controlled to test hypotheses, and trials are repeated;
Quarters)                                     i)   continuous line graphs are constructed, interpreted, and used to make predictions;
                                              j)   interpretations from a set of data are evaluated and defended; and
Essential                                     k)   an understanding of the nature of science is developed and reinforced.
Knowledge, Skills,       In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
and Processes               •   Design a data table that includes space to organize all components of an investigation in a meaningful way, including
                                levels of the independent variable, measured responses of the dependent variable, number of trials, and mathematical
                                means.
                            •   Identify what is deliberately changed in the experiment and what is to be measured as the dependent (responding)
                                variable.
                            •   Select appropriate tools for collecting qualitative and quantitative data and record measurements (volume, mass, and
                                distance) in metric units.
                            •   Create physical and mental models as ways to visualize explanations of ideas and phenomena.
                            •   Evaluate the design of an experiment and the events that occur during an investigation to determine which factors
                                may affect the results of the experiment. This requires students to examine the experimental procedure and decide
                                where or if they have made mistakes.
                            •   Analyze the variables in an experiment and decide which ones must be held constant (not allowed to change) in order
                                for the investigation to represent a fair test. This requires students to comprehend what “variables” are and to apply
                                that idea in new situations related to the Life Science SOL concepts.
                            •   Determine the specific component of an experiment to be changed as an independent variable and control the
                                experiment by conducting trials for the experiment in which the independent variable is not applied. This requires the
                                student to set up a standard to which the experimental results can be compared. The student must use the results of
                                the controlled trials to determine whether the hypothesized results were indeed due to the independent variable.
                            •   Construct appropriate graphs, using data sets from experiments. This requires the student to recognize that a line
                                graph is most appropriate for reporting continuous or real-time data. This also requires a student to comprehend that
                                points along the line that are not actual data points can be used to make predictions. Students should be able to
                                                                              2
                                   SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007
                          interpret and analyze these graphs.
                      •   Develop conclusions based on a data set and verify whether the data set truly supports the conclusion. This requires
                          students to cite references to the data that specifically support their conclusions.
                      •   Distinguish between observational and experimental investigations.
                      •   Identify, describe,and apply the generalized steps of experimental (scientific) methodology.

Resources          Glencoe Life Science Text- pg 842, 845,846 –Science Applications 6-13 –Scientific method
                   Science Saurus-measurement pgs. 53-67, variables pg 395, graphs pgs. 390-394
Supplemental       http://www.think-metric.com/ - basic posters in pdf using daily objects in metric measurements
Resources and      http://sciencespot.net/Pages/classmetric.html metric labs, quizzes, pre and post tests and puzzles
Activities         http://sciencespot.net/Pages/classmetric.html#Anchor-23240 metric Olympics
                   http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/metricworld/ -daily life questions and labs
                   http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/AVC/SciMeth/VCB_SM_HP.html using the scientific method to answer
                   real life questions
Honors Extension   http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/statistics/tress2.html describes the steps of the scientific method using a series of
Activities         solvable brainteasers
                   http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/AEF/1994/mccadden_safety.html a twist on the usual “lab safety”
                   lecture for cooperative grouping
                   http://www.microbe.org/experiment/dirty-handed.asp an interesting inquiry-based laboratory studying microbes
                   and the importance of washing your hands
                   http://www.iit.edu/~smile/bi9208.html students use a tied up string game by implementing the skills found with the
                   scientific method to solve the problem
                   Student designed project
                   “Why did I get a sunburn?" Students are provided with sunscreens, labeled with different SPF values. They will
                   design their own laboratory to test how effective different brands and SPF valued sunscreens are using UV
                   sensitive beads.




                                                                        3
                                       SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                                         FIRST QUARTER
SOL Number       SOL Objective
LS.4             The student will investigate and understand that the basic needs of organisms must be met in
                 order to carry out life processes. Key concepts include:
Basic needs of            a. Plant needs (light, water, gases, and nutrients)
living things             b. Animal needs (food, water, gases, shelter, space)
                          c. Factors that influence life processes
                 In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Essential                      • Identify the basic needs of all living things.
Knowledge,                     • Distinguish between the needs of plants and animals.
Skills, and                    • Explain that there is a specific range or continuum of conditions that will meet the needs of organisms.
Processes                      • Explain how organisms obtain the materials what they need.
                               • Create plausible hypotheses about the effects that changes in available materials might have on particular life processes in
                                    plants and in animals.
                               • Design an investigation from a testable question related to animal and plant life needs. The investigation may be a complete
                                    experimental design or may focus on systematic observation, description, measurement, and/or data collection and analysis.
                               • Analyze and critique the experimental design of basic investigations related to animal and plant needs. This analysis and
                                    critique should focus on the skills developed in LS.1. Major emphasis should include the following: the clarity of
                                    predictions and hypotheses, the organization of data tables, the use of metric measures, adequacy of trials and samples, the
                                    identification and use of variables, the identification of constants, the use of controls, displays f graphical data, and the
                                    support for conclusions.

