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University of Cambridge

University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge Affiliations: Russell Group Coimbra Group EUA LERU IARU http://www.cam.ac.uk

Website:

Latin: Universitas Cantabrigiensis Motto: Motto in English: Hinc lucem et pocula sacra (Latin) From here, light and sacred draughts (literal) From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge (non-literal) c. 1209 Public £4.1 billion (2006, incl. colleges)[1] ($7.9 billion) HRH The Duke of Edinburgh Alison Richard 8,614[2] 18,396[3] 12,018[3] 6,378[3] Cambridge, England, UK Cambridge Blue[4]

Established: Type: Endowment: Chancellor: Vice-Chancellor: Staff: Students: Undergraduates: Postgraduates: Location: Colours:

The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. The name is sometimes abbreviated as Cantab. in postnominals, a shortened form of Cantabrigiensis (an adjective derived from Cantabrigia, the Latinised form of Cambridge). The University grew out of an association of scholars in the city of Cambridge that was formed, early records suggest, in 1209 by scholars leaving Oxford after a dispute with local townsfolk there.[5] The universities of Oxford and Cambridge are often jointly referred to as "Oxbridge." In addition to cultural and practical associations as a historic part of English society, the two universities also have a long history of rivalry with each other. Academically, Cambridge is consistently ranked in the world’s top 5 universities.[6][7] It has produced 83 Nobel Laureates to date, more than any other university in the world according to some counts.

Organization
Cambridge is a collegiate university, meaning that it is made up of self-governing and independent colleges, each with its own property and income. Most colleges bring together academics and students from a broad range of disciplines (though certain colleges do have particular strengths e.g. Gonville and Caius College for Medicine[8]), and within each faculty, school or department within the university, academics from many different colleges will be found. The Faculties are responsible for ensuring that lectures are given, arranging seminars,

Athletics:

The Sporting Blue

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performing research and determining the syllabi for teaching, overseen by the General Board. Together with the central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor, they make up the entire Cambridge University. Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels: by the University (the Cambridge University Library), by the departments (departmental libraries such as the Squire Law Library), and by the individual colleges (all of which maintain a multi-discipline library, generally aimed mainly at their undergraduates).

University of Cambridge
was the first college to admit both men and women, while Churchill, Clare and King’s were the first previously all-male colleges to admit female undergraduates in 1972, with Magdalene being the last in 1988.[9] Two colleges admit only postgraduates (Clare Hall and Darwin), and four more admit mature students (i.e. 21 years or older on date of matriculation) or graduate students (Hughes Hall, Lucy Cavendish, St Edmund’s and Wolfson). The other 25 colleges admit both undergraduate and postgraduate students. Colleges are not required to admit students in all subjects, with some colleges choosing not to offer subjects such as architecture, history of art or theology, but most offer close to the complete range. Some colleges maintain a bias towards certain subjects, for example with Churchill leaning towards the sciences and engineering,[10] while others such as St Catharine’s College aim for a balanced intake.[11] Costs to students (accommodation and food prices) vary considerably from college to college."Homerton College Accommodation Guide". Homerton College. http://www.homerton.cam.ac.uk/pdf/accom_guide.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-03-13. "Trinity College Accommodation Guide". Trinity College. http://www.trin.cam.ac.uk/index.php?pageid=112. Retrieved on 2009-03-13. Others maintain much more informal reputations, such as for the students of King’s College to hold left-wing and Liberal political views,[12] or Robinson College’s attempts to minimise its environmental impact.[13] There are also several theological colleges in Cambridge, (for example Westminster College and Ridley Hall Theological College) that are loosely affiliated with the university through the Cambridge Theological Federation.

Colleges

View over Trinity College, Gonville and Caius, Trinity Hall and Clare College towards King’s College Chapel, seen from St John’s College chapel. On the left, just in front of Kings College chapel, is the University Senate House All students and many of the academics are attached to colleges, where they live, eat and socialise. It is also the place where students may receive their small group teaching sessions, known as supervisions. Each college appoints its own teaching staff and fellows in each subject; decides which students to admit, in accordance with University regulations; provides small group teaching sessions, for undergraduates (though lectures are arranged and degrees are awarded by the university); and is responsible for the domestic arrangements and welfare of its own undergraduates, graduates, post-doctoral researchers, and staff in general. The University of Cambridge currently has 31 colleges, of which three admit only women (Murray Edwards, Newnham and Lucy Cavendish). The remaining 28 are now mixed, though most were originally all-male. Darwin

Schools, Faculties, and Departments
In addition to the 31 colleges, the University is made up of over 150 Departments, Faculties, Schools, Syndicates and other institutions. Members of these are usually also members of one (or more) of the colleges, and responsibility for running the entire academic programme of the University is divided amongst them.

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A ’School’ in the University of Cambridge is a broad administrative grouping of related subjects, each covering a specified group of Faculties. Each has an elected supervisory body—The Council of the School—comprising representatives of the constituent Faculties and Departments in each School. There are six Schools:[14] • Arts and Humanities • Biological Sciences, including Veterinary Medicine • Clinical Medicine • Humanities and Social Sciences • Physical Sciences • Technology Teaching and research in Cambridge is organised by Faculties. The Faculties have different organisational sub-structures which partly reflect their history and partly their operational needs, which may include a number of Departments and other institutions. In addition, a small number of bodies entitled Syndicates have responsibilities for teaching and research, exercising powers similar in effect to those of Faculty Boards. Examples are Cambridge Assessment, the University Press, and the University Library.

