Alfa_Romeo by zzzmarcus

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Alfa Romeo

Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo production between 1934-1939[3] Year 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 Cars 699 91 20 270 542 372 Industrial vehicles 0 211 671 851 729 562 acronym for Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili (translated: Lombard Automobile Factory, Public Company).

Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A.

Foundation and early years

Type Predecessor Founded Founder(s) Headquarters Area served Key people

Private Società Anonima Italiana Darracq (SAID) 24 June 1910 in Milan, Italy Alexandre Darracq/Ugo Stella Nicola Romeo Turin, Italy Worldwide Luca di Montezemolo

Alfa Romeo started as Darracq Italiana in 1906 assembling Darracq cars, here is 1908 Darracq 8/10 HP at Museo Storico Alfa Romeo.

Sergio Cravero (CEO) Industry Products Parent Website Automotive Automobiles Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A.

Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is an Italian automaker founded on 24 June 1910 in Milan.[1] Alfa Romeo has been a part of the Fiat Group since 1986.[2] The company was originally known as A.L.F.A., which is an

Giulietta (1955)


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Alfa Romeo

24 HP (1910) 1900 C Super Sprint (1954)

Spider (1967) 6C 2300B Touring (1934)

1750 GT Veloce (1967-1971) 8C 2900B Touring Spider (1937) The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq (SAID) in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909.[4] The firm’s initial location was in Naples, but even before the construction of the planned factory had started, Darracq decided late 1906 that Milan would be a more suitable location and accordingly a tract of land was acquired in the Milan suburb of Portello, where a new factory of 6,700 square metres (8,000 sq yd) was erected. Late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling slowly and Stella, with the other Italian co-investors, founded a new company named A.L.F.A. (Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili), initially still in partnership with Darracq. The first non-Darracq car produced by company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi, hired in 1909 for designing new cars more suitable to the Italian market. Merosi would go on to design a series of new A.L.F.A. cars, with more powerful


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engines (40-60 HP). A.L.F.A. also ventured into motor racing, drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24 HP models. In 1914, an advanced Grand Prix car was designed and built, the GP1914 which featured a four cylinder, double overhead camshafts, four valves per cylinder and twin ignition.[5] However, the onset of World War I halted automobile production at A.L.F.A. for three years. In August 1915 the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. Munitions, aircraft engines and other components, compressors and generators based on the company’s existing car engines were produced in a vastly enlarged factory during the war. When the war was over, Romeo invested his war profits in acquiring locomotive and railways carriage plants in Saronno (Costruzioni Meccaniche di Saronno), Rome (Officine Meccaniche di Roma) and Naples (Officine Ferroviarie Meridionali), which were added to his A.L.F.A. ownership. Car production had not been considered at first, but resumed in 1919 since parts for the completion of 105 cars were still lying at the A.L.F.A. factory since 1915.[4] In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20-30 HP becoming the first car to be badged as such.[6] Their first success came in 1920 when Giuseppe Campari won at Mugello and continued with second place in the Targa Florio driven by Enzo Ferrari. Giuseppe Merosi continued as head designer, and the company continued to produce solid road cars as well as successful race cars (including the 40-60 HP and the RL Targa Florio). In 1923 Vittorio Jano was lured away from Fiat, partly thanks to the persuasion of a young Alfa racing driver named Enzo Ferrari, to replace Merosi as chief designer at Alfa Romeo. The first Alfa Romeo under Jano was the P2 Grand Prix car, which won Alfa Romeo the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925. For Alfa road cars Jano developed a series of small-to-medium-displacement 4, 6, and 8 cylinder inline power plants based on the P2 unit that established the classic architecture of Alfa engines, with light alloy construction, hemispherical combustion chambers, centrally-located plugs, two rows of overhead valves per cylinder