Resources        Glencoe Life Science Text (Glencoe)-14-18

Supplemental     United Streaming Video- “TLC-What is a living thing”-elementary movie to share the interactions of living and
Resources and    nonliving things
                 http://www.rougevalleynaturalists.com/teach1_cur.htm watching butterflies to understand the needs of living things
Activities
                  http://www.fi.edu/tfi/units/life/living/living.html exploring the needs of living things through the rainforest
                 United Streaming - “The brain and spinal cord”-how living things respond to stimuli
                 United Streaming - “The eye and perception”-how your eyes transmit to the brain, focus on visual disorders and
                 perception of stimuli
Honors           http://www.saburchill.com/chapters/chap0001.html Students can self-guide there learning with this on-line chapter.
Extension        This provides a more in-depth look at the needs of living things, includes seven characteristics, complete with on-line
                 quizzes and activities!
Activities
                 Student designed project
                 Based on the needs of all living things, design part of the space station. Include plants and animals in your drawing,
                 complete will all that they will need to survive in space.
                                                                                4
                                          SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                                           FIRST QUARTER
SOL Number            SOL Objective

LS.2 a, b, c          The student will investigate and understand that all living things are composed of cells.
Cell organelles and   Key concepts include:
functions                                  a. Cell structure and organelles (cell membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, vacuole, mitochondrion,
Cell theory                                    endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, and chloroplast).
Mitosis/Meiosis                            b. Similarities and differences between plant and animal cells.
(LS.2-continued in                         c. Development of cell theory.
2nd Quarter)

Essential             In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Knowledge, Skills,                • Describe and sequence the major points in the development of the cell theory.
and Processes                     • Identify the three components of the cell theory.
                                  • Distinguish among the following: cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, cell wall, vacuole, mitochondrion,
                                      endoplasmic reticulum, and chloroplast.
                                  • Correlate the structures of cell organelles with their jobs and analyze how organelles perform particular jobs.
                                  • Compare and contrast examples of plant and animal cell, using the light microscope and images obtained from
                                      microscopes.
                                  • Design an investigation from a testable question related to animal and plant cells. The investigation may be a
                                      complete experimental design or may focus on systemic observation, description, measurement, and/or data
                                      collection and analysis. An example of such a question is: “Do onion cells vary in shape or structure depending
                                      on where they are found in the plant?”
Resources             Glencoe Life Science Text-pg 38-46-Cells
                      Science Saurus-cell division pg 30
                                    -organelles pg 76-78
Supplemental          United Steaming -basic “The living cell” and “Understanding cells” movies and downloadable worksheets for laboratories
                      http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm animated cell models (best if every student has their own computer.)
Resources and         http://www.scienceman.com/pgs/archive15_cellmodels.html instructions and pictures of ideas how to make a cell model
Activities            http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/miracle/divide.html “How cells divide” mitosis and meiosis through flash macromedia

Honors                http://www.cellsalive.com/puzzles/index.htm (Need FLASH) animated interactive animal and plant cell jigsaw puzzles
                      Student designed project
Extension             http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/AEF/1994/hopkins_cells.html building a cell model in cooperative learning pairs,
Activity              includes research based oral presentations



