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Lindbergh kidnapping

Lindbergh kidnapping
The Crime
At 9:00 pm on March 1, 1932, the nursemaid, Betty Gow, put 20-month-old Charles Lindbergh Jr. in his crib. She then proceeded to pin the blanket covering him with two large safety pins so as to prevent it from moving while he slept. At around 9:30 p.m., Col. Lindbergh heard a noise that made him think some slats had fallen off an orange crate in the kitchen. At 10:00 p.m., Miss Gow discovered that the baby was missing from his crib. She in turn went to ask Mrs. Lindbergh, who was just coming out of the bath, if she had the baby with her. After not finding Charles Lindbergh Jr. with his mother, the nurse-maid then proceeded down stairs to speak with Mr. Lindbergh, who was in the library/study just beneath the baby’s nursery room in the southeast corner of the house. Charles Lindbergh then proceeded up to the nursery to see for himself that his son was not in fact in his crib. While surveying the room, he discovered a white envelope had been left on the radiator that formed the window sill. Mr. Lindbergh proceeded to locate his Springfield rifle and search the rest of the house looking for intruders. Within 30 minutes the local police were en route to the house, as well as the media and Mr. Lindbergh’s attorney. There was a single distinguished footprint and indentations discovered a short time later just below the window in the mud due to the rainy and blustery conditions that day and into the evening. After the authorities arrived on scene and began to search the immediate area surrounding the house, a short distance away in in a cluster of bushes were found three sections of a smartly designed but rather crudelooking ladder.

Lindbergh baby kidnapping poster. The kidnapping of Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr., son of aviator Charles Lindbergh and Anne Morrow Lindbergh, occurred in 1932 when the toddler was abducted from his family home in East Amwell, New Jersey (near the town of Hopewell). The boy was subsequently murdered.[1] Newspaper writer H.L. Mencken called the kidnapping and subsequent trial "the biggest story since the Resurrection."[2]. Bruno Hauptmann was convicted of the crime and executed by electric chair, though he proclaimed his innocence. The crime inspired the "Lindbergh Law," which made kidnapping a federal crime.

Investigation
First on the scene was Chief Harry Wolfe of the Hopewell police. Wolfe was soon joined by New Jersey State Police officers. The police searched the home and scoured the surrounding area for miles.

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After midnight, a fingerprint expert arrived at the home to examine the note left on the window sill and the ladder. The ladder had 400 partial fingerprints and some footprints left behind. However, most were of no value to the investigation due to the surge of media and police that were present within the first 30 minutes to hour after the first call for help. An odd twist to this investigation is that during the fingerprint discovery process, not a single fingerprint was found in the room -- none from Mr. and Mrs. Lindbergh, none from the baby, none from Betty Gow. Getting any solid evidence outside the house proved to be virtually impossible. The ransom note that was found by Mr. Lindbergh was opened and read by the police after they arrived. The brief, handwritten letter was riddled with spelling mistakes and grammatical irregularities: Dear Sir! Have 50000$ redy 25000$ in 20$ bills 15000$ in 10$ bills and 10000$ in 5$ bills After 2-4 days we will inform you were to deliver the Mony. We warn you for making anyding public or for notify the Police The child is in gut care. Indication for all letters are singnature and three holes. There were two interconnected circles (colored red and blue) below the message, with a hole punched through the red circle and two other holes punched outside the circles. Word of the kidnapping spread quickly, and, along with police, the well-connected and well-intentioned arrived at the Lindbergh estate. Three were military colonels offering their aid, though only one had law enforcement expertise: Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf, superintendent of the New Jersey State Police and the father of General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the commander of all coalition forces for Operation Desert Shield/Storm. The other colonels were Henry Breckinridge, a Wall Street lawyer; William Joseph Donovan (a.k.a. "Wild Bill" Donovan, a hero of the First World War who would later head the OSS). Lindbergh and these men

