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Oklahoma!

Oklahoma!
Oklahoma!

Original Broadway Cast Album Music Lyrics Book Based upon Productions Richard Rodgers Oscar Hammerstein II Oscar Hammerstein II Lynn Riggs’ play Green Grow the Lilacs 1943 1947 1951 1955 1979 1980 1998 2002 Broadway West End Broadway revival Film Broadway revival West End revival West End revival Broadway revival

performances, later enjoying award-winning revivals, national tours, foreign productions and an Academy Award-winning 1955 film adaptation. It has long been a popular choice for school and community productions.[1] This musical, building on the innovations of the earlier Show Boat, epitomized the development of the "book musical", a musical play where the songs and dances are fully integrated into a well-made story, with serious dramatic goals, that is able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter.[2] In addition, Oklahoma! features musical themes, or motifs, that recur throughout the work to connect the music and story more closely than any musical ever had before.[3] A special Pulitzer Prize was awarded to Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II for Oklahoma! in the category of "Special Awards And Citations - Letters" in 1944.[4]

Background
In 1931, the Theatre Guild produced Lynn Riggs’s Green Grow the Lilacs, a play about settlers in Oklahoma’s Indian Territory. Though the play was not successful, ten years later in 1941, Theresa Helburn, one of the Guild’s producers, saw a summer-stock production supplemented with traditional folk songs and square dances and decided the play could be the basis of a musical that might revive the struggling Guild. She contacted Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, whose first successful collaboration, The Garrick Gaieties, had been produced by the Theatre Guild in 1925. Though Rodgers wanted to work on the project, Hart refused and embarked on a vacation to Mexico. Rodgers then asked Oscar Hammerstein II to collaborate with him. Jerome Kern had previously declined Hammerstein’s offer to work on a musical version of Green Grow The Lilacs, and Hammerstein eagerly agreed to work with Rodgers on such a project.[5] At the time, roles in musicals were usually filled by actors who could sing, but Rodgers and Hammerstein chose the reverse, casting singers who could act. As a result, there were also no stars in the production, another

Awards

1993 Special Tony Award (50th Anniversary)

Oklahoma! is the first musical written by composer Richard Rodgers and librettist Oscar Hammerstein II. The musical is based on Lynn Riggs’ 1931 play, Green Grow the Lilacs. Set in Oklahoma Territory outside the town of Claremore in 1906, it tells the story of cowboy Curly McLain and his romance with farm girl Laurey Williams. A secondary romance concerns flirtatious Ado Annie and her long-suffering fiancé Will Parker. The original Broadway production opened on March 31, 1943. It was a box-office smash and ran for an unprecedented 2,212

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unusual step. The production was choreographed by Agnes de Mille (her first time choreographing a musical on Broadway), who provided one of the show’s most notable and enduring features: a 15-minute first-act ballet finale (often referred to as the dream ballet) depicting Laurey’s struggle to evaluate her suitors, Jud and Curly. The first title given to the work was Away We Go! which opened for out-of-town-tryouts in New Haven’s Shubert Theatre during March 1943.[6] Only a few changes were made before it opened on Broadway, but two would prove significant: the addition of the show-stopping musical number, Oklahoma! and the decision to retitle the musical after that number.