                                                                              5
                                            SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                                              FIRST QUARTER
SOL Number              SOL Objective
LS.3 a, b               The student will investigate and understand that living things show patterns of cellular organization. Key concepts
Osmosis and diffusion   include:
Cellular organization          a. Cells, tissues, organs, and systems.
                               b. Life functions and processes of cells, tissues, organs, and systems (respiration, removal of wastes, growth,
                                    reproduction, digestion, and cellular transport.
Essential Knowledge,    In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Skills, and Processes       • Differentiate between unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms and name common examples of each.
                            • Compare and contrast how unicellular and multicellular organisms perform various life functions. This includes the
                               application of knowledge about systems in organisms.
                            • Compare and contrast the various basic life functions of an organism, including respiration, waste removal, growth,
                               irritability, and reproduction, and explain the role that each life function serves for an organism.
                            •  Model how materials move into and out of cells in the processes of osmosis, diffusion, and active transport. This
                               includes creating and interpreting three-dimensional models and/or illustrations demonstrating the processes involved.
                               Students should be able to analyze the components of these models and diagrams and communicate their observations
                               and conclusions.
                           • Differentiate among cells, tissue, organs, and organs systems.
                           • Analyze and critique the experimental design of basic investigations related to understanding cellular organization,
                               with emphasis on observations of cells and tissue. This analysis and critique should focus on the skills developed in
                               LS.1. Major emphasis should include the following: the clarity of predictions and hypotheses, the organization of
                               data tables, the use of metric measures, adequacy of trials and samples, the identification and use of variables, the
                               identification of constants, the use of controls, displays of graphical data, and the support for conclusions.
Resources               Glenco Life Science Text-pg 74-85-osmosis and diffusionPg 45-46 Cellular organization
Supplemental            United Steaming Video - “Simply Science-Water: Highway of Life” movie showing diffusion and osmosis through a semi-
                        permeable membrane
Resources and           http://www.unitedstreaming.com/ “What is a living thing?”- Introductory movie describing the needs of all living things
Activities              http://www.biologycorner.com/bio1/diffusion.html animation of diffusion and osmosis with descriptions.
Honors Extension        http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/cmb/cells/pmemb/osmosis_eg.html on-line laboratory moving different molecules and predicting
                        direction of osmotic pressure (best if each student or pair has a computer)
Activities               http://biology.arizona.edu/sciconn/lessons/mccandless/tchrinfo.html laboratory studying diffusion using elodea plants (skip red blood cell
                        study)
                        Student research project http://www.sciencefriday.com/kids/sfkc20041217-2.html using organ transplant to study cellular
                        organization
                        Extra – debate the moral issue of cloning and organ farming.

                                                                                     6
                                  SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                                   SECOND QUARTER
SOL Number              SOL Objectives
LS.2d                   The student will investigate and understand that all living things are composed of cells. Key concepts
Meiosis and             include:
Mitosis                           a. Cell division (mitosis and meiosis)

                        In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Essential Knowledge,        • Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis
Skills, and Processes       • Design an investigation from a testable question related to animal and plant cells. The investigation may be a
                                complete experimental design or may focus on systemic observation, description, measurement, and/or data
                                collection and analysis. An example of such a question is: “Do onion cells vary in shape or structure depending
                                on where they are found in the plant?”


Resources               Glencoe Life Science: Chapter 4, Cell Reproduction
                        United Streaming videos
                        Science Saurus p.76-78
Supplemental            Websites: www.cellsalive.com/toc.htm
Resources and           -Students observe slides of onion root tip to identify cells in various stages of mitosis which they will then
                        draw in the correct order of the phases. They will include an explanation of what is occurring in each phase.
Activities
                        -Students create a flip booklet that illustrates a cell undergoing mitosis.
                        -Students make posters demonstrating the differences and similarities between mitosis and meiosis.
Honors Extension -Students create a song, poem, etc, to illustrate the phases of mitosis.
Activities       -Students research cells that reproduce without mitosis (red blood cells, gametes, etc) to contrast and compare
                        methods of cell reproduction. Students will determine effectiveness of each method.




                                                                      7
                                SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007
                                                                SECOND QUARTER
SOL Number           SOL Objectives
LS. 13               The student will investigate and understand that organisms reproduce and transmit genetic information to
                     new generations. Key concepts include:
                         a. The role of DNA
Genetic,
                         b. The functions of genes and chromosomes
Heredity, and            c. Genotypes and phenotypes
DNA                      d. Factors affecting the expression of traits.
                         e. Characteristics that can and cannot be inherited
                         f. Genetic engineering and its application
                         g. Historical contribution and significance of discoveries related to genetics.
Essential            In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Knowledge, Skills,              • Recognize the appearance of DNA as double helix in shape.
and Processes                   • Explain that DNA contains coded instructions that store and pass on genetic information from one
                                   generation to the next.
                                • Demonstrate variation within a single genetic trait.
                                • Explain the necessity of DNA replication for the continuity of life.
                                • Differentiate between characteristics that can be inherited and those that cannot be inherited.
                                • Distinguish between dominant and recessive traits.
                                • Distinguish between genotype and phenotype.
                                • Use Punnett squares to predict the possible combinations of inherited factors resulting from single
                                   trait crosses.
                                • Identify aspects of genetic engineering and supply examples of applications. Evaluate the examples
                                   for possible controversial aspects.
                                • Describe the contributions of Mendel, Franklin, and Watson and Crick to our basic understanding of
                                   genetics.
Resources            Glencoe Life Science: Chapter 4 and Chapter 5, Cell Reproduction and Heredity
                     United Streaming videos
                     Science Saurus P.112-123