Lindbergh kidnapping
believed that the kidnapping was perpetrated by organized crime figures. The letter, they thought, seemed written by someone who spoke German as his native language. They contacted Mickey Rosner, a Broadway hanger-on rumored to know mobsters. Rosner, in turn, brought in two speakeasy owners: Salvatore "Salvy" Spitale and Irving Bitz. Lindbergh quickly endorsed the duo and appointed them his intermediaries to deal with the mob. Unknown to Lindbergh, however, Bitz and Spitale were actually in cahoots with the New York Daily News, a paper which hoped to use the duo to scoop other newspapers in the race for leads in the kidnapping story. Several organized crime figures — notably Al Capone — spoke from prison, offering to help return the baby to his family in exchange for money or for legal favors. Ideally Capone was offering assistance in return for being released from prison under the guise that his assistance could be more effective. This was quickly denied by the authorities. The morning after the kidnapping, U.S. President Herbert Hoover was notified of the crime. Though the case did not seem to have any grounds for federal involvement (kidnapping then being classified as a local crime), Hoover declared that he would "move Heaven and Earth" to recover the missing child. The Bureau of Investigation (not yet called the FBI) was authorized to investigate the case, while the United States Coast Guard, the U.S. Customs Service, the U.S. Immigration Service and the Washington D.C. police were told their services might be required. New Jersey officials announced a $25,000 reward for the safe return of "Little Lindy." The Lindbergh family offered an additional $50,000 reward of their own. The total reward of $75,000 was made even more significant by the fact that the offer was made during the early days of the Great Depression. (According to the U.S. Consumer Price Index, $75,000 in U.S. currency in 1932 is equivalent to nearly $1.2 million in 2008 when adjusted for inflation.)[3] A few days after the kidnapping, a new ransom letter arrived at the Lindbergh home via the mail. Postmarked in Brooklyn, the letter was genuine, carrying the perforated red and blue marks. Police wanted to examine the letter, but instead Lindbergh gave it to Rosner, who said he would pass it on to his

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supposed mob associates. In actuality, the note went back to the Daily News, where someone photographed it. Before long, copies of the ransom note were being sold on street corners throughout New York for $5 each. Any ransom letters received after this one were therefore automatically suspect. A second ransom note then arrived by mail, also postmarked from Brooklyn. Ed Mulrooney, Commissioner of the New York City Police Department, suggested that, given two Brooklyn postmarks, the kidnappers were probably working out of that area. Mulrooney told Lindbergh that his officers could surveil postal letterboxes in Brooklyn, and that a device could be placed inside each letterbox to isolate the letters in sequence as they were dropped in, to help track down anyone who might be tied to the case. If Lindbergh, Jr. was being held in Brooklyn by the kidnappers, Mulrooney insisted that such a plan might help locate the child as well. Mulrooney was willing to go to great lengths, including organizing a police raid to rescue the baby. Lindbergh strongly disapproved of the plan. He feared for his son’s life and warned Mulrooney that if such a plan was carried out, Lindbergh would use his considerable influence in efforts to ruin Mulrooney’s career. Reluctantly, Mulrooney acquiesced. The day after Lindbergh rejected Mulrooney’s plan, a third letter was mailed. It too came from Brooklyn. This letter warned that since the police were now involved in the case, the ransom had been doubled to $100,000. At about this time, John F. Condon, a 72-year-old school teacher in the Bronx, wrote a letter to the Home News proclaiming his willingness to help the Lindbergh case in any way he could. He added $1000 of his own money to the reward. Afterwards, Condon received a letter in care of the Home News. Purportedly written by the kidnappers, it was marked with the punctured red-and-blue circles and authorized Condon as their intermediary with Lindbergh. Lindbergh accepted the letter as genuine, though at the time neither man seemed to know that copies of the first mailed ransom letter were being sold by the hundreds and that, by now, a great many people must have known the "signature" required to forge a letter from the kidnappers.