Alfa Romeo
bank and dual overhead cams. Jano’s designs proved to be both reliable and powerful. Enzo Ferrari proved to be a better team manager than driver, and when the factory team was privatised, it then became Scuderia Ferrari. When Ferrari left Alfa Romeo, he went on to build his own cars. Tazio Nuvolari often drove for Alfa, winning many races prior to World War II. In 1928 Nicola Romeo left, with Alfa going broke after defense contracts ended, and in the end of 1932 Alfa Romeo was rescued by the government,[6] which then had effective control. Alfa became an instrument of Mussolini’s Italy, a national emblem. During this period Alfa Romeo built bespoke vehicles for the wealthy, with the bodies normally built by Touring of Milan or Pinin Farina. This was the era that peaked with the legendary Alfa Romeo 2900B Type 35 racers. The Alfa factory (converted during wartime to the production of Macchi C.202 Folgore engines) was bombed during World War II, and struggled to return to profitability after the war. The luxury vehicles were out. Smaller mass-produced vehicles began to be produced in Alfa’s factories beginning with the 1954 model year, with the introduction of the Giulietta series of berline (saloons/sedans), coupes and open two-seaters. All three varieties shared what would become the classic Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, initially in 1300 cc form. This engine would eventually be enlarged to just under 2 liters (1962 cc) and would remain in production through 1995.

Post war
Once motorsports resumed after World War II, Alfa Romeo proved to be the car to beat in Grand Prix events. The introduction of the new formula (Formula One) for single-seat racing cars provided an ideal setting for Alfa Romeo’s tipo 158 Alfetta, adapted from a prewar voiturette, and Giuseppe Farina won the first Formula One World Championship in 1950 in the 158. Juan Manuel Fangio secured Alfa’s second consecutive championship in 1951. In 1954, Alfa-Romeo had experimented with its first front-wheel drive compact car named "33" (not related or referred to sports car similarly named "33"). It had the same transverse-mounted, forward-motor layout as the modern front-wheel drive automobiles. It


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even resembled the smaller version of its popular Alfa-Romeo Giulia. However, due to the financial difficulties in post-war Italy, the 33 never saw the production. Had AlfaRomeo succeed in producing 33, it would precede the Mini as the first "modern" frontwheel drive compact car. During the 1960s, Alfa concentrated on competition using production-based cars, including the GTA (standing for Gran Turismo Allegerita), an aluminium-bodied version of the Bertone-designed coupe with a powerful twin-plug engine. Among other victories, the GTA won the inaugural Sports Car Club of America’s Trans-Am championship in 1966. In the 1970s, Alfa concentrated on prototype sports car racing with the Tipo 33, with early victories in 1971. Eventually the Tipo 33TT12 gained the World Championship for Makes for Alfa Romeo in 1975 and the Tipo 33SC12 won the World Championship for Sports Cars in 1977. By the 1970s Alfa was again in financial trouble. The Italian government company Finmeccanica bowed out in 1986 as Fiat Group bought in, creating a new group, Alfa Lancia Industriale S.p.A.,[6] to manufacture Alfas and Lancias. Models produced subsequent to the 1990s combined Alfa’s traditional virtues of avant-garde styling and sporting panache with the economic benefits of product rationalisation, and include a "GTA" version of the 147 hatchback, the Giugiaro-designed Brera, and a high-performance exotic called the 8C Competizione (named after one of Alfa’s most successful prewar sports and racing cars, the 8C of the 1930s). In 2005 Maserati was bought back from Ferrari and brought under Fiat’s full control. The Fiat Group plans to create a sports and luxury division from Maserati and Alfa Romeo.[7] There is a planned strategic relationship between these two; engines, platforms and possibly dealers will be shared in some market areas.[8] In the beginning of 2007, Fiat Auto S.p.A. was reorganizated and four new automobile companies were created; Fiat Automobiles S.p.A., Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A., Lancia Automobiles S.p.A. and Fiat Light Commercial Vehicles S.p.A. These companies are fully owned by Fiat Group Automobiles S.p.A.[9]

Alfa Romeo

The history of the Alfa Romeo badge

The evolution of the Alfa Romeo badge.