University of Cambridge
House fulfils today, and was the University’s governing body, just as the Regent House is today. The Regent House is the University’s governing body, a direct democracy comprising all resident senior members of the University and the Colleges, together with the Chancellor, the High Steward, the Deputy High Steward, and the Commissary.[17]

The Council and the General Board
Although the University Council is the principal executive and policy-making body of the University, therefore, it must report and be accountable to the Regent House through a variety of checks and balances. It has the right of reporting to the University, and is obliged to advise the Regent House on matters of general concern to the University. It does both of these by causing notices to be published by authority in the Cambridge University Reporter, the official journal of the University. Since January 2005, the membership of the Council has included two external members,[18] and the Regent House voted for an increase from two to four in the number of external members in March 2008,[19][20] and this was approved by Her Majesty the Queen in July 2008.[21] The General Board of the Faculties is responsible for the academic and educational policy of the University,[22] and is accountable to the Council for its management of these affairs. Faculty Boards are responsible to the General Board; other Boards and Syndicates are responsible either to the General Board (if primarily for academic purposes) or to the Council. In this way, the various arms of the University are kept under the supervision of the central administration, and thus the Regent House.

Central administration
The Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor
The current Chancellor of the University is the Duke of Edinburgh. The current ViceChancellor is Alison Richard. The office of Chancellor, which is held for life, is mainly ceremonial, while the Vice-Chancellor is de facto the principal academic and administrative officer. The University’s internal governance is carried out almost entirely by its own members,[15] with very little external representation on its governing body, the Regent House (though there is external representation on the Audit Committee, and there are four external members on the University’s Council, who are the only external members of the Regent House).[16]

Finances
In late 2006, the total financial endowment of the university and the colleges was estimated at £4.1 billion (US$8.2 billion): £1.2 billion tied directly to the university, £2.9 billion to the colleges.[1] This endowment is arguably the largest in Europe. Oxford (including its colleges) is possibly ranked second, having reported an endowment valued at £3.9bn in mid-2006.[23] The Central European University in Budapest has the third largest endowment, with an estimated €400 million

The Senate and the Regent House
The Senate consists of all holders of the MA degree or higher degrees. It elects the Chancellor and the High Steward, and it elected Members to the House of Commons for the Cambridge University constituency until their abolition in 1950, but otherwise it has not had a major role since 1926, before which it fulfilled all the functions which the Regent

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in 2005. Each college is an independent charitable institution with its own endowment, separate from that of the central university endowment. If ranked on a US university endowment table using figures reported in 2006, Cambridge would rank sixth or seventh (depending on whether one includes the University of Texas System – which incorporates nine full scale universities and six health institutions), or fourth in a ranking compared with only the eight Ivy League institutions.[24] Comparisons between Cambridge’s endowment and those of other top US universities are however inaccurate because being a state-funded public university, Cambridge receives a major portion of its income through education and research grants from the British Government. In 2006, it was reported that approximately one third of Cambridge’s income comes from UK government funding for teaching and research, with another third coming from other research grants. Endowment income contributes around 6%.[25]

University of Cambridge

The Fitzwilliam Museum, the art and antiquities museum of the University of Cambridge arranging most supervisions, student accommodation, and funding most extracurricular activities. During the 1990s Cambridge added a substantial number of new specialist research laboratories on several University sites around the city, and major expansion continues on a number of sites.[27] Cambridge is a member of the Russell Group, a network of research-led British universities; the Coimbra Group, an association of leading European universities; the League of European Research Universities; and the International Alliance of Research Universities. It is also considered part of the "Golden Triangle", a geographical concentration of UK university research. Building on its reputation for enterprise, science and technology, Cambridge has a partnership with MIT in the United States, the Cambridge–MIT Institute.

Benefactions and Fundraising
In 2000, Bill Gates of Microsoft donated US$210 million through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to endow the Gates Scholarships for students from outside the UK seeking postgraduate study at Cambridge. The University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, which taught the world’s first computing course in 1953, is housed in a building partly funded by Gates and named after his grandfather, William Gates. In 2005, the Cambridge 800th Anniversary Campaign was launched, aimed at raising £1 billion by 2012—the first US-style university fundraising campaign in Europe. £800 million of funds have been secured to date.[26]

Teaching
The principal method of teaching at Cambridge colleges is the supervision. These are typically weekly hour-long sessions in which small groups of students—usually between one and three—meet with a member of the university’s teaching staff or a doctoral student. Students are normally required to complete an essay or assignment in advance of the supervision, which they will discuss with the supervisor during the session, along with any concerns or difficulties they have had with the material presented in that week’s lectures. Lectures at Cambridge are often described as being almost a mere ’bolt-on’ to these supervisions. Students typically receive two or three supervisions per week. This pedagogical system is often cited as being

University activities
Research
See also: Category:Departments of the University of Cambridge Cambridge University has research departments and teaching faculties in most academic disciplines. Cambridge tends to have a slight bias towards scientific subjects, but it also has a number of strong humanities and social science faculties. All research and lectures are conducted by University Departments. The colleges are in charge of giving or