Lindbergh kidnapping
Following the latest letter’s instructions, Condon placed a classified ad in the New York American: "Money is Ready. Jafsie". (Jafsie was a pseudonym based on a phonetic pronunciation of Condon’s initials, "J.F.C.") Condon then waited for further instructions from the culprit(s). A meeting between "Jafsie" and a representative of the group that claimed to be the kidnappers was eventually scheduled for late one evening at Woodlawn Cemetery. According to Condon, the man sounded foreign but stayed in the shadows during the conversation, and he was thus unable to get a close look at his face. The man said his name was John, and he related his story: he was a "Scandinavian" sailor, part of a gang of three men and two women. The Lindbergh child was unharmed and being held on a boat, but the kidnappers were still not ready to return him or receive the ransom. When Condon expressed doubt that "John" actually had the baby, he promised some proof: the kidnapper would soon return the baby’s sleeping suit. The stranger asked Condon " ... would I burn [be executed], if the package [baby] were dead?" When questioned further, he assured Condon that the baby was alive. Lindbergh had insisted that Mulrooney not be informed, and so "John" was not followed by police after the meeting. A few days later, Condon got a package in the mail; it was a toddler’s sleeping suit. Condon showed it to Lindbergh, who quickly identified it as his son’s. After the delivery of the sleeping suit, Condon took out a new ad in the Home News declaring, "Money is ready. No cops. No secret service. I come alone, like last time." One month and one day after the child was kidnapped, on April 1, 1932, Condon received a letter from the purported kidnappers. They were ready to accept payment. The ransom was packaged in a wooden box which was custom-made in the hope that it could later be identified. The ransom was paid in mostly gold certificates then being withdrawn from circulation. It was hoped that anyone passing large amounts of gold notes would draw attention to themselves and thus aid in identifying the culprit(s). The next evening, Condon was given a note by cab driver Raymond Perrone, who said he had been paid by a man to deliver the note. The note was the first in a series of convoluted instructions, leading Condon and

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Lindbergh all over Manhattan. Eventually, Condon and Lindbergh delivered the money to St. Raymond’s Cemetery. Condon met a man he thought might have been "John" and told him that they had been able to raise only $50,000. The man accepted the money and gave Condon a note. Again, Lindbergh (who saw the man only from a distance) had insisted the police not be informed of the meeting, and again a suspect got away without being followed. The note reported that the child was being held on a boat called The Nelly in Martha’s Vineyard with two women who were, the note also stated, innocent. Lindbergh went there and searched the piers. There was no boat called The Nelly, and a desperate Lindbergh took to flying an airplane low over the piers in an attempt to startle the kidnappers into showing themselves. After two days, Lindbergh admitted he had been fooled.

Lindbergh kidnapping
home. She had given equivocal testimony regarding her whereabouts on the night of the kidnapping and reportedly acted nervous and suspicious when questioned. She committed suicide prior to what would have been her fourth time being questioned by the authorities by ingesting cyanide just as the officers had arrived to pick her up.[4]

Ransom
Investigation of the case was soon in the doldrums. There were no developments and little evidence of any sort, so police turned their attention to tracking the ransom payments. A list of the serial numbers on the ransom bills was widely circulated to banks and businesses. During the following three years, a few of the bills turned up in scattered locations — as far away as Chicago and Minneapolis — but the people spending them eluded capture. Gold Certificates were to be turned in by May 1, 1933. After that day, they would be worthless. A few days before the deadline, a man in Manhattan brought in $2,990 of the ransom money to be exchanged. The bank was so busy, however, that no one remembered much of what he looked like. He had filled out a required form, giving his name as J. J. Faulkner and his address as 537 West 159th Street in New York City. When authorities visited the address, they learned no one named Faulkner had lived there — or anywhere nearby — for many years. U.S. Treasury officials kept looking, and eventually learned that a woman named Jane Faulkner had lived at the address in question in 1913. She had moved after she married a German man named Geissler. The couple was tracked down, and both denied any involvement in the crime. Mr. Geissler had two children from his first marriage. Though neither could be conclusively tied to the kidnapping, there were some curious facts which led authorities to suspect involvement: Geissler’s son worked as a florist and lived about one block from Condon, while Geissler’s daughter had married a German gardener. Condon again figured in the investigation: after hearing the three men from the Geissler family speak, Condon declared that Geissler’s son-in-law, the gardener, had a voice very similar to "John", the man he had met in the