The badge and the traditional shape of the Alfa Romeo grille. In 1910 a draughtsman named Romano Cattaneo was given the job of coming up with a badge for a new Milan-based company, ALFA. The story goes that as he was waiting for a train at the Piazza Castello terminus in Milan, he gained inspiration from the great Visconti family’s red cross and biscione (human child-eating serpent) coat of arms


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emblazoned over the great door of Castello Sforzesco. In 1918 after the company was purchased by Nicola Romeo, the badge was redesigned with the help of Giuseppe Merosi, including now the City of Milan’s emblem and that of the Visconti family in a circular motif, bordered by a dark blue metallic ring containing the inscription "ALFA — ROMEO" and "MILANO" separated by two Savoy dynasty knots to honour the Kingdom of Italy. After the victory of the P2 in the inaugural Automobile World Championship in 1925, Alfa added a laurel wreath around the logo. In 1946 after the victory of the Italian Republic Savoy knots were replaced with two curvy lines. The name "MILANO", the hyphen and the Savoy knots (lines) were eliminated when Alfa Romeo opened the factory at Pomigliano d’Arco, Naples in early 1970s.

Alfa Romeo

Carabinieri and Italian Government

"Panther" Alfa Giulia Super In the 1960s Alfa Romeo became famous for its small cars and models specifically designed for the Italian police — "Panthers" and Carabinieri; among them the glorious "Giulia Super" or the 2600 Sprint GT, which acquired the expressive nickname of "Inseguimento" dir. trl. "to chase or predate" (this car is wrongly supposed to be the one that the famous Roman police marshal and unrivalled driver Armandino Spadafora brought down on the Spanish Steps in 1960 while following some robbers — it was actually a black Ferrari 250 GT/E — this picture of Giulia [1], one of the dozens about this legend, is taken from a movie and not at the Spanish Steps). The colours of the Alfa Romeos used by the Polizia were grey/blue with white stripes and writing, known as "Pantera" (Panther), enhancing the aggressive look of the Alfa (particularly the Giulia series), while the Carabinieri Alfas were dark blue with white roofs and red stripes, known as the "Gazzella" (Antelope) denoting the speed and agility of these "Pattuglie" (armed response patrol units). However, the term "Pantera" became used interchangeably and the image helped create a no-nonsense, determined and respected perception by the general public of the men that drove these cars, true to their history. Since then, Alfas remain the chosen mount of the Carabinieri (renowned arm of the Italian Armed Forces seconded only partly for civilian Policing purposes), Polizia Autostradale (Highway Police) and the conventional police service (Polizia). Successively, the following

Racing history

Brian Redman driving with Alfa Romeo 33 TT 12 Alfa Romeo has always been involved with motor racing. In the 1920s and 30s Alfa Romeo scored wins at many of the most famous and prestigious races and motoring events such as Targa Florio, Mille Miglia and Le Mans. Great success continued with Formula 1, Prototypes, Touring and Fast Touring. Private drivers also entered some rally competitions, with fine results. Alfa Romeo has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries Alfa Corse, Autodelta and private entries. Today Alfa Romeo is active in different Touring car series and the new Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione is planned to take part to Le Mans GT2 class in the near future.[10]


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Alfa Romeo Berlinas have found favour for Italian Police and Government employment: • Alfetta • Nuova Giulietta • Alfa Romeo 75 • Alfa Romeo 164 (Official Vehicles) • Alfa Romeo 155 • Alfa Romeo 156 • Alfa Romeo 166 (Official Vehicles) • Alfa Romeo 159 Since 1960s, the Italian Prime Minister has used Alfa Romeos (and lately the new Maserati Quattroporte) as preferred government limousines. The 164, and 166 have found particular employment in the last two decades.

Alfa Romeo
has since been a design feature of Alfa to the present day. Italian design houses, when commissioned by the Fiat Group to produce a set of new car designs, appear to follow a ’rule’ which defines their creative output in terms of Marque. Since 2005, the following ’pattern’ appears to be in use: • Alfa Sports • Ferrari • Maserati / Alfa Berlina • Fiat • Lancia An example of this would be the design process of 2005: The 8C Competizione’s design elements set the standard for that year, expressed in classic super-coupe form. Those design elements where then translated into gran tourismo form in the Ferrari 599. Evidence of this is the similarity in design of the front lights, body form, and the Ferrari’s retention of the 8C’s twin rear lights, which is unusual for a Ferrari (they tend towards having a quartet or rear lights) In a similar process, some of the Maserati Quattroporte’s design features were reflected in the design of the Alfa Romeo 159 Berlina. Examples include the door design strategy, the interior form, and bodylines. It should be noted that this is the limit of sharing, as in all other ways the Alfa follows a different design ethic. Alfa have, during the 1980s and 1990s, allowed the flagship ’halo’ model’s design to permeate the design process for other models, in order to increase sales, and market share. This is not an unusual process : competitors such as BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Audi all share this philosophy. Alfa have demonstrated a unique approach, in which styling cues may be present, but each model displays a distinct character out of keeping with siblings, characteristics not shared with competition. The most prominent example of this process is the evolution of the Alfa Romeo 33: each generation (I, II and III) inherited successively styling cues from the flagship model. Cognoscenti among Alfisti consequently label Series I as ’Alfa 90’ 33’s, the Series II as ’Alfa 75’ 33’s, and Series III as ’Alfa 164’ 33’s, for the resemblance to each model. However, Alfa has always transferred technology from flagship to base models - in consequence, the ’164’ 33’s are the most desirable, as they possess the highest level of