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University of Cambridge
requirements, with candidates typically called to face-to-face interviews. How applicants perform in the interview process is an important factor in determining which students are accepted.[29] Most applicants are expected to be predicted at least three A-grade A-level qualifications relevant to their chosen undergraduate course, or equivalent overseas qualifications. However, it has been confirmed that the new A* A-level grade (to be introduced in 2010) will play a part in the acceptance of applications.[30] Due to a very high proportion of applicants receiving the highest school grades, the interview process is crucial for distinguishing between the most able candidates.[29] In 2006, 5,228 students who were rejected went on to get 3 A levels or more at grade A, representing about 63% of all applicants rejected.[31] The interview is performed by College Fellows, who evaluate candidates on unexamined factors such as potential for original thinking and creativity.[29] For exceptional candidates, a Matriculation Offer is sometimes offered, requiring only two A-levels at grade E or above—Christ’s College is unusual in making this offer to about one-third of successful candidates, in order to relieve very able candidates of some pressure in their final ’A level’ year (or equivalent), although this is now quite uncommon. In recent years, admissions tutors in certain subjects have required applicants to sit the more difficult STEP papers, tuition for which is not normally provided by British schools outside the private or independent sector, in addition to achieving top grades in their A-levels or International Baccalaureate diplomas. For example, almost every college requires 1,2, and a significant number requiring 1,1, or better in the 2 STEP Papers as well as A grades at A-levels including A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics in order to be considered for entry for the Mathematical Tripos. Between one-half and two-thirds of those who apply with the required grades are given offers of a place. Public debate in the United Kingdom continues over whether admissions processes at Oxford and Cambridge are entirely merit based and fair; whether enough students from state schools are encouraged to apply to Cambridge; and whether these students succeed in gaining entry. Almost half of all successful applicants come from independent schools. However, the average qualifications

Degree ceremony at the Senate House unique to Cambridge and Oxford (where “supervisions” are known as “tutorials”) The concept of grading students’ work quantitatively was developed by a tutor named William Farish at the University of Cambridge in 1792.[28]

Admissions

Great Court of Trinity College, dating back to the 17th Century The application system to Cambridge and Oxford often involves additional

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for successful applicants from state schools are slightly lower than the average qualification of successful applicants from private schools. Critics have argued that the lack of state school applicants with the required grades applying to Cambridge and Oxford has had a negative impact on Oxbridge’s reputation for many years, and the University has encouraged pupils from state schools to apply for Cambridge to help redress the imbalance. Others counter that government pressure to increase state school admissions constitutes inappropriate social engineering.[32][33] The proportion of undergraduates drawn from independent schools has dropped over the years, and such applicants now form only a significant minority (42.1%)[34] of the intake. In 2005, 32% of the 3599 applicants from independent schools were admitted to Cambridge, as opposed to 24% of the 6674 applications from state schools.[35] In 2008 the University of Cambridge received a gift of £4m to improve its accessibility to candidates from maintained schools.[36] Graduate admission is first decided by the faculty or department relating to the applicant’s subject. This effectively guarantees admission to a college - though not necessarily the applicant’s preferred choice.[37]

University of Cambridge
Cambridge, and there are competitions between colleges, notably the bumps races, and against Oxford, the Boat Race. There are also Varsity matches against Oxford in many other sports, ranging from cricket and rugby, to chess and tiddlywinks. Athletes representing the university in certain sports entitle them to apply for a Cambridge Blue at the discretion of the Blues Committee, consisting of the captains of the thirteen most prestigious sports. There is also the self-described “unashamedly elite” Hawks’ Club, which is for men only, whose membership is usually restricted to Cambridge Full Blues and Half Blues. The Cambridge Union serves as a focus for debating. Drama societies notably include the Amateur Dramatic Club (ADC) and the comedy club Footlights, which are known for producing well-known showbusiness personalities. Student newspapers include the longestablished Varsity and its younger rival, The Cambridge Student. The student-run radio station, CUR1350, promotes broadcast journalism.

History
Roger of Wendover wrote that the University of Cambridge could trace its origins to a crime committed in 1209. Although not always a reliable source, the detail given in his contemporaneous writings lends them credence. Two Oxford scholars were convicted of the murder or manslaughter of a woman and were hanged by the town authorities with the assent of the King. In protest at the hanging, the University of Oxford went into voluntary suspension, and scholars migrated to a number of other locations, including the pre-existing school at Cambridge (Cambridge had been recorded as a “school” rather than university when John Grim held the office of Master there in 1201). These exile Oxford scholars (post-graduate researchers by present day terminology) started Cambridge’s life as a university in 1209. Cambridge’s status was enhanced by a charter in 1231 from King Henry II of England which awarded the ius non trahi extra (a right to discipline its own members) plus some exemption from taxes, and a bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX that gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach everywhere in Christendom.

Publishing
The University’s publishing arm, the Cambridge University Press, is the oldest printer and publisher in the world.

Public Examinations
The University set up its Local Examination Syndicate in 1858. Today, the Syndicate, which is known as Cambridge Assessment, is Europe’s largest assessment agency and it plays a leading role in researching, developing and delivering assessments across the globe.

Sport and other extracurricular activities
See also: List of social activities at the University of Cambridge and Category:Clubs and societies of the University of Cambridge Further information: University website list of societies Cambridge maintains a long tradition of student participation in sport and recreation. Rowing is a particularly popular sport at

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After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter by Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, and confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to come and visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses.[38]

University of Cambridge
Law and to stop teaching “scholastic philosophy”. In response, colleges changed their curricula away from canon law and towards the classics, the Bible, and mathematics.