The Body
On May 12, 1932, delivery truck driver William Allen pulled his truck to the side of a road about 4.5 miles (7.2 km) from the Lindbergh home. He went to a grove of trees to relieve himself, and there he discovered the corpse of a toddler. Allen notified police, who took the body to a morgue in nearby Trenton, New Jersey. The body was badly decomposed. The skull was badly fractured. The left leg and both hands were missing. There were signs that the body had been chewed on by various animals as well as indications that someone had made an attempt to hastily bury the body. Lindbergh and Gow quickly identified the baby as the missing infant based on the overlapping toes of the right foot and the shirt that Gow had made for the baby. They surmised that the child had been killed by a blow to the head. Mr. Lindbergh was insistent on having the body cremated afterwards. Once the U.S. Congress learned that the child was dead, legislation was rushed making kidnapping a federal crime. The Bureau of Investigations could now aid the case more directly. In July 1932, with few leads, officials began to suspect an "inside job"; someone the Lindberghs trusted may have betrayed the family. Suspicions fell upon Violet Sharp, a British household servant of the Lindbergh

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cemeteries. The police followed up on this lead, but the gardener killed himself. Condon’s actions were becoming increasingly flamboyant. On one occasion, while riding a city bus, he saw a suspect and, announcing his secret identity, ordered the bus to a stop. The startled driver complied, and Condon darted from the bus, though Condon’s target eluded him. Another time he dressed as a woman for his clandestine activities, with a collar pulled up to hide his handlebar mustache. The New York Police were by now aware of the "Jafsie" newspaper advertisements, and wanted to know who the mysterious Jafsie was, but Lindbergh refused to say anything. Eventually, Condon’s flamboyance made it obvious that he was Jafsie. Tiring of Condon’s interference, the police threatened to charge him as an accomplice to the crime. Afterward, he curtailed his involvement.

Lindbergh kidnapping
ransom money hidden away in and under the garage. Hauptmann was arrested by Finn and interrogated as well as beaten at least once through out the day and night that followed. The story Hauptmann gave was that the money had been left with him by a friend and former business partner, Isidor Fisch. Fisch had returned to Germany in 1933 and died there and only then, Hauptmann reported, did he learn that the shoe box left with him contained a considerable sum of money. Hauptmann consistently denied any connection to the crime or knowledge that the money came from the ransom. In the search of his apartment by police, a considerable amount of additional evidence that he was involved in the crime surfaced, not least a notebook construction sketch of a collapsible ladder similar to that which was found at the Lindbergh home in March 1932. In addition to the notebook and the diagram, Mr. Condon’s phone number as well as his address were discovered written down in the house. A key linking piece of evidence, a piece of wood discovered in the attic of the home after being examined by an expert was determined to be an exact match to the wood used in the construction of the ladder found at the scene of the crime. This particular wood was also traced back to the saw mill where the lumber was processed in South Carolina. Initially, Hauptmann was indicted in the Bronx for crimes in connections with the ransom money but he was soon extradited to New Jersey to face charges directly related to the kidnapping and murder of the Lindbergh child.

Bruno Hauptmann
More than two years after the kidnapping, on September 18, 1934, a gold certificate from the ransom money was referred to New York Police detective James J. Finn and FBI Agent Thomas Sisk.[5] Finn and Sisk had been working on the Lindbergh case for thirty months by this point and had been able to track down many bills from the ransom hoard to places throughout New York City. Their maps recording each find showed that the bills were being passed mainly along the route of the Lexington Avenue subway that connected the East Bronx with the east side of Manhattan, including Yorkville, the German-Austrian neighborhood. The bill located in September 1934, however, bore a New York license plate penciled in the margin and its use was traced to a gas station in upper Manhattan. The station attendants had written down the license plate number after reading a company flier warning about certain bills and feeling that their customer was suspicious, possibly a counterfeiter. The license plate belonged to a blue Dodge sedan owned by Bruno Hauptmann, of 1279 East 222nd Street in The Bronx. Hauptmann turned out to be a German immigrant with a criminal record in his homeland. He was arrested the Wednesday after the Saturday he passed the $10 gold certificate from the ransom money. Police searched his home and found more than $15,000 of the

The Trial
Hauptmann was charged with kidnapping and murder. Conviction on even one charge could earn him the death penalty. He pleaded not guilty. Held at the Hunterdon County Courthouse in Flemington, New Jersey, the trial soon became a sensation: reporters swarmed the town, and every hotel room was booked. In exchange for rights to publish Hauptmann’s story in their paper, Edward J. Reilly was hired by the Daily Mirror to serve as Hauptmann’s attorney. Two other lawyers, Lloyd Fisher and Frederick Pope, were cocounselors. David T. Wilentz, Attorney General of New Jersey, led the prosecution.