Technological development
The following is a list of the most prominent technology introduced by Alfa Romeo, along with the models that introduced each one: • DOHC Engine (1914 Grand Prix car, 1920s 6C road cars) • Mechanical Variable Valve Timing (Duetto/Spider) • All-wheel disc brakes (105 series Giulia) • Plastic radiator header tank (105 series Giulia) • Lowest Drag Coefficient (Cd) in class (105 series Giulia) • 50:50 weight distribution (Alfetta 2000 & GTV) • Standard Fit Alloy Wheels (Alfetta 2000 & GTV) • Transaxle (Alfetta 2000 & GTV) • Electronic Variable Valve Timing (Alfetta) • Complete CAD design process (Alfa Romeo 164) • Robotised/Paddle control transmission (156 Selespeed) • Common rail diesel engine (156)[11]

Alfa have often used controversial and unorthodox styling, which often challenged assumptions. However, Alfa have also been responsible for some of the most beautiful Italian cars ever made, as well as some of the most influential. From the 1930s, Alfa was in the vanguard of design when it came to integrating aeronautical design and aerodynamics into motor vehicles (the Berlina Aerodinamica Technica, the BAT cars), which


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construction, rust-proof galvanisation of the body (introduced in the 164), as well as superior Bosch electronics with fuel injection. All of these features were not present in the first generations of Alfa Romeo 33’s, which demonstrates the effect of styling on Alfa design. Throughout its history, prominent styling houses have produced very beautiful designs for Alfa, which has contributed to their international reputation for beauty. A selection of designers include: • Bertone • Giorgetto Giugiaro / Italdesign • Pininfarina • Zagato • Centro Stile Alfa Romeo

Alfa Romeo

The Graduate
Certainly the most famous appearance and presence on screen of any Alfa must be

Dustin Hoffman’s Spider runs out of gas in The Graduate. 1967’s hit film The Graduate, starring Dustin Hoffman, Katharine Ross and Anne Bancroft. It gave worldwide celebrity to the "Spider" (best known by the Italian nickname of "Duetto", or as "Osso di Seppia," meaning "cuttlefish bone," or Round-tail), and also for its elegant and attractive form [2]. The Spider depicted on screen had its engine note accurately recorded, and electrical foibles (the non-functional fuel gauge) reproduced. On the strength of the Spider’s appeal, Alfa Romeo continued to sales of the Spider into 1980s in the United States as the Alfa Graduate. The entire set of scenes featuring the Spider in the Graduate were replicated in satire by Mike Myers in his comedy, Wayne’s World 2. The Spider here cuts out Simon & Garfunkel’s "Mrs. Robinson" when passing under a bridge (implying music being played on a radio), but still has a non-functional fuel gauge - causing it to ultimately grind to halt (fortunately at the correct church!) The Spider was designed by Pininfarina; derived from several design studies dating back to the late 1950s, the Spider is believed to be the last design on which Battista Farina personally worked.

In Italian the owner of an Alfa Romeo is an "Alfista", and a group of them are "Alfisti". Alfa Romeo is sometimes worshipped by its owners, and many models have become cultural symbols. There are many thriving Alfa Romeo owners clubs and Alfa Romeo Model Registers. Alfa Romeo motorcars are recognised by all Motor enthusiasts as being the first "supercar", with the term being coined in the 1920s by a British journalist to describe an Alfa Romeo. Some notable owners include Beppe Carletti (Musician, Retailer - 2000 Spider), Jeremy Christian (Classic Track Driver, Writer - GTV), Jeremy Clarkson (Motoring Journalist - GTV6), Alex Hucksley (Actor, Stock Broker - Duetto), Roger Moore (Actor - GTV6) and Michael Schumacher (F1 Driver - Giulietta Super). The Hosting team of the popular British motoring interest show Top Gear often state that a car enthusiast must have owned an Alfa Romeo at some point before they can be considered a true petrolhead (meaning an extreme car enthusiast).