Mathematics
From the time of Isaac Newton in the later 17th century until the mid-19th century, the university maintained a strong emphasis on mathematics. Study of this subject was compulsory for graduation, and students were required to take an exam for the Bachelor of Arts degree, the main first degree at Cambridge in both arts and science subjects. This exam is known as a Tripos. Students awarded first-class honours after completing the mathematics Tripos were named wranglers. The Cambridge Mathematical Tripos was competitive and helped produce some of the most famous names in British science, including James Clerk Maxwell, Lord Kelvin, and Lord Rayleigh. However, some famous students, such as G. H. Hardy, disliked the system, feeling that people were too interested in accumulating marks in exams and not interested in the subject itself. Although diversified in its research and teaching interests, Cambridge today maintains its strength in mathematics. The Isaac Newton Institute, part of the university, is widely regarded as the UK’s national research institute for mathematics and theoretical physics. Cambridge alumni have won eight Fields Medals and one Abel Prize for mathematics. The University also runs a special Certificate of Advanced Studies in Mathematics course.

Foundation of the Colleges

Clare College (left) and King’s College Chapel (centre), built between 1441–1515 Cambridge’s colleges were originally an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself. The colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were also institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some indicators of their time, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse in 1284, Cambridge’s first college. Many colleges were founded during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but colleges continued to be established throughout the centuries to modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and Downing in 1800. The most recent college established is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Hughes Hall only achieved full university college status in April 2007, making it the newest full college.[39] In medieval times, colleges were founded so that their students would pray for the souls of the founders. For that reason they were often associated with chapels or abbeys. A change in the colleges’ focus occurred in 1536 with the dissolution of the monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon

Contributions to the advancement of science
Many of the most important scientific discoveries and revolutions were made by Cambridge alumni. These include: • Understanding the scientific method, by Francis Bacon • The laws of motion, by Sir Isaac Newton • The discovery of the electron, by J. J. Thomson • The splitting of the atom by Sir John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton • The unification of electromagnetism, by James Clerk Maxwell • The discovery of hydrogen, by Henry Cavendish

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• Evolution by natural selection, by Charles Darwin • The Turing machine, a basic model for computation, by Alan Turing • The structure of DNA, by Francis Crick and James D. Watson • Pioneering quantum mechanics, by Paul Dirac

University of Cambridge

Women’s education
Originally all students were male. The first colleges for women were Girton College (founded by Emily Davies) in 1869 and Newnham College in 1872 followed by New Hall in 1954. The first women students were examined in 1882 but attempts to make women full members of the university did not succeed until 1947. Although Cambridge did not give degrees to women until this date women were in fact allowed to study courses, sit examinations, and have their results recorded from the nineteenth century onwards; for a brief period after the turn of the twentieth century, this allowed women to receive ad eundem degrees from the University of Dublin (see steamboat ladies). Later, women could be given a “titular degree”; although they were not denied recognised qualifications, without a full degree they were excluded from the governing of the university. Since students must belong to a college, and since established colleges remained closed to women, women found admissions restricted to colleges established only for women. Starting with Churchill College, all of the men’s colleges began to admit women between 1972 and 1988. One women’s college, Girton, also began to admit male students from 1979, but the other women’s colleges did not follow suit. As a result of St Hilda’s College, Oxford ending its ban on male students in 2008, Cambridge is now the only remaining United Kingdom University with colleges which refuse to admit males, with three such institutions in total.[40][41][42] In the academic year 2004–5, the university’s student gender ratio, including post-graduates, was male 52%: female 48%.[43]

The Mathematical Bridge over the river Cam (at Queens’ College) nonetheless by generations of students and tour guides. A discontinued tradition is that of the wooden spoon, the ‘prize’ awarded to the student with the lowest passing grade in the final examinations of the Mathematical Tripos. The last of these spoons was awarded in 1909 to Cuthbert Lempriere Holthouse, an oarsman of the Lady Margaret Boat Club of St John’s College. It was over one metre in length and had an oar blade for a handle. It can now be seen outside the Senior Combination Room of St John’s. Since 1909, results were published alphabetically within class rather than score order. This made it harder to ascertain who the winner of the spoon was (unless there was only one person in the third class), and so the practice was abandoned. On the other hand, the legend of the Austin 7 delivery van that ended up on the apex of the Senate House is no myth at all. The Caius College website recounts in detail how this vehicle “went up in the world”.[44] Each Christmas Eve, BBC radio and television broadcasts The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols by the Choir of King’s College, Cambridge. The radio broadcast has been a national Christmas tradition since it was first transmitted in 1928 (though the festival has existed since 1918). The radio broadcast is carried worldwide by the BBC World Service and is also syndicated to hundreds of radio stations in the USA. The first television broadcast of the festival was in 1954.[45][46]

Myths, legends and traditions
As an institution with such a long history, the University has developed a large number of myths and legends. The vast majority of these are untrue, but have been propagated

Reputation
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University of Cambridge
30% more than second placed Oxford).[49] In 2006, a Thomson Scientific study showed that Cambridge has the highest research paper output of any British university, and is also the top research producer (as assessed by total paper citation count) in 10 out of 21 major British research fields analysed (Imperial College came second, leading in 3 fields).[50] Another study published the same year by Evidence showed that Cambridge won a larger proportion (6.6%) of total British research grants and contracts than any other university (coming first in three out of four broad discipline fields).[51] The university is also closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster in and around Cambridge, which forms the area known as Silicon Fen or sometimes the “Cambridge Phenomenon”. In 2004, it was reported that Silicon Fen was the second largest venture capital market in the world, after Silicon Valley. Estimates reported in February 2006 suggest that there were about 250 active startup companies directly linked with the university, worth around US$6 billion.[52]