                                                                8
                           SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007
Supplemental    Website: www.middleschoolscience.com
Resources and   -DNA Model Construction—Students work in groups to make one half of a DNA strand. They then exchange their
                halves with another group who must complete the strand using the correct nucleotides. A variety of materials can
Activities
                be used for the models.
                http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/activities/extraction - Have students extract DNA from strawberries, split peas,
                their own cheek cells, or other materials available.
                -Internet search on contributions of the scientists who worked to discover DNA. Students can then present the
                material to the class as a report, skit, power point, digital story, web quest, etc.
                -Do lab activities in which students use coins to determine the genetic outcome for various traits. They can use
                human traits and then draw a picture of what that person would look like based on the genes (have an
                accompanying chart to show both genotype and phenotype). This activity can also be done using fictitious
                organisms such as cartoon characters or “aliens.”
                -Students create charts of genetic variety using hand spans, leaves, peanuts, etc as their data base.
Honors          -Research (groups or individual) a topic in genetic study such as recombinant DNA, genetic engineering, cloning,
Extension       genetic disorders, etc. and have classroom presentations. Use a variety of sources for the research, i.e., internet,
                books, magazines, newspapers, etc. Students may choose how they would like to present their findings to the
Activities
                class. (Extension: debate the morality of the issues.)
                -Students research the impact of genetic study on our society, i.e., forensics, agriculture, family planning, etc., and
                determine the efficacy of these practices.




                                                              9
                           SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                             THIRD QUARTER
SOL Number      SOL Objectives
LS. 14          The student will understand that organisms change over time. Key concepts include:
Evolution and       a) The relationships of mutation, adaptation, natural selection, and extinction
                    b) Evidence of evolution of different species in the fossil record.
Adaptations
                    c) How environmental influences, as well as genetic variation can lead to diversity of organisms.
                In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Essential           • Explain how genetic variations in offspring, which leadto variations in successive generations, can result
Knowledge,              from the same two parents.
Skills, and
                    • Describe how changes in the environment can bring about changes in species through natural selection,
Processes
                        adaptation, and extinction.
                    • Describe and explain how fossils are records of organisms and events in the Earth’s history.
                    • Explain the evidence for evolution from a variety of sources of scientific data.
                    • Analyze and evaluate data from investigations on variations within a local population.
                    • Interpret data from simulations that demonstrate selection for a trait belonging to species in various
                        environments.
Resources       Glencoe Life Science, Chapter 6, Adaptations over Time
                Glencoe Life Science Virtual Lab CD
                United Streaming Videos
                Science Saurus
Supplemental    -Students study pictures of animals or actual skeletons (field trip to the Museum of Natural History) to determine
Resources and   which structures may be homologous.
                -Students simulate adaptations over time to a change in environment using models, posters, etc. For example,
Activities
                having an animal adapt to a change in climate.
                -Students study various fossils to determine their relative age using charts in the text or on the internet and relate
                the organisms to modern day forms of life. For example, during which era did clams first appear and how do they
                compare with clams we find today?
                -Students study how birds have adapted different beaks over time to survive in a particular habitat by doing a lab in
                which they use a variety of common tools (pliers, spoons, eye droppers, tweezers, etc.) to simulate the various
                types of bird beaks.
Honors          -Science & Life Issues section on Evolution
Extension       -Select an organism and predict what changes may occur in its development over the next thousand years in
                response to global warming and why these changes would occur.
Activity

                                                             10
                               SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                                     THIRD QUARTER
SOL Number                    SOL Objective
LS. 5                  The student will investigate and understand how organisms can be classified. Key concepts
                       include:
                           a) Distinguishing characteristics among kingdoms of organisms.
Classification
                           b) Distinguishing characteristics of major animal and plant phyla.
                           c) The characteristics of species
Essential Knowledge,   In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Skills, and Processes      • Compare and contrast key features and activities between organisms.
                           • Classify organisms based on physical features.
                           • Arrange organisms in a hierarchy according to similarities and differences in features.
                           • Categorize examples of organism as representatives of the kingdom and recognize that the
                               number of kingdoms is subject to change.
                           • Recognize scientific names as part of a binomial nomenclature.
                           • Recognize examples of major animal phyla.
                           • Recognize examples of major plant phyla (divisions).
Resources              Glencoe Life Science, Chapter 1, section 4, classification of living things.
                       Selected segments of Unit 2 and 3 (Glencoe) which cover plants and animals.
                       Science Saurus 150, 152-163
                       -Students construct mobiles displaying the different kingdoms.
Supplemental Resources -Students use various forms of electronic media to present information on classifying organisms.
and Activities         -Students create a dichotomous key for a group of objects such as shoes, potato chips, peanuts, etc.
                       -Groups within the class become experts on a particular kingdom of organisms and they present their
                       knowledge to the class.
                       -Students create an organism, to include a scientific and common name, which their classmates then
                       classify.
                       -Students collect pictures of several different organisms and classify them as far as they can down the
                       hierarchy of our classification system.