Movies and television
Alfa Romeos have been natural television and film subjects, due to their excellence of styling. Appearances have been numerous and widespread. The following list is not exhaustive. Appearances are listed according to their impact on popular culture.

The Italian Job
Alfa Romeo Giulia ’Panthers’ appear as Polizia cars in the 1969 movie The Italian Job. During the chase in Turin each suffers an unpleasant, yet humorous demise. Memorable ’deaths’ include breaking down on top the roof of a gently sloping building dome, and being washed away by the flow of water from a weir while chasing a mini.


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Alfa Romeo
always been driving Alfa Romeo, starting from Giulia Super to the latest Alfa Romeo models. • Alfa Romeo had also a "role" in the Austrian detective series Kommissar Rex (Inspector Rex). At the beginning, Tobias Moretti drove a 155 and later Gedeon Burkhard drove a 166. • A "Giulietta Red" Alfa Romeo Mito appeared, in the popular soap opera, Coronation Street being owned by onscreen Businessman Luke Strong.

James Bond
Alfas have featured on-screen in three James Bond films. Blue Polizia Alfettas are seen in For Your Eyes Only, haring up a snowy mountainside in one shot. One of the most prominent roles was when James Bond (Roger Moore) stole and then drove a silver GTV6 in 1983’s Octopussy. In the scene is pursued by two Bavarian BMW 5-series police cars. A pair of black Alfa Romeo 159s 3.2 Q4’s appeared in the opening scenes of the 2008 James Bond film Quantum of Solace. They featured in the car chase with James Bond’s Aston Martin DBS V12 around Lake Garda, Italy. Noteworthy attention was paid to the sound of Alfa’s, which have the characteristic ’Big V-6’ sound on-screen. The same film also features a Carabineri Alfa 156. Rene Mathis also has an Alfa, a white 2600 GT coupe.

In Dan Brown’s novel Angels & Demons, the members of the Swiss Guard all drive Alfa Romeo sedans.

Until the 1980s, Alfa Romeos, except for the Alfasud, were rear-wheel-drive. According to the current Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne in order to reap economies of scale, all new Alfa Romeo models will be made from the same basic platform (i.e., frame). Even Maserati will share components with some Alfas.[13]

Other films
• Giulietta Masina in Fellini’s Juliet of the Spirits is courted by a "Romeo" in a Giulietta (Spider), a double play on words. • Edward Fox’s character, the titular Jackal, in 1973’s The Day of the Jackal drives a white Giulietta Spider. He repaints the car blue in a forest clearing to avoid police, then crashes the car. • Michael Corleone (Al Pacino) in The Godfather drove a black Alfa Romeo 6C while in exile in Sicily. This was actually the car that was booby-trapped and explodes with Apollonia, his Sicilian wife, in it toward the end of the movie. María Corleone drove a red spider. • John Malkovich, as Tom Ripley, in Ripley’s Game, drives a red Alfa Romeo 156 Sportwagon. • In 2009s The International, starring Clive Owen, has a black Alfa Romeo 164 integral in a pivotal scene. • In The Omen remake In the Italian scenes the main characters travel in an Alfa 164. Aside from this, Alfas on screen are widespread in numerous Italian local productions.