Great Court of King’s College

League Table Rankings
In the 2007 THES-QS rankings, Cambridge was ranked 2nd amongst world universities, behind Harvard. It came in first in the international academic reputation peer review, first in the natural sciences, first in biomedicine, first in the arts & humanities, fourth in the social sciences, and sixth in technology. In the 2008 Academic Ranking of World Universities compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Cambridge was placed 4th amongst world universities. A 2006 Newsweek ranking which combined elements of the THES-QS and ARWU rankings with other factors that purportedly evaluated an institution’s global "openness and diversity" suggested that Cambridge was ranked 6th in the world overall.[77] In all these surveys, Cambridge was the highest ranked non-US institution. In the 2008 Sunday Times University Guide, Cambridge was ranked first for the 10th straight year since the guide’s first publication in 1998. In the 2008 Times Good University Guide, Cambridge topped 37 of the guide’s 61 subject tables, including Law, Medicine, Economics, Mathematics, Engineering, Physics, and Chemistry and has the

Results for the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos are read out inside Senate House and then tossed from the balcony. Historically, Cambridge University has had an extremely strong reputation for both mathematics and the sciences. According to UCAS, Cambridge and Oxford are the most academically selective universities in the United Kingdom—there is a special national admissions process which sets Oxbridge apart from other British universities. Traditionally, Cambridge applicants have had to fill the Cambridge Application Form (CAF) in addition to the UCAS process, although this ended for entry in 2009, being replaced with a more standard supplementary information form, in line with other universities in the UK.[47] In the last two British Government Research Assessment Exercise in 2001 and 2008 respectively,[48] Cambridge was ranked first in the country. In 2005, it was reported that Cambridge produces more PhDs per year than any other British university (over

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Year THES QS World University Rankings (World) 2010 2009 2008 3 2007 2 2006 2[63] 2005 3[67] 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 4[55] 4[60] 2[64] 2[68] 3[71] 5[72] 2 2[56] 2[61] 2 2[69] 2 2[73] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1[65] 2[70] 1 1 1[75] 2 2[57] 1[58] 1 1[66] 1[66] 1 1 1[76] 1[76] 1[76] 1[76] 1[76] Academic Ranking of World Universities (World) Times Good University Guide (UK) Guardian University Guide (UK)

University of Cambridge
Sunday Times University Guide (UK) Independent Daily Complete Telegraph University (UK) Guide 2[53] 2[54] 1[59] 1[62]

1[74] 1[75]

best record on research, entry standards and graduate destinations amongst UK universities. Cambridge was also awarded the University of the Year award. In the 2009 The Times Good University Guide Subject Rankings, Cambridge was ranked top (or joint top) in 34 out of the 42 subjects which it offers.[78] The overall ranking placed Cambridge in 2nd behind Oxford. The 2009 Guardian University Guide Rankings also place Cambridge 2nd in the UK behind Oxford.

Notable alumni
See also: List of University of Cambridge members, Category:Alumni of the University of Cambridge, and Category:Academics of the University of Cambridge Cambridge University has over the course of its history built up a sizable number of alumni who are notable in their fields, both academic, and in the wider world. Officially, affiliates of Cambridge University have won a total of 83 Nobel Prizes, more than any other

university according to some counts, as well as eight Fields Medals. In addition to a long and distinguished tradition in mathematics and the sciences, Cambridge University has educated 15 British Prime Ministers, including Robert Walpole (First Prime Minister of Great Britain). At least twenty-three Heads of State or Heads of Government have attended Cambridge University, including three Prime Ministers of India, two Prime Ministers of Singapore, Stanley Bruce (Prime Minister of Australia), Tunku Abdul Rahman (first Prime Minister of Malaysia) and Margrethe II of Denmark (Queen Regnant of Denmark).

Literature and popular culture
See also: List of fictional Cambridge colleges • Jill Paton Walsh is the author of four detective stories featuring Imogen Quy, the nurse at St. Agatha’s, a fictional Cambridge college: The Wyndham Case, A

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Piece of Justice, Debts of Dishonour and The Bad Quarto. In Atonement by Ian McEwan the characters Cecilia and Robbie attended Cambridge Chaucer’s The Reeve’s Tale takes place at Soler Halle. It is believed that this refers to King’s Hall, which later became part of Trinity College. The Glittering Prizes (1976 TV drama) and Oxbridge Blues (1984 TV drama) by Frederic Raphael. The Longest Journey and Maurice by E.M. Forster Still Life by A. S. Byatt Chariots of Fire, 1981 film Peter’s Friends, 1992 film The Masters and The Affair by C. P. Snow (features an unnamed fictional college, partly based on his own college, Christ’s) Porterhouse Blue and its sequel Grantchester Grind by Tom Sharpe feature Porterhouse, a fictional Cambridge College. Darkness at Pemberley by T. H. White All Sorts and Conditions of Men by Sir Walter Besant High Table, Lower Orders BBC Radio comedy serial broadcast in 2005 and 2006 set in a fictional college. The Matthew Bartholomew Chronicles, a series of murder mysteries, by Susanna Gregory Avenging Angel, a murder mystery by the philosopher Kwame Anthony Appiah Eskimo Day is a 1996 BBC TV drama, written by Jack Rosenthal, and starring Maureen Lipman, Tom Wilkinson, and Alec Guinness, about the relationship between parents and teenagers during an admissions interview day at Queens’ College. There was also a 1997 sequel, Cold Enough for Snow. The final episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, (All Good Things...) features the android character Data as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in his Cambridge college rooms. An establishing location shot shows a futuristic version of the Cambridge University skyline around the year 2395.[79] The unaired Doctor Who episode "Shada" shows the Fourth Doctor and his companion Romana in the fictional St Cedd’s College, which was filmed in New Court, Emmanuel College. Footage of the