Honors Extension              Science & Life Issues, section on ecology, taxonomy and classification activities
Activities                    Students select one organism on which to do extensive research and present their findings to the class.
                              They may choose to “dress up” as their organisms or use props to better display their information.
                                                                11
                          SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                                  THIRD QUARTER
SOL Number               SOL Objectives
LS. 9                    The student will investigate and understand interactions among populations in a biological community.
                         Key concepts include:
                                a) The relationship among producers, consumers, and decomposers in food webs.
Interactions within a           b) The relationship of predators and prey.
community                       c) Symbiotic relationships
                                d) Niches
Essential Knowledge,     In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Skills, and Processes                • Identify the populations of producers, consumers, and decomposers and describe the roles they
                                        play in their communities.
                                     • Interpret, analyze, and evaluate data from systematic studies and experiments concerning the
                                        interactions of populations in an ecosystem.
                                     • Predict the effect of population changes on the food web of a community.
                                     • Generate predictions based on graphically represented data of competition and cooperation
                                        between populations.
                                     • Generate predictions based on graphically represented data of predator-prey populations.
                                     • Differentiate between the types of symbiosis and explain examples of each.
                                     • Infer the niche of organisms from their physical characteristic
                                     • Design an investigation from a testable question related to interactions among populations.
                                        The investigation may be a complete observation, description, measurement, and/or data
                                        collection and analysis.
Resources                Glencoe Life Science, Chapter 24, Interactions of Life
                         Glencoe Virtual Lab CD
                         United Streaming videos
                         Science Saurus
Supplemental Resources   Project Wild
                         -Students analyze various “ecosystems” such as the classroom, their home, the school, a factory, etc., and
and Activities           demonstrate their knowledge of how organisms interact and live in that environment. They can diagram their
                         ecosystem and chart the information or use some other means to demonstrate their knowledge.
                         -Role play diagram the various aspects that make a community.
Honors Extension         Science & Life Issues, Ecology section, selected activities
                         http://sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.cfm (select grade 6-8, Benchmark 5, choose from “related lessons”)
Activities
                         suggestion – “bird of prey” To help students further understand the predator/prey relationship by researching
                         specific examples of birds (predators) and what they eat to survive (prey).


                                                             12
                                    SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                                              THIRD QUARTER
SOL Number                    SOL Objective
LS. 8                         The student will investigate and understand that interactions exist among members of a population. Key concepts
                              include:
                                       a) Competition, cooperation, social hierarchy, territorial imperative.
Interactions Among                     b) Influence of behavior on a population.
Populations                            c) Observe and identify populations in ecosystems and collect, record, chart, and interpret data concerning The
                                            interactions of these organisms (from observations and print and electronic resources.
                                       d) Analyze and critique the experimental design of basic investigations related to interactions within a population.
                                            This analysis and critique should focus on the skills developed in LS.1.
                              In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Essential Knowledge,                        • Differentiate between the needs of the individual and the needs of a population.
Skills, and Processes                       • Interpret, analyze, and evaluate data from systematic studies and experiments concerning the interactions
                                                 among members of a population.
                                            • Determine the relationship between a population’s position in a food web and the types of interactions seen
                                                 among the individuals of the population.
                                            • Observe and identify populations in ecosystems and collect, record, chart, and interpret data concerning the
                                                 interactions of these organisms ( from observations and print and electronic resources).
                                            • Analyze and critique the experimental design of basic investigations related to interactions within a
                                                 population. This analysis and critique should focus on the skills developed in LS.1. Major emphasis should
                                                 include the following: the clarity of predictions and hypotheses, the organization of data tables, the use of
                                                 metric measures, adequacy of trials and samples, the identification and use of variable, the identification of
                                                 constants, the use of controls, displays of graphical data, and the support for conclusions.
Resources                     Glencoe Life Science, Chapter 24, Interactions of Life
                              Science Saurus
                              United Streaming videos
                              Glencoe Virtual Lab CD
Supplemental Resources and    -Students create food web posters
Activities                    - Using a ball of yarn, have the students form a circle. Each student is a “character” in a food web (sun, rabbit, grass,
                              decomposer, etc.). The ball is tossed in sequential order forming a “web” of energy flow.
                              -Students develop skits to demonstrate their knowledge of food webs (costumes or masks could be used).
                              -Owl pellet lab in which students identify the various animals eaten by the owl and create a food chain using this information.
                              http://www.gould.edu.au/foodwebs/kids_web.htm – interactive food web model
Honors Extension Activities   Science & Life Issues, Ecology section, selected activities
                              -Create a three-dimensional food web environment depicting the transfer of energy from sun to decomposer.