Quadrifoglio badge on the Alfetta 159 Cloverleaf, or Quadrifoglio, badges denote high-end in comfort and engine size variants of Alfa Romeo cars, but previously denoted Alfa Romeo racing cars in the pre-SecondWorld-War era. The image first appeared in 1923 when Ugo Sivocci presented one prior to the start of the 14th Targa Florio as a good luck token to the team. This became the symbol of competition Alfas, denoting higher performance. Some modern Alfas wear a cloverleaf badge which is typically a green four leaf clover on a white background (Quadrifoglio

• In the television crime film series Ein Fall für Zwei ("a case for two", over 250 episodes made so far), the leading actor Claus Theo Gärtner, who plays the role of the private detective Josef Matula, has


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Alfa Romeo production between 1998-2007[12] Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Cars 197,680 208,336 206,836 213,638 187,437 187,437 182,469 162,179 130,815 157,794 151,898

Alfa Romeo

Verde), but variants of blue on white have been recently observed as well. The Alfettas of the early 1980s had models available sold as the "Silver Leaf" and "Gold Leaf" (Quadrifoglio Oro). These models were the top of the range. Badging was the Alfa Cloverleaf in either gold or silver to denote the specification level. The Gold Leaf model was also sold as the "159i" in some markets, the name in homage to the original 159. The trim levels (option packages) offered today on the various nameplates (model lines) include the lusso ("luxury"), turismo ("touring"), and the GTA (gran tourismo alleggerita ("light-weight grand tourer"). The GTA package is offered in the 147 and 156 and includes a V-6 engine. In the past, Alfa Romeo offered a Sprint (from Italian sprintare, "to accelerate fast") trim level. During the 1990s, Alfa Romeo moved car production to other districts in Italy. The Pomigliano d’Arco plant produced the 155, followed by the 145 and the 146, while Arese manufactured the 164 and new Spider and GTV. The 156 was launched in 1997, and became quite successful for Alfa Romeo; in 1998 it was voted “Car of the Year”. The same year a new flagship, the 166 (assembled in Rivalta, near Turin) was launched. At the beginning of the third millennium, the 147 was released, which won the prestigious title of “Car of the Year 2001”. In 2003 the Arese factory is closed. The 155, 156, and GTV/Spider are no longer produced. The GTV/Spider was made in limited numbers, and is still a sought after model.

The Arese factory today hosts almost nothing and is nearly abandoned. What remains are some offices and the great Alfa Romeo Historical Museum, a must-see for Alfa Romeo fans.

Right-hand drive production post-1960
In the 60s, the main Alfa Romeo seat was moved from inside Milan to a very large and nearby area extending over the municipalities of Arese, Lainate and Garbagnate Milanese. However, since then the Alfa seat is known to be in Arese, since the offices and the main entrance of the area are there. In the late 1960s, a number of European automobile manufacturers established facilities in South Africa to assemble right hand drive vehicles. Fiat and other Italian manufacturers established factories along with these other manufacturers, Alfa-Romeos were assembled in Brits, outside of Pretoria in the Transvaal Province of South Africa. With the imposition of sanctions by western powers in the 1970s and 1980s, South Africa became self sufficient, and in car production came to rely more and more on the products from local factories. This led to a remarkable set of circumstances where between 1972 and 1989, South Africa had the greatest number of Alfa Romeos on the road outside of Italy. Assembly plants by model[14] Plant Owner Location Model(s)


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Stabilimento Fiat S.p.A. Turin Mirafiori MiTo

Alfa Romeo

Giambattista Fiat S.p.A. Pomigliano 147, 159, Vico d’Arco, 159 SportNaples wagon, GT San Giorgio Canavese Pininfarina San GiorS.p.A. gio Canavese, Turin Maserati S.p.A. Modena Brera, Spider



Return to the United States
In 1995 Alfa Romeo ceased exporting cars to the United States, the last model to be sold being the 164. Rumors began of their return, however as the FAQ on Alfa’s English website had said "The long-awaited return of Alfa Romeo to the United States market should take place by 2007, with a range of new models." Alfa Romeo’s return to United States was confirmed on 5 May 2006 by Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne. Alfa Romeo resumed sales in the United States with the 8C Competizione in October 2008.[15] In late 2009, Alfa Romeo will release the 159, Brera, and Spider after they receive a mid-life styling and technical refreshening. It is anticipated that a year or two later will see the introduction of the Kamal SUV, 169, and possibly the B-segment Mi.To (as a competitor for the MINI Cooper). As with the 8C Competizione, Alfa Romeos will be initially sold at Maserati dealers throughout United States.[16] Alfa Romeo and Chrysler are currently in discussions, with Alfa Romeo possibly using Chrysler manufacturing plants that have been shut down due to unneeded product.[17] Due to the global financial crisis of 2008, the full return of Alfa Romeo to the US market with the release of Alfa Romeo models other than the 8C Competizione will be delayed until 2011.[18]



Alfa Romeo 147
The 147 is small family car produced by Italian automaker Alfa Romeo since 2000. It is based on the running gear of the larger 156 saloon, which was in production from 1997 to 2005. The most powerful GTA version uses the traditional name from the Alfa Romeo GTA. It will be replaced with 149 in 2010.