Oklahoma!
loves them both ("I Cain’t Say No"). Laurey and her friends prepare for the social, while Gertie flirts with Curly (her obnoxious laugh floating in to taunt Laurey). "Many a New Day" is Laurey’s response to her friend’s worry that she’s overcome by Curly and Gertie’s flirtation; her vain attempt to assure them she doesn’t really care for him. Ado Annie’s father, Andrew Carnes, discovers her with Ali Hakim. After questioning Ado Annie about her relationship with the peddler, he forces Hakim at gunpoint to agree to marry Ado Annie. Hakim and the other men conclude that "It’s a Scandal! It’s a Outrage!" Curly discovers that Laurey is going to the box social with Jud and tries to convince her to go with him instead. Afraid to tell Jud she won’t go with him, Laurey playfully warns Curly off ("People Will Say We’re In Love"). Hurt by her refusal, Curly goes to the smokehouse where Jud lives, and Curly suggests that since Jud does not feel appreciated, he could hang himself and everyone would realize how much they care about him ("Pore Jud is Daid"). Their talk turns into an ominous confrontation, punctuated by alarming but harmless gunplay. Once Curly departs, Jud’s resolve to win Laurey becomes even stronger – he is tired of being on his own in his "Lonely Room". Confused by her feelings for Curly and her fear of Jud, Laurey purchases a potion from Ali Hakim guaranteed to reveal her true love. She muses on leaving her dreams of love behind and joining the man she loves ("Out of My Dreams"), then falls asleep under the influence of the potion ("Dream Ballet"). She first dreams of what marriage to Curly would be like. Her dream takes a nightmarish turn when Jud kills Curly, and she cannot escape him, confused by her desires. The dream makes her realize that Curly is the right man for her, but it is too late to change her mind about going to the dance with Jud; he has come for her, and they leave for the box social.

Plot
Act I
In Oklahoma territory in 1906, cowboy Curly McLain looks forward to the beautiful day ahead as he wanders into farmgirl Laurey Williams’s yard ("Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin’"). He and Laurey tease each other, while Laurey’s Aunt Eller looks on. There will be a box social dance that night, which includes an auction of lunch baskets prepared by the local girls (to raise funds for a schoolhouse). The man who wins each lunch basket will eat the lunch with the girl who prepared it. Curly asks Laurey to go with him, but she refuses. He attempts to persuade her by telling her that he will take her in the finest carriage money can buy, "The Surrey With The Fringe On Top", but she teases him about it until he says he made it up to get back at her, and Laurey flounces off, not realizing that Curly really does own such a rig. The sinister and dark-hearted farm hand Jud Fry has set his sights on Laurey and asks her to the dance. She accepts to spite Curly, despite being afraid of Jud. Meanwhile, cowboy Will Parker returns bedazzled and souvenir-laden from a trip to modern "Kansas City". He won $50 at the fair, which, according to his girlfriend Ado Annie’s father, is the money he needs to marry Ado Annie. Unfortunately, he spent all the money on gifts for her. Ado Annie confesses to Laurey that while he’s been away, she has been spending a lot of time with Ali Hakim, a Persian peddler. Laurey tells her she’ll have to choose between them, but Ado Annie insists she

Act II
At the social, the menfolk join in an upbeat barn dance. A rivalry between the local farmers and cowboys over fences and water rights has led to tension. Both sides state the merits of their way of life, while Aunt Eller tries – and eventually succeeds – in getting them to make peace ("The Farmer and the Cowman").

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Character Curly McLain Description A cowboy in love with Laurey Notable performers

Oklahoma!

Alfred Drake°, Howard Keel, Hugh Jackman, Patrick Wilson, Laurence Guittard, Gordon Macrae Joan Roberts°, Christine Andreas, Shirley Jones Howard Da Silva°, Shuler Hensley, Alfred Molina, Rod Steiger Betty Garde°, Mary Wickes, Andrea Martin, Patty Duke, Maureen Lipman Celeste Holm°, Shelley Winters, Christine Ebersole, Jessica Boevers

Laurey Williams Jud Fry Aunt Eller

Aunt Eller’s niece, an independent young woman A hired hand on Aunt Eller’s ranch, a mysterious and dangerous loner Laurey’s aunt, a respected community leader

Ado Annie Carnes A flirtatious, gullible young woman Will Parker Andrew Carnes Ali Hakim

A simple young man in love with Ado Lee Dixon°, Harry Groener Annie Ado Annie’s father, eager to have her marry Ralph Riggs°

A Persian peddler, enamored of Ado Joseph Buloff°, Peter Polycarpou, Annie Eddie Albert and proposes to her, and she accepts ("People Will Say We’re In Love" (Reprise)). Three weeks later, a drunken Jud reappears the morning after Curly and Laurey’s wedding. He attacks Curly with a knife. As Curly dodges a blow, Jud falls on his own knife and dies on the spot. At Aunt Eller’s urging, the wedding guests hold a makeshift trial for Curly. The judge, Ado Annie’s father, declares the verdict: "not guilty!" and everyone rejoices ("Oklahoma!") in celebration of the territory’s impending statehood. After more rejoicing, Curly and Laurey depart on their honeymoon in the surrey with the fringe on top.