                                                                            13
                           SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007
                                                                THIRD QUARTER
SOL Number              SOL Objective
LS. 10 c                The student will investigate and understand how organisms adapt to biotic and abiotic factors in
                        an ecosystem. Key concepts include:
                                a) Adaptations that enable organisms to survive within a specific ecosystem.
Essential Knowledge,    In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Skills, and Processes           • Observe and describe examples of specific adaptations that organisms have which enable
                                     them to survive in a particular ecosystem.
                                • Analyze specific adaptations of organisms to determine how they help the species survive in
                                     its ecosystem.
                                • Design an investigation from a testable question related to how organisms adapt to biotic and
                                     abiotic factors in ecosystems. The investigation may bea complete experimental design or
                                     may focus on systematic observation, description, measurement, and/or data collection and
                                     analysis.
                                • Analyze and critique the experimental design of basic investigations related to how
                                     organisms adapt to biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems.
Resources               Glencoe Life Science, Chapter 25, The Nonliving Environment
                        United Streaming videos
                        Science Saurus
Supplemental            -Students investigate a local ecosystem and demonstrate their knowledge of organisms adaptations in a
Resources and           written report, poster, skit, etc.
                        -Field trip to Winkler Botanical Preserve or other local area to study an ecosystem
Activities
                        Project Wild
Honors Extension        Science & Life Issues, Ecology section, selected activities
Activities              Students design a section of the zoo, deciding which plants, animals, and abiotic factors are present in
                        their area.




                                                           14
                             SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                               THIRD QUARTER
SOL Number              SOL Objective
LS. 12a,b,c,d           The student will investigate and understand the relationships between ecosystem dynamics and
                        human activity. Key concepts include:
Dynamics of an              a) Food production and harvest.
                            b) Change in habitat size, quality or structure.
Ecosystem
                            c) Change in species competition.
                            d) Population disturbances and factors that threaten or enhance species survival.
Essential Knowledge,    In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Skills, and Processes       • Identify examples of ecosystem dynamics.
                            • Describe the relationship between human food harvest and the ecosystem.
                            • Debate the pros and cons of human land use versus ecosystem stability.
                            • Compare and contrast population disturbances that threaten and those that enhance species
                               survival.
                            • Design an investigation from a testable question related to the relationships between ecosystem
                               dynamics and human activity. The investigation may be a complete experimental design or may
                               focus on systematic observation, description, measurement, and/or data collection and analysis.
                            • Analyze and critique the experimental design of basic investigations related to the relationships
                               between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.

Resources               Glencoe Life Science, Chapter 26, Ecosystems and Chapter 27, Conserving Resources
                        Project Wild
                        United Streaming Videos
Supplemental            -Study foods found in a grocery store (field trip or independent study) and have students research how the
Resources and           food is farmed. Report on how agriculture has an impact on ecosystems and habitats: students could
                        write about the pros and cons of modern day agricultural practices.
Activities
                        Students create their own games to demonstrate their knowledge of species competition, predator/prey
                        relationships, or environmental issues.
Honors Extension        - http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/finiteoceans Research materials about water
Activities              ecosystems and factors that contribute to their pollution or destruction
                        -Science & Life Issues, Ecology section, selected activities
                        -Do an in depth study and analysis of a change taking place in our local area.



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                                 SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                                FOURTH QUARTER
SOL Number           SOL Objective
LS.6                 The student will investigate and understand. Key concepts include:
Plants                      a) Energy transfer between sunlight and chlorophyll.
Photosynthesis              b) Transformation of water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen.
                            c) Photosynthesis as the foundation of virtually all food webs.
Food webs
                     In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Essential                       • Describe the process of photosynthesis in terms of raw materials and products generated.
Knowledge, Skills,              • Identify and describe the organelles involved in the process of photosynthesis
and Processes                   • Explain how organisms utilize the energy stored from the products of photosynthesis.
                                • Relate the importance of photosynthesis to the role of producers as the foundation of food
                                   webs.
                                • Design an investigation from a testable question related to photosynthesis. The investigation
                                   may be a complete experimental design or may focus on systematic observation, description,
                                   measurement, and/or data collection and analysis.
                                • Analyze and critique the experimental design of basic investigations related to
                                   photosynthesis. This analysis and critique should focus on the skills developed in LS.1.
                                   Major emphasis should include the following: the clarity of predictions and hypotheses, the
                                   organization of data tables, the use of metric measures, adequacy of trials and samples, the
                                   identification and use of variables, the identification of constants, the use of controls,
                                   displays, of graphical data, and the support for conclusions.
Resources            Glencoe Life Science – Chapter 9, 10, 11
                     Science Saurus- Plant physiology - page 107
                                      Plant life cycles – page 10
Supplemental         http://www.plt.org/cms/pages/21_21_140.html – Project Learning Tree “Tree Cookies”
                     http://www.fastplants.org - Wisconsin Fast Plants “Activities”
Resources and
                     http://pulse.pharmacy.arizona.edu/10th_grade/dawn_new/science/sugar_carb.html – “Sugar and carbohydrates,
Activities           protein, fat and water - that’s what little plants are made of!”
honors extension     Science and Life Issues – Ecology Unit - E87, E109, E127
                     Student design project:
activity             http://www.bottlebiology.org – Bottle Biology –(using an old bottle) design a terrarium using real plants to
                     experiment with plants. Students will experiment using variables such as water, light, carbon dioxide, soil, salinity,
                     etc. on the effects of plants.