Current models
Alfa Romeo MiTo
A 3-door sporty supermini launched in June 2008. 159 Sportwagon

Alfa Romeo 159
Current mid-size saloon, introduced in production form at the 2005 Geneva Motor


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Show. The 159 is available with four different petrol engines and three diesels. 159 Sportwagon is an estate version of this car. Was launched in 2005 to replace the 156.

Alfa Romeo

Alfa Romeo Spider
A roadster variant of Brera coupe was introduced at the 2006 Geneva Motor Show. The car replaced the Spider 916 model, introduced in 1995. Pininfarina assembles this car alongside the Brera in San Giorgio Canavese, Italy.


Alfa Romeo GT
Front wheel drive small Bertone-designed coupe. The GT was introduced in 2004 and is based on the 156 saloon, which ceased production the following year. Engine options include two petrol (1.8L, 2.0L, 3.2L V6 is discontinued) and one diesel (1.9L) version. Interior is based heavily on the 147.

8C Competizione

Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione
Limited edition supercar presented as a concept car at the 2003 Frankfurt Motor Show and later put into limited production (500) for the 2007 model year, with a limited run of 500 Spider (Convertible) versions the following year. The car uses a Ferrari/ Maserati-derived 4.7l V8 engine, producing 450 metric horsepower (330 kW).


Alfa Romeo Brera
The car is a 2+2 coupe designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro and manufactured by Pininfarina. It was originally introduced as a concept car at the 2002 Geneva Motor Show, and was launched in 2005 as successor to the decadeold GTV. The production version maintained the exterior appearance almost exactly but on a smaller scale.

Future models
• • • • Alfa Romeo Milano (Expected-2010) Alfa Romeo Giulia (2011) (Expected-2011) Alfa Romeo 169 (Expected-2011) C Crossover (Expected-2010)

Historic models


6C Gran Sport (1931)


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Alfa Romeo Cars 1910 1910-1920 1910-1911 1911-1920 1913-1922 1921-1922 1920-1921 1921-1921 1922-1927 1923-1925 1927-1929 1929-1933 1931-1934 1933-1933 1934-1937 1935-1939 24 HP 12 HP 15 HP 40-60 HP 20-30 HP G1 G2 RL RM 6C 1500 6C 1750 8C 6C 6C 8C 2300 1900 2300 2900

Alfa Romeo



1940 1950

1938-1950 158 1939-1950 6C 2500 1950-1958 1951-1953 1951-1953 1954-1962 1958-1962 1959-1964 1962-1968 1962-1976 1963-1967 1963-1977 1965-1967 1965-1971 1966-1993 1967-1969 1967-1977 1970-1977 1972-1983 1972-1984 1974-1987 1976-1989 1977-1985 1979-1986 1983-1994 1984-1987 1984-1987 1985-1992 1987-1998 1989-1993 1992-1998 1994-2000 1994-2000 1995-2006 1900 158/159 Matta Giulietta 2000 Dauphine 2600 Giulia Saloon Giulia TZ Giulia Sprint Gran Sport Quattroruote GTA Giulia Spider 33 Stradale 1750/2000 Berlina Montreal Alfasud Alfetta saloon Alfetta GT/GTV Alfasud Sprint Nuova Giulietta Alfa 6 33 Arna 90 75 164 SZ/RZ 155 145 146 GTV/Spider






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1997-2005 156 1998-2007 166

Alfa Romeo

GTV6 (1980)

8C 2300 (1931)

Spider (1992)

2600 Touring Spider (1961)

156 (1997) famous design houses and designers. The BAT series of concepts from the 1950s was a joint collaboration project with the Italian design house Bertone. Other famous Italian coachbuilders and design houses like Pininfarina, Bertone, Zagato and ItalDesign-Giugiaro have also played a great role in Alfa Romeo’s history, and even today some of models are designed and constructed by these great names.