Laurey is upset when she sees Curly at the dance with Gertie Cummings, a silly girl with an obnoxious laugh. The auction starts out frivolously but becomes much more serious when Laurey’s basket comes up for auction. Jud has saved all his money for months so he can win Laurey’s basket. Curly is so determined to outbid Jud that he sells his prized possessions: his saddle, his horse, and even his gun; without these, Curly can no longer be a cowboy and will have to become a farmer. Curly outbids Jud and wins the basket. Will bids $50 on Ado Annie’s basket in hopes of getting her for a wife, but without the $50, he no would longer have the money her father insisted he needs to "purchase" marriage with Ado Annie. Desperate to be rid of Ado Annie, the peddler bids $51 and gets the basket so that Will can approach Andrew Carnes with his $50 and claim Ado Annie as his bride. Later that night, Will and Annie work out their differences ("All Er Nuthin’"). Jud confronts Laurey about his feelings for her. When she admits that she doesn’t return them, he threatens her. She then fires him as her farm hand, screaming at him to get off of her property. Jud furiously threatens Laurey before he departs. Laurey bursts into tears and calls for Curly. She tells him that she has fired Jud and is frightened by what Jud might do now. Curly, seeing that she has turned to him for guidance and safety, reassures her

Principal roles and notable performers
° denotes original Broadway cast

Musical numbers
Act I Act II • Overture • Entr’acte Orchestra Orchestra • Oh What a • The Farmer and Beautiful Mornin’ the Cowman - Curly Andrew Carnes, • Laurey’s Entrance Aunt Eller, Curly, - Laurey & Curly Gertie Cummins, Will Parker, Ado

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• The Surrey With the Fringe On Top - Curly, Laurey, & Aunt Eller • Kansas City - Will, Aunt Eller, Male Ensemble • I Cain’t Say No Ado Annie • Entrance of Ensemble (Oh What a Beautiful Mornin’ and I Cain’t Say No) Will, Ado Annie, Curley, Aunt Eller, Ensemble • Many a New Day Laurey and Girl ensemble • It’s a Scandal! It’s a Outrage! - Ali Hakim and Ensemble • People Will Say We’re in Love Curly and Laurey • Pore Jud is Daid Curly and Jud Fry • Lonely Room - Jud • Out of My Dreams/Dream Ballet - Laurey and Dream Figures Annie Carnes, Laurey, Ike Skidmore, Cord Elam and Ensemble All Er Nuthin’ Will and Ado Annie People Will Say We’re in Love (Reprise) - Curly and Laurey Oklahoma - Curly, Laurey, Aunt Eller and Ensemble Finale Ultimo (Oh What a Beautiful Mornin’ and People Will Say We’re in Love) Company

Oklahoma!
a ten-year national tour, setting yet another record. London premiere Oklahoma! was the first of a post-war wave of Broadway musicals to reach London. It starred Howard Keel (then known as Harold Keel), opening at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane on April 30, 1947 to rave press reviews and sellout houses, running for 1,543 performances.[7] A pre-London run opened a day late at the Manchester Opera House on April 18, 1947, after the ship carrying the cast, scenery, and costumes ran aground on a sandbank off Southampton.[8] 1951 revival A 1951 revival opened at The Broadway Theatre on May 9, 1951, and ran for 100 performances. Ridge Bond played Curley, Patricia Northrop played Laurey, Henry Clarke was Jud, and Jacqueline Sundt played Ado Annie. 1979 Broadway revival A 1979 revival played at the Palace Theatre, with nine previews beginning on December 6, 1979. The show opened on December 13, 1979 and closed on August 24, 1980, running for 293 performances. William Hammerstein (Oscar’s son) directed, and Gemze de Lappe recreated Agnes De Mille’s choreography. The show starred Christine Andreas as Laurey, Laurence Guittard as Curly, Mary Wickes as Aunt Eller, Christine Ebersole as Ado Annie, and Harry Groener (who garnered various awards and nominations for his performance) as Will Parker. This production started as a cross-country national tour, beginning at the Pantages Theater in Los Angeles on May 1, 1979. Tour sites include Washington D.C.’s Kennedy Center and Oklahoma City. 1980 British revivals William Hammerstein revived his 1979 Broadway staging in England with a new production at the Haymarket Theatre, Leicester, in 1980. A UK tour followed, produced by Emile Littler and Cameron Mackintosh. It moved to London, opening at the Palace Theatre, London, on September 17, 1980, and running until September 19, 1981. John Diedrich was nominated for an Olivier Award for Best Actor in a musical, and Alfred Molina was nominated for an Olivier as Most Promising Newcomer. The original cast recording was released by Stiff Records in 1980, catalogue OAK1.[9] 1998 West End production