University of Cambridge
pair punting by the backs from this episode was re-used in the twentieth anniversary episode, The Five Doctors. Civilization - a classic turn-based strategy video game by Sid Meier features “Isaac Newton’s College” as a Wonder of the World. This could be a reference to Cambridge University as a whole or to Trinity College specifically. The video accompanying the wonder in Civilization II however, erroneously shows the University of Oxford. In many novels and plays by Thomas Bernhard, Cambridge (Geistesnest) is the refuge of a Geistesmensch escaping from Austria Cambridge Spies (BBC Drama 2003) about the famous Cambridge Five double agents who started their career at Cambridge: Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Donald Maclean, and Anthony Blunt. In Tom Stoppard’s 2006 play Rock ’n Roll, Cambridge University is a key setting. In Bob Fosse’s 1972 film Cabaret, one of the central characters, Englishman Brian Roberts is a King’s College student finishing his German studies in Berlin. In Virginia Woolf’s The Waves, the characters Bernard and Neville both attended Cambridge University, and in Jacob’s Room, the protagonist Jacob Flanders attends Cambridge. In Charles Dicken’s A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Darnay tutors Cambridge undergraduates in French language and literature. Alan Bennett’s 2004 play The History Boys and the 2006 film centre around students in the north of England preparing for the old entrance exams at Cambridge and Oxford in 1983. In Stephen Fry’s novels Making History and The Liar, the main characters attend Cambridge University In Dirk Gently’s Holistic Detective Agency by Douglas Adams, much of the action takes place in the fictional Cambridge college of St. Cedds Engleby, Sebastian Faulks’ 2007 novel is largely based at a fictionalised version of Cambridge University.

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University of Cambridge
http://www.cai.cam.ac.uk/admissions/ subjects/medicine/index.php. Retrieved on 2008-18-11. [9] "Obituary - Professor Sir Bernard Williams". The Guardian. 2003-06-13. http://www.guardian.co.uk/obituaries/ story/0,3604,976477,00.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-08. [10] "Information about Churchill College". Churchill College. http://www.chu.cam.ac.uk/the_college/ info/. Retrieved on 2008-01-07. [11] "About St. Catharine’s College". University of Cambridge. http://www.cam.ac.uk/admissions/ undergraduate/colleges/stcatharines/. Retrieved on 2008-09-08. [12] "Alternative Prospectus" (PDF). Cambridge University Students’ Union. http://www.cusu.cam.ac.uk/prospective/ prospectus/alternativeprospectus.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-09-08. [13] "Survey ranks colleges by green credentials". Varsity. http://www.societies.cam.ac.uk/cuecs/ current_projects/LT/downloads/07-08/ VARSITY_LTarticle08.JPG. Retrieved on 2008-09-08. [14] "About the Schools, Faculties & Departments". University of Cambridge. http://www.cam.ac.uk/deptdirectory/ moreinfo.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-09. [15] Statute and Ordinances, Historical Note: "The University is ... consisting of a Chancellor, Masters and Scholars who from time out of mind have had the government of their members" [16] Grace 2 of 5 December 2007 [17] Statutes and Ordinances, 2007-2008 [18] "Annual Report of the Council for 2003-04". Cambridge University Reporter. 2004-12-15. http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/ 2004-05/weekly/5984/1.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-08. [19] Grace 2 of 5 December 2008 [20] Acta in the Reporter, No 6107, publishing Results of Ballot [21] "Statutes approved: Notice". Cambridge University Reporter. 2008-07-23. http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/ 2007-08/weekly/6119/2.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-08. [22] "Developing governance by building on good practice: a green paper issued by the University Council". Cambridge

See also
• List of organisations and institutions associated with the University of Cambridge • List of organisations with Royal patronage • Primate experiments at Cambridge University • Cambridge University Students’ Union • Cambridge University Constabulary • Medieval university

Notes
[1] ^ "University of Cambridge appoints Chief Investment Officer". University of Cambridge. 2006-11-27. http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/news/dp/ 2006112702. Retrieved on 2008-09-08. [2] "Facts and Figures January 2008" (PDF). University of Cambridge. http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/offices/ planning/data/facts/poster_2008.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-06-01. [3] ^ "Table 0b - All students FTE by institution and level of study 2004/05" (Microsoft Excel spreadsheet). Higher Education Statistics Agency. http://www.hesa.ac.uk/dox/dataTables/ studentsAndQualifiers/download/ Table_0b_0405.xls. Retrieved on 2008-06-01. [4] "Identity Guidelines - Colour" (PDF). University of Cambridge Office of External Affairs and Communications. http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/offices/ communications/services/ identityguidelines/guidelines-colour.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-03-28. [5] "A Brief History: Early records". University of Cambridge. http://www.cam.ac.uk/univ/history/ records.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-17. [6] "Top 500 World Universities (1-99)". ARWU 2007. http://ed.sjtu.edu.cn/rank/ 2007/ARWU2007_Top100.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. [7] "World University Rankings". The Times Higher Education Supplement (Requires subscription and log-in). http://www.thes.co.uk/statistics/ international_comparisons/2006/ top_unis.aspx?window_type=popup. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. [8] "Medicine at Caius - Subject Information Page". Gonville and Caius College.