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Lindbergh kidnapping

Photograph introduced at the trial showing the similarity of the wood grains in the ladder and Hauptmann’s attic floor inside and outside surface of the wood, and the grain on both sides were identical, and two oddly placed nail holes lined up with a joist splice in Hauptmann’s attic, a remarkable piece of forensic detection. The ladder is now on public view in the New Jersey police museum.

The old Hunterdon County Courthouse, site of the trial

Photograph introduced at the trial showing Condon’s address and telephone number written in Hauptmann’s house Trial exhibit comparing handwriting samples In addition to Hauptmann’s possession of the ransom money, the State introduced evidence showing a striking similarity between Hauptmann’s handwriting and the handwriting on the ransom notes. Based on the forensic work of Arthur Koehler at the Forest Products Laboratory, the State also introduced photographic evidence demonstrating that the wood from the ladder left at the crime scene matched a plank from the floor of Hauptmann’s attic: the type of wood, the direction of tree growth, the milling pattern at the factory, the Additionally, the prosecutors noted that Condon’s address and telephone number had been found written in pencil on a closet door in Hauptmann’s home. Hauptmann himself admitted in a police interview that he had written Condon’s address on the closet door: "I must have read it in the paper about the story. I was a little bit interested and keep a little bit record of it, and maybe I was just on the closet, and was reading the paper and put it down the address." When asked about Condon’s telephone number, he could respond only, "I can’t give you any explanation about the telephone number."

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The defense did not challenge the identification of the body, a common practice in murder cases at the time designed to avoid exposing the jury to an intense analysis of the body and its condition.

Lindbergh kidnapping
claims about their baby. Even today, a man asserts that he is the Lindbergh baby.[6] Several books have been written proclaiming Hauptmann’s innocence. These books variously criticize the police for allowing the crime scenes to become contaminated, Lindbergh and his associates for interfering with the investigation, Hauptmann’s trial lawyers for ineffectively representing him, the reliability of the witnesses and the physical evidence presented at the trial. Ludovic Kennedy in particular questioned much of the evidence, such as the origin of the ladder, and the testimony of many of the witnesses. The most recent book on the case - "A Talent to Deceive" by British investigative writer William Norris - not only affirms Hauptmann’s innocence but accuses Lindbergh of a cover-up of the killer’s true identity. The book points the finger of blame at Dwight Morrow Jr., Lindbergh’s brother-in-law. In 2005, the truTV television program Forensic Files conducted a re-examination of the physical evidence in the kidnapping using more modern scientific techniques. The program concluded that Hauptmann had indeed been guilty, but it noted that there remained many questions, such as how he could have known that the Lindberghs would be remaining in Hopewell during the week.

Lindbergh on the witness stand Condon and Lindbergh both testified that Hauptmann was "John." Another witness, Amandus Hockmuth, testified that he saw Hauptmann near the scene of the crime. Hauptmann was ultimately convicted of the crimes and sentenced to death. His appeals were rejected, though New Jersey Governor Harold G. Hoffman granted a temporary reprieve of Hauptmann’s execution and made the politically unpopular move of having the New Jersey Board of Pardons review the case. Apparently, they found no reason to overturn the verdict. Hauptmann turned down a $90,000 offer from a Hearst newspaper for a confession and refused a last-minute offer to commute his execution to a life sentence in exchange for a confession. He was electrocuted on April 3, 1936 just over four years after the kidnapping.