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Productions
The original Broadway production opened on March 31, 1943 at the St. James Theatre in New York City. It was directed by Rouben Mamoulian and starred Alfred Drake (Curly), Joan Roberts (Laurey), Celeste Holm (Ado Annie), Howard Da Silva (Jud Fry), Betty Garde (Aunt Eller), Lee Dixon (Will Parker) and Joseph Bullof (Ali Hakim). Marc Platt danced the role of "Dream Curly", and Katharine Sergava danced the part of "Dream Laurey". Choreographer Agnes de Mille originally wanted comedian Groucho Marx to play the part of Ali Hakim, but after Rodgers objected, the production team cast Bullof. The production was a box-office smash and ran for an unprecedented 2,212 performances. It finally closed on May 29, 1948 and was followed by

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Oklahoma!
featured Patrick Wilson as Curly and Andrea Martin as Aunt Eller. This revival was wellreceived and won special praise for its innovative and evocative stage sets. It was nominated for seven Tony Awards, and Shuler Hensley won the award for Best Featured Actor in a Musical. The show was also nominated for nine Drama Desk Awards, with Hensley winning as Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical and Susan Stroman winning for choreography. 2006 Japan production In 2006 Oklahoma! was performed in Japan by the all-female Takarazuka Revue. This revival starred Yuu Todoroki, Ai Shirosaki, and Hiromu Kiriya.

Original cast recording
Most of the songs from Oklahoma! were released as box set by Decca Records in 1943 containing six 10-inch double-sided discs in 78 RPM format. It was designated as Decca Album 359 and was one of the first original cast albums ever released. The box set sold over a million copies, prompting the label to call the cast back into the studio to record three additional selections that had been left out of the first set. These were issued as Decca Album 383, Oklahoma! Volume Two. In 1949, Decca re-released the first set on LP but not the second set, which soon became a very rare collectors’ item. All subsequent LP releases were similarly incomplete. Finally in 2000, Decca Broadway went back to the original glass masters to generate a new high fidelity transfer of the complete song program and released it on CD, utilizing the original 78 album artwork. The success of the original Oklahoma! cast album led to many more recordings by the original casts, such as Ethel Merman in Annie Get Your Gun, Mary Martin and Ezio Pinza in South Pacific, and Rex Harrison and Julie Andrews in My Fair Lady. Later cast recordings of Oklahoma! were made of the 1979 Broadway revival and the 1998 London production. There have also been studio cast recordings starring Nelson Eddy and John Raitt, as well as a film soundtrack album featuring the cast of the 1955 movie version.