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University Reporter. 2007-04-25. http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/ http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/ 2005-06/special/11/table1-1.pdf. current/weekly/6071/17.html. Retrieved Retrieved on 2008-09-08. on 2008-09-08. [36] "Cambridge University given £4 million [23] "Governance white paper 2006" (PDF). to support widening access". Cambridge University of Oxford. Network. 2008-03-28. http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/gwp/ http://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/ whitepaper.pdf. Retrieved on news/article/default.aspx?objid=45639. 2008-09-08. Retrieved on 2008-09-08. [24] "NACUBO report" (PDF). NACUBO. [37] "Board of Graduate Studies admissions http://www.nacubo.org/documents/ flowchart". University of Cambridge. research/2006NES_Listing.pdf. http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/univ/ Retrieved on 2008-09-08. gsprospectus/applying/next.html. [25] "Cambridge turns to City to lead fund". Retrieved on 2008-09-08. Financial Times. 2006-11-26. [38] Leedham-Green, Elizabeth (1996). A http://www.ft.com/cms/s/ Concise History of the University of 0e712684-7d85-11db-9fa2-0000779e2340.html. Cambridge. Cambridge: Cambridge Retrieved on 2008-09-08. University Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN [26] "Cambridge 800th Anniversary 0-521-43978-7. Campaign". University of Cambridge. [39] "Hughes Hall achieves full college http://www.foundation.cam.ac.uk/ status". Varsity. 2007-04-27. 800-home.php. Retrieved on 2008-09-08. http://www.varsity.co.uk/news/418/1/. [27] "Planning and Building". University of Retrieved on 2008-09-08. Cambridge. http://www.cam.ac.uk/ [40] "St Hilda’s to end 113-year ban on male building/. Retrieved on 2008-09-08. students". Daily Telegraph. [28] Postman, Neil (1992) (in English). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/ Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to uknews/1520628/St-Hilda%27s-toTechnology. New York City: Alfred A. end-113-year-ban-on-male-students.html. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-679-74540-2. Retrieved on 2008-09-08. [29] ^ "Guide to Interviews". University of [41] "Single-sex colleges: a dying breed?". Cambridge. http://www.cam.ac.uk/ HERO. June 2007. admissions/undergraduate/interviews/ http://www.hero.ac.uk/uk/studying/ guide/why.html. Retrieved on archives/2007/ 2008-09-08. single_sex_colleges__a_dying_breed__Jun.cfm. [30] "Cambridge entry level is now A*AA". Retrieved on 2009-04-20. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ [42] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/ education/7946675.stm. uknews/1520628/St-Hildas-to[31] "Special No 11" (PDF). Cambridge end-113-year-ban-on-male-students.html University Reporter. [43] "Special No 19". Cambridge University http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/reporter/ Reporter. http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/ 2006-07/special/11/table3_1.pdf. reporter/2004-05/special/19/. Retrieved Retrieved on 2008-09-08. on 2008-09-08. [32] "Report by the Sutton Trust" (PDF). [44] "A van that went up in the world". Caius Sutton Trust. College, Cambridge. http://www.suttontrust.com/reports/ http://www.cai.cam.ac.uk/college/past/ Stateschooladmissionstoourleadinguniversities.pdf. legend/index.php. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-09-08. 2008-09-08. [33] "A bias against excellence". The [45] "Choir that sings to the world". BBC. Spectator. http://www.findarticles.com/p/ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/ articles/mi_qa3724/is_200203/ arts/1703517.stm. Retrieved on ai_n9019732. Retrieved on 2008-09-08. 2008-09-08. [34] "Call for more university links". BBC. [46] "Carols from King’s". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/ 7036891.stm. Retrieved on 2008-09-08. programmes/advent/ [35] "Special No 11" (PDF). Cambridge carolsfromkings.shtml. Retrieved on University Reporter. 2008-09-08.