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                                  SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                                  FOURTH QUARTER
SOL Number           SOL Objective
LS.7                 The student will investigate and understand that organisms within an ecosystem are dependent on one
Ecosystems           another and on nonliving components of the environment. Key concepts include:
Cycles
                               a) The carbon, water, and nitrogen cycles.
Populations                    b) Interactions resulting in a flow of energy and matter throughout the system.
Food webs                      c) Complex relationships within terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems.
                               d) Energy flow in food webs and energy pyramids.
                     In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Essential
                                 • Observe and identify common organisms in ecosystems and collect, record, and chart data concerning
Knowledge, Skills,                  the interactions of these organisms (from observations and print and electronic resources)
and Processes                    • Classify organisms found in local ecosystems as producers or first-, second-, or third-order
                                    consumers. Design and construct models of food webs with these organisms.
                                 • Observe local ecosystems and identify, measure, and classify the living and nonliving components.
                                 • Differentiate among key processes in the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles and analyze how
                                    organisms, from bacteria and fungi to third-order consumers, function in these cycles.
                                 • Determine the relationship between a population’s position in a food web and its size.
                                 • Identify examples of interdependence in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems.
                                 • Apply the concepts of food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids to analyze how energy and
                                    matter flow through an ecosystem.
                                 • Design an investigation from a testable question related to food webs. The investigation may ba a
                                    complete experimental design or may focus on systematic observation, description, measurement,
                                    and/or data collection and analysis.
                                 • Analyze and critique the experimental design of basic investigations related to food webs.
Resources            Glencoe Life Science – Chapter 24 (section 1 and 3), Chapter 25
                     Science Saurus- Ecosystems 129-136
Supplemental         Project Wild Resource book “Move Over Rover”
                     United Streaming Videos “Cycles” www.unitedstreaming.com
Resources and        http://www.sciencebuddies.org/mentoring/project_ideas/PlantBio_p012.shtml?from=Home –Nitrogen Fertilizer experiment
Activities           http://www.promotega.org/ksu30002/carbon_exp.htm – Carbon Cycle experiments

honors extension     Science and Life Issues – Ecology Unit – E75, E87, E95,
                     Research Activity:
activity
                     http://www-k12.atmos.washington.edu/k12/pilot/water_cycle/grabber2.html – “Olympic Peninsula Rain Forest” – How
                     does a temperate rain forest differ from a tropical rain forest? What effect do the mountains have on rainfall in the
                     region?
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                                   SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                               FOURTH QUARTER
SOL Number               SOL Objective
LS.10ab                  The student will investigate and understand how organisms adapt to biotic and abiotic factors in an
Ecosystems               ecosystem. Key concepts include:
Biomes
                                a) Differences between ecosystems and biomes
Biotic/Abiotic factors          b) Characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater ecosystems.
                         In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Essential                           • Differentiate between ecosystems and biomes.
Knowledge, Skills,                  • Recognize and give examples of major biomes: desert, forest, grassland, and tundra.
and Processes                       • Compare and contrast the biotic and abiotic characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater
                                       ecosystems.
                                    • Design an investigation from a testable question related to how organisms adapt to biotic and
                                       abiotic factors in an ecosystem. The investigation may be a complete experimental design or
                                       may focus on systematic observation, description, measurement, and/or data collection and
                                       analysis.
                                    • Analyze and critique the experimental design of basic investigations related to how
                                       organisms adapt to biotic and abiotic factors in ecosystems.
Resources                Glencoe Life Science – Chapter 26
                         Science Saurus- Biomes p.141-149

Supplemental             Project Wild “Time Lapse”, “Ecosystem Facelift”
Resources and            http://www.cbf.org - Chesapeake Bay Foundation; schedule field trips, resource guides, speakers, etc.
                         http://www.alexandriaseaport.org/WebPage4/Programs/ASF.htm – planting aquatic grasses
Activities
                         http://www.nfwf.org – National Fish and Wildlife Foundation; schedule field trips, resource guides,
                         speakers, etc
                         Winkler Botanical Preserve – Field Trip

honors extension Science and Life Issues – Ecology Unit –E29
activity         Extended Research and Design Project:
                         http://www.dgif.state.va.us/wildlifemapping/index.cfm – Wildlife Mapping –design and measure wildlife
                         around a common location (schoolyard.) Identify species, count, graph, map and report.