Hugh Jackman on the cover of the DVD of the London revival A new production of the musical was presented by the National Theatre in London at the Olivier Theatre in 1998. It was directed by Trevor Nunn and choreographed by Susan Stroman. In the cast were Maureen Lipman (Aunt Eller), Jimmy Johnston (Will Parker), Josefina Gabrielle (Laurey Williams), Shuler Hensley (Jud Fry), Vicki Simon (Ado Annie), Peter Polycarpou (Ali Hakim) and Hugh Jackman (Curly McLain) in his British stage debut. The limited engagement was a sell-out and broke all previous box office records,[10] and so the show was transferred to the Lyceum Theatre in London’s West End for a six-month run. Plans to transfer to Broadway with the London cast were thwarted by Actors’ Equity, which insisted on American actors. The production was filmed and issued on DVD, and it garnered a number of Olivier Awards and nominations. 2002 Broadway production Several years later, the National Theatre production opened on Broadway at the George Gershwin Theatre on March 21, 2002, and ran for 388 performances. Only two of the London cast, Josefina Gabrielle and Shuler Hensley, were in the production, which also

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Oklahoma!
• Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical Justin Bohon, Shuler Hensley () • Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical - Andrea Martin (nomination) • Outstanding Choreography - Susan Stroman () • Outstanding Director of a Musical - Trevor Nunn (nomination) • Outstanding Set Design of a Musical Anthony Ward (nomination) • Outstanding Lighting Design - David Hersey (nomination)

Awards and nominations
1947 Theatre World Award: Dorothea MacFarland 1980 Tony Award nominations • Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical Christine Andreas • Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Musical - Harry Groener 1980 Theatre World Award: Theatre World Award - Harry Groener 1980 Drama Desk Award nominations: for Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical Harry Groener and Martin Vidnovic 1993 Special Tony Award: Oklahoma! (50th Anniversary) 1998 Critics’ Circle Theatre Award: for Best Musical - Oklahoma! 1998 Evening Standard Award: for Best Musical - Oklahoma! 1999 Laurence Olivier Awards • Best Performance in a Supporting Role in a Musical - Shuler Hensley • Outstanding Musical Production Oklahoma! • Best Theatre Choreographer - Susan Stroman • Best Set Designer - Anthony Ward 2002 Tony Award and nominations • Tony Award for Best Revival of a Musical Produced by Cameron Mackintosh; Originally produced by the Royal National Theatre (Trevor Nunn, Director) (nomination) • Tony Award for Best Actor in a Musical Patrick Wilson (nomination) • Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Musical - Shuler Hensley (WINNER) • Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical - Andrea Martin (nomination) • Tony Award for Best Lighting Design David Hersey (nomination) • Tony Award for Best Choreography Susan Stroman (nomination) • Tony Award for Best Direction of a Musical - Trevor Nunn (nomination) 2002 Theatre World Award: Justin Bohon (WINNER) 2002 Drama Desk Awards and nominations • Outstanding Revival of a Musical Produced by Cameron Mackintosh (nomination) • Outstanding Actor in a Musical - Patrick Wilson (nomination)

Cultural references
• In the mid-1940s, radio comedian Fred Allen parodied "Surrey With the Fringe on Top" by changing the lyrics and retitling the tune "Union Suit with the Hinge on the Back." The parody was so well received that it was repeated on subsequent programs. • The title song became the official state song of Oklahoma in 1953. (Oklahoma became a state on November 16, 1907.) • The songs "Oh What a Beautiful Mornin’" and "Oklahoma!" were spoofed in the animated film South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut. One of the spoofs is the song "Uncle Fucka", which parodies the spelled-out O-K-L-A-H-O-M-A of the musical’s title song. A similar spoof is heard in the musical Curtains. • In the The Simpsons episode "Milhouse of Sand and Fog", the character Milhouse briefly imagines himself and Bart singing "The Farmer and the Cowman". • Sesame Street featured a Muppet named Forgetful Jones singing the title song from "Oklahoma!" but forgetting how it began, trying "Aaaaaa-klahoma", "Eeeeeeklahoma" and "Iiiiii-klahoma". • A Tiny Toon Adventures episode called "Ducklahoma" is a spoof of "Oklahoma" directed by Buster Bunny involving many anvils. • In the Fawlty Towers episode "Gourmet Night", Polly serenades the guests with a rendition of "I Cain’t Say No". • In an episode of Band of Brothers, Captain Nixon mentions that Oklahoma! was still on Broadway, causing the soldiers to break out in song. • In The West Wing second season episode "17 People", Joshua Lyman refers to