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[47] "Applying to Cambridge is to become [60] "Academic Ranking of World Universities simpler". http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/ 2007". Shanghai Jiao Tong University. news/dp/2008021504. http://ed.sjtu.edu.cn/rank/2007/ [48] "Cambridge tops research tables". The ARWU2007FullListByRank.pdf. Guardian. 2001-12-14. Retrieved on 2007-11-03. http://education.guardian.co.uk/RAE/ [61] "The Times Good University Guide 2007 story/0,,618278,00.html. Retrieved on Top Universities 2007 League Table". 2008-09-08. The Times. [49] "University figures show sharp research http://www.timesonline.co.uk/ divide". The Guardian. 2005-09-22. displayPopup/0,,102571,00.html. http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/ Retrieved on 2007-11-03. research/story/0,,1575165,00.html. [62] "University league table". The Daily Retrieved on 2008-09-08. Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/ [50] "Thomson Scientific ranks U.K. news/ research". Thomson Scientific. main.jhtml;jsessionid=HXFCSGXMNVABTQFIQMFCF 2006-05-04. news/2007/07/30/ncambs430.xml. http://scientific.thomson.com/press/2006/ Retrieved on 2007-10-29. 8319732/. Retrieved on 2008-09-08. [63] "THES - QS World University Rankings [51] "Report in the Times Higher Education 2006". THES. Supplement". Times Higher Education http://www.topuniversities.com/ Supplement. http://www.thes.co.uk/ worlduniversityrankings/results/2006/ search/story.aspx?story_id=2033320. overall_top_200_full_details/. Retrieved [52] "Cambridge University press release". on 2007-11-03. http://www.entrepreneurs.jbs.cam.ac.uk/ [64] "Academic Ranking of World Universities news/news.htm. 2006" (PDF). Shanghai Jiao Tong [53] "The Complete University Guide 2010". University. http://ed.sjtu.edu.cn/rank/ The Complete University Guide. 2006/ARWU2006FULLLISThttp://www.thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk/ BY%20RANK%20(PDF).pdf. Retrieved on single.htm?ipg=8726. 2007-11-03. [54] "The Complete University Guide 2009". [65] "University ranking by institution". The The Complete University Guide. Guardian. http://browse.guardian.co.uk/ http://www.thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk/ education/ single.htm?ipg=6524. 2006?SearchBySubject=&FirstRow=20&SortOrderD [55] "Academic Ranking of World Universities wide&Institution=. Retrieved on 2008" (PDF). Shanghai Jiao Tong 2007-10-29. University. http://www.arwu.org/ [66] ^ "The Sunday Times University League rank2008/Top500_EN(by%20rank).pdf. Table" (PDF). The Sunday Times. Retrieved on 2008-09-03. http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/stug2006/ [56] "The Times Good University Guide stug2006.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-11-03. 2008". The Times. [67] "THES - QS World University Rankings http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/gug/ 2005". THES. gooduniversityguide.php. Retrieved on http://www.topuniversities.com/ 2007-11-03. worlduniversityrankings/results/2005/ [57] "University ranking by institution". The top_200_universities/. Retrieved on Guardian. http://browse.guardian.co.uk/ 2007-11-03. education?SearchBySubject=&FirstRow=29&SortOrderDirection=&SortOrderColumn=GuardianTea [68] "Academic Ranking of World Universities Retrieved on 2007-10-29. 2005". Shanghai Jiao Tong University. [58] "The Sunday Times Good University http://ed.sjtu.edu.cn/rank/2005/ Guide League Tables". The Sunday ARWU2005FullList2.pdf. Retrieved on Times. http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/ 2007-11-03. stug/universityguide.php. Retrieved on [69] "The Times Top Universities". The Times. 2007-11-03. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/ [59] "The Complete University Guide 2008". displayPopup/0,,32607,00.html. The Complete University Guide. Retrieved on 2007-11-03. http://www.thecompleteuniversityguide.co.uk/ "University ranking by institution". The [70] single.htm?ipg=8642. Guardian.

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http://education.guardian.co.uk/ • Leader, Damien (1988–2004). A history of universityguide2005/table/ the University of Cambridge. Cambridge 0,,-5163901,00.html?start=40&index=3&index=3. University Press. ISBN Retrieved on 2007-10-29. 978-0-521-32882-1. [71] "Academic Ranking of World Universities • Stubbings, Frank (1995). Bedders, 2004". Shanghai Jiao Tong University. bulldogs and bedells: a Cambridge http://ed.sjtu.edu.cn/rank/2004/ glossary. Cambridge University Press. top500(1-100).pdf. Retrieved on ISBN 978-0-521-47978-3. 2007-11-03. • Smith, J.; Stray, C. (2001). Teaching and [72] "Academic Ranking of World Universities Learning in 19th century Cambridge. 2003". Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-851-15783-2. http://ed.sjtu.edu.cn/rank/2003/ • Willis, Robert (1988). John Willis Clark. top101.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-11-03. ed. The Architectural History of the [73] "Times Good University Guide 2003 University of Cambridge and of the Ignore the 2002 typo in the doucument". Colleges of Cambridge and Eton. http://www.nottingham.edu.my/News/ Cambridge University Press. ISBN News/Documents/2002/ 978-0-521-35851-4. Nottingham%20wins%20in%20popularity%20stakes.pdf. • Deacon, Richard (1985). The Cambridge [74] "University league table". The Daily Apostles: A History of Cambridge Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/ University’s Elite Intellectual Secret education/graphics/2003/06/27/ Society. Cassell. ISBN unibigpic.jpg. 978-0-947-72813-7. [75] ^ "The 2002 ranking - From Warwick". • A history of the University of Cambridge, Warwick Uni 2002. by Christopher N.L. Brooke, Cambridge http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/ University Press, 4 volumes, 1988–2004, academicoffice/ourservices/planning/ ISBN 0-521-32882-9, ISBN 0-521-35059-X, businessinformation/academicstatistics/ ISBN 0-521-35060-3, ISBN 0-521-34350-X 2002/table_81.xls. • Japanese Students at Cambridge [76] ^ "University ranking based on University in the Meiji Era, 1868–1912: performance over 10 years" (PDF). Times Pioneers for the Modernization of Japan Online. 2007. [1], by Noboru Koyama, translated by Ian http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/pdfs/ Ruxton [2], Lulu Press, September 2004, univ07ten.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. ISBN 1-4116-1256-6. This book includes [77] "The Top 100 Global Universities". information about the wooden spoon and MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/ the university in the 19th century as well 14321230/site/newsweek/. Retrieved on as the Japanese students. 2008-09-08. • The History of the University of [78] "The Times Good University Guide Cambridge and Education in England, by Subject Rankings". The Times. Grayden Webb, Cambridge University http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/tol_gug/ Press, 2005, ISBN 0-521-32882-9 gooduniversityguide.php. Retrieved on 2008-26-11. [79] "Futuristic version of the Cambridge • University of Cambridge official website University skyline around the year • Cambridge University Students’ Union 2395". http://www.memory-alpha.org/en/ • Cambridge University Graduate Union wiki/Image:Cambridge2395.jpg. • Interactive map – a zoomable map linking Retrieved on 2008-09-08. to all the University departments and colleges Coordinates: 52°12′11″N 0°07′12″E / • Leedham-Green, Elisabeth (1996). A 52.203°N 0.120°E / 52.203; 0.120 concise history of the University of Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43978-7.

External links

References

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Cambridge"

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