Kidnapping represented in the arts
Agatha Christie was inspired by circumstances of the case when she described the kidnapping of baby girl Daisy Armstrong in her 1936 novel Murder on the Orient Express. In Philip Roth’s 2004 novel The Plot Against America, the narrator describes theories about the kidnapping -- most notably, the possibility that prominent Nazis were responsible and used the kidnapping to extort the Lindberghs into expressing some admiration for and defense of the policies of Nazi Germany. According to this theory (which the narrator neither accepts nor rejects), the baby is brought to Germany where he is adopted into a Nazi family and becomes a member of the Hitler Youth, unaware of his true background. The Lindbergh kidnapping was the subject of a 1996 Golden Globe and Emmy nominated HBO TV movie titled Crime of the

Controversy
As with all notorious crimes, the Lindbergh kidnapping has attracted at least its fair share of hoaxes and alternative theories. While the baby was still missing, at least two separate men (Gaston Means and John Hughes Curtis) came forward with false claims that they were associates of the kidnappers. Both were later convicted of crimes relating to their false claims. The Lindberghs were the victims of several other pranks and

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Century. Bruno Hauptmann was played by Stephen Rea and his wife Anna by Isabella Rossellini. In the 1976 TV movie The Lindbergh Kidnapping Case, Anthony Hopkins played the role of Bruno Hauptmann.

Lindbergh kidnapping
[6] Website of Charles A. Lindbergh Jr., who purports to be the "Lindbergh baby".

Additional Resources
• Ahlgren, Gregory and Stephen Monier, Crime of the Century:The Lindbergh Kidnapping Hoax, Branden Books, 1993, ISBN 0-8283-1971-5 • Fisher, Jim, The Lindbergh Case, Rutgers University Press, Reprint 1994, ISBN 0813521475 • Kennedy, Sir Ludovic, The Airman And The Carpenter, 1985, ISBN 0-670-80606-4 • Kurland, Michael, A Gallery of Rogues: Portraits in True Crime, Prentice Hall General Reference, 1994, ISBN 0-671-85011-3 • Newton, Michael, The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes, Checkmark Books, 2004, ISBN 0-8160-4981-5 • Norris, William, "A Talent to Deceive", SynergEbooks,2007, ISBN 978-0-7443-1594-3

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • Dwight Morrow Anne Morrow Lindbergh Bruno Hauptmann Charles Lindbergh Child abduction F.B.I. Federal crime Forensic pathology Forensic Science Kidnapping Questioned document examination

References
[1] Gill, Barbara (1981). "Lindbergh kidnapping rocked the world 50 years ago". The Hunterdon County Democrat. http://www.nj.com/lindbergh/hunterdon/ index.ssf?/lindbergh/stories/ demcovr.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-30. "So while the world’s attention was focused on Hopewell, from which the first press dispatches emanated about the kidnapping, the Democrat made sure its readers knew that the new home of Col. Charles A. Lindbergh and Anne Morrow Lindbergh was in East Amwell Township Hunterdon County." [2] CrimeLibrary.com http://www.crimelibrary.com/ notorious_murders/famous/lindbergh/ trial_6.html [3] U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index Inflation Calculator [4] Lindbergh, Anne. Hour of Gold, Hour of Lead. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973. [5] Although President Roosevelt had issued an executive order on April 5, 1933, calling for all gold certificates to be turned in by May 1, 1933, under the penalty of fine or imprisonment, some members of the public held on to them past the deadline; as of July 31, 1934, $161 million in gold certificates were still in general circulation.

External links
• Photographic Evidence from the trial on the New Jersey State Archives Website • New Jersey police museum at West Trenton which holds evidence of the kidnapping • Lindbergh Kidnapping and other Top 25 Crimes of the Century at Time.com • Documents, information and Discussion on the LKC: crime and trial • Information on Lindbergh Murder • More about the Lindbergh kidnapping • The Lindbergh Kidnapping Hoax --dissenting views on the notorious trial • Jim Fisher’s website dealing with the Lindbergh case • FBI History - Famous Cases - The Lindbergh Kidnapping • Court TV Forensic Files Special - The Lindbergh Kidnapping: Investigation ReOpened • Trial reenactments in the original courthouse • Lindbergh Kidnapping Discussion Board • Lindbergh Case Chronology • Famous American Trials - Richard Hauptmann (Lindbergh Kidnapping) Trial • Current photographs of places connected with the Lindbergh kidnapping

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Coordinates: 40°25′26″N 74°46′04″W 40.4240°N 74.7677°W / 40.4240; -74.7677 /

Lindbergh kidnapping

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lindbergh_kidnapping" Categories: Federal Bureau of Investigation, History of New Jersey, Kidnapped American children, Murdered American children, 1932 crimes This page was last modified on 21 May 2009, at 21:19 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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