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Donna Moss as Ado Annie during their argument about his buying her flowers. On an episode of The Muppet Show, a spoof of "Oklahoma" was performed by large Muppets dressed as Samurai warriors and was titled "Yokohama". The song was interrupted several times by Fozzie Bear, dressed as a cowboy, singing "Oklahoma". In an episode of The Brak Show, the characters perform a musical merger of Psycho and Oklahoma! called, "Psychoklahoma," featuring similar songs as those from Oklahoma!, but following the plot from Psycho. In the film When Harry Met Sally..., Harry and Sally are singing a karaoke version of "Surrey With the Fringe on Top" when Harry’s ex-wife walks into the store with her new husband. In the movie Twister, Beltzer is heard singing the title tune of "Oklahoma!" when he is introduced toward the beginning of the movie. On an episode of Friends, when Chandler accidentally accepts a job in Oklahoma, his wife Monica says that she does not want to move to Oklahoma or see the musical Oklahoma!. Chandler responds by listing the songs from the musical, which makes Monica ask if he is telling her he got a job in Oklahoma or if he’s telling her he’s gay. In an episode of the children’s cartoon Fairly Oddparents, Timmy is blown onto a stage where there are auditions for a musical called ’North Dakota’. The very short audition piece is similar to the song ’Oklahoma!’, from the musical. Uniform, Jerry Seinfeld’s first Superman webisode commercial for American Express in 1998, featured a musical theatrical spoof, "Oh, Yes! Wyoming!" In the December 31, 2008 episode of The Rachel Maddow Show, comedian Kent Jones sang "Minnesota" to the tune of "Oklahoma!". In the NBC series The Office, Dwight Schrute is quoyed saying "Yes I have acted before. I was in a production of "Oklahoma!" in the 7th grade. I played the part of Mutey the Mailman. They had too many kids so they made up roles like that. I was good." On an episode of "Will & Grace", Jack is hiding from the gay mafia and Will finds

Oklahoma!
him in a bar, Jack says: "Toby’s meeting me here. He borrowed his mother’s Caprice and he’s gonna smuggle me to Oklahoma." Will answers: "You’re going to Oklahoma?" and Jack says: "Yes. The matinee." • In the movie Dave, the title character is riding his bicycle home singing the title song from Oklahoma!

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Notes
[1] TIME magazine reported in its May 26, 2008 issue, p. 51, that Oklahoma! tied (with Bye Bye Birdie) as the eighth most frequently produced musical by U.S. high schools in 2007. [2] The Cambridge Companion to the Musical, William A. Everett and Paul R. Laird eds., Chapter by Thomas L. Riis with Ann Sears and William A. Everett, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 0 521 79189 8, p. 137 [3] Wilk, Max. OK! The Story of Oklahoma!: A Celebration of America’s Most Beloved Musical. Rev. ed. New York: Applause Books, 2002. ISBN 1-557-83555-1 [4] Information from the Pulitzer.org website [5] Kantor and Malson, pp. 196-202 [6] Information from Capa.com [7] Who’s Who in the Theatre, 11th edition, 1952. See also The Times review, May 1, 1947. [8] Chronicle of the 20th Century, entry for April 14, 1947: "Southampton, The luxury liner RMS Queen Elizabeth runs aground." See also article by Dr Anthony Field in The Stage newspaper, January 9, 1997. [9] Information about 1980 British production, including a full cast list [10] Interview with Hensley regarding the 1998 London production

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References
• Kantor, Michael and Maslon, Laurence. Broadway: The American Musical. New York:Bullfinch Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8212-2905-2

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External links
• Oklahoma! at the Internet Broadway Database

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• Information from the Theatre History website • RNH Theatricals site • Information from the NODA website

Oklahoma!
• Information from the Musical Heaven website • PBS article on Oklahoma!

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oklahoma!" Categories: 1943 musicals, Broadway musicals, Olivier Award winning musicals, West End musicals, Rodgers and Hammerstein musicals, Musicals based on plays, Western (genre) plays This page was last modified on 13 May 2009, at 11:45 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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