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                                 SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                                FOURTH QUARTER
SOL Number           SOL Objective
LS.11              The student will investigate and understand that ecosystems, communities, populations, and
Causes for change, organisms are dynamic and change over time (daily, seasonal, and long term). Key concepts include
Tropism, and
Disturbances              a) Phototropism, hibernation, and dormancy
                            b) Factors that increase or decrease population size.
                            c) Eutrophication, climate changes, and catastrophic disturbances.
Essential            In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Knowledge, Skills,               • Relate the responses of organisms to daily, seasonal, or long-term events.
and Processes                    • Differentiate between ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms.
                                 • Compare and contrast the factors that increase or decrease population size.
                                 • Predict the effect of large scale changes on ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms.
                                 • Classify the various types of changes that occur over time in ecosystems, communities, population,
                                    and organisms.
                                 • Design an investigation from a testable question related to change over time in ecosystems,
                                    communities, populations, or organisms. The investigation may be a complete experimental design or
                                    may focus on systematic observation, description, measurement, and/or data collection and analysis.
                                 • Analyze and critique the experimental design of basic investigations related to change over time in
                                    ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms.

Resources            Glencoe Life Science – Chapter 11 (section 2), chapter 16 (section 2), chapter 24 (sections 2)

Supplemental         Project Wild Resource book “Oh Deer”,
                     http://www.fastplants.org - Wisconsin Fast Plants “Activities” – use the same plants started earlier in the year to test
Resources and        tropism.
Activities           Cooperative Group Activity- each group selects a catastrophic disturbance and charts the impact on a population over
                     time. (resource Project Wild “oh deer”)
                     http://www.cbf.org - Chesapeake Bay Foundation; eutrophication speakers, guests, fieldtrips, etc.
honors extension     Science and Life Issues – E139, E147, and E163
                     http://ei.cornell.edu/watersheds/Eutrophication_Experiments.pdf – test the theory of eutrophication using pond water
activity             and fertilizer to observe algae bloom and turbidity.
                     Outdoor Testing and Fieldtrip:http://www.cbf.org - Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Study the Potomac and Bay
                     to determine the cause of eutrophication. Visit the Potomac and conduct water testing. (If fieldtrip is not
                     possible; collect water and test in the classrooms.)


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                               SEVENTH GRADE PACING GUIDE 2006-2007

                                                            FOURTH QUARTER
SOL Number           SOL Objective
LS.12e               The student will investigate and understand the relationships between ecosystem dynamics and
Environmental        human activity. Key concepts include:
Issues                      e) Environmental issues (water supply, air quality, energy production, and waste management).


                     In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to:
Essential                       • Describe ways that human interactions has altered habitats positively and negatively.
Knowledge, Skills,              • Observe the effect of human interaction in local ecosystems and collect, record, chart, and
and Processes                      interpret data concerning the effect of interaction (from observations and print and electronic
                                   resources.
                                • Design an investigation from a testable question related to the relationships between
                                   ecosystem dynamics and human activity. The investigation may be a complete experimental
                                   design or may focus on systematic observation, description, measurement, and/or data
                                   collection and analysis.
                                • Analyze and critique the experimental design of basic investigations related to the
                                   relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity,.

Resources            Glencoe Life Science – Chapter 27

Supplemental     http://minerals.state.nv.us/forms/educ/CookieMining.pdf – “Cookie Mining”- effects of coal mining
Resources and    Project Wild – section on Human Impacts
                 http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/finiteoceans – “Pollution Solutions”- understanding the
Activities
                 treats to water ecosystems.
                 United Steaming Videos “global warming”
honors extension Science and Life Issues – E177 and E183
activity         Extended Action Project:
                 http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/biomes_sea – “Threat of the Sea” Students will
                     • discuss the causes and effects of global warming; and
                     • create posters designed to make people see global warming as an urgent issue.
                     • Debate the pros and cons of the global warming issues.
                 (Note: use United Streaming as introductory video noted in Procedure number one.)

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