GT Junior (1965)

Design has always played a large role in the history of Alfa Romeo. There have been many Alfa Romeo concept cars, often made by


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Alfa Romeo
World War II Alfa Romeo produced engines for Fiat, Aerfer and Ambrosini. In the 1960s Alfa Romeo mainly focused upgrading and maintaining Curtiss-Wright, Pratt & Whitney, Rolls-Royce and General Electric aircraft engines. Alfa Romeo built also Italy’s first turbine engine, installed to the Beechcraft King Air. Alfa Romeo’s Avio division was sold to Aeritalia in 1988,[23] from 1996 it was part of Fiat Avio.[24] Alfa Avio was also part of developing team to the new T700-T6E1 engine to the NHI NH90 helicopter.[25]

Other production
Although Alfa Romeo is best known as automobile manufacturer it has produced also commercial vehicles, railway locomotives,[19] tractors, buses, trams, compressors, generators,cookers, marine and aircraft engines.

Aircraft engines

Trucks, light commercial vehicles


D2 aircraft engine. An Alfa engine was first used on an aircraft in 1910 on the Santoni-Franchini biplane. [20] In 1932 Alfa Romeo built its first real aircraft engine the D2 (240 bhp), which was fitted to Caproni 101 D2. In the 1930s when Alfa Romeo engines were used for aircraft on a larger scale; the Savoia Marchetti SM.74, Savoia-Marchetti SM.75, Savoia-Marchetti SM.79, Savoia Marchetti SM.81 and Cant Z506B Airone all used Alfa Romeo manufactured engines.[21] In 1931, a competition was arranged where Tazio Nuvolari drove his Alfa Romeo 8C 3000 Monza against a Caproni Ca.100 airplane.[22] Alfa Romeo built various aircraft engines during World War II; the best known was the RA.1000 RC 41-I Monsone, a licensed version of the Daimler-Benz DB 601. This engine made it possible to build efficient fighter aircraft like the Macchi C.202 Folgore for the Italian army. After

Romeo2 LCV In 1930 Alfa Romeo presented a light truck in addition to heavy LCVs based to Büssing constructions.[26] In the Second World War Alfa Romeo also built trucks for the Italian army ("35 tons anywhere") and later also for the German Wehrmacht. After the war, commercial motor vehicle production was resumed. In co-operation with FIAT and Saviem starting from the 60s different light truck models were developed. The production of heavy


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Alfa Romeo
• Alfa Romeo 900 • Alfa Romeo Mille (Alfa Romeo 1000)

Alfa Romeo sponsorships

Alfa Romeo 1000 (Mille) Aerfer FI 711.2 OCREN trolleybus in Naples. LCVs was terminated in 1967. In Brazil the heavy trucks were built still few years under the name FNM (Fàbrica Nacional de Motores). Last Alfa Romeo vans were Alfa Romeo AR6 and AR8, which were rebadged versions of Iveco Daily and Fiat Ducato. The company also produced trolleybuses, which were used by many cities in Italy. Later, Alfa Romeo concentrated only on passenger car manufacturing.

The Alfa Romeo 159 Safety Car. In 2002 was launched the first Alfa Romeo super maxi yacht and Neville Crichton’s new super maxi Alfa Romeo 2 was first tested in 2005, this 30-metre (98 ft) ship is successor to the world champion of the same name. The first Alfa Romeo super maxi took around 74 wins, including the 2002 Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race.[28] Alfa Romeo is also sponsoring SBK Superbike World Championship and Ducati Corse since 2007. The Alfa Romeo MiTo 3-door sporty supermini is used as safety car in Superbike World Championship events.

Romeo (1954-1958) Romeo 2 (until 1966) Romeo 3 (1966) A11/F11 A12/F12 (until 1983) AR8 (based on first generation Iveco Daily) • AR6 (based on first generation Fiat Ducato) • • • • • •

Further reading
• Borgeson, Griffith (1990). The Alfa Romeo Tradition. Haynes (Foulis) Publishing Group Ltd. Somerset, UK. ISBN 0854298754. • Braden, Pat (1994). Alfa Romeo Owner’s Bible Cambridge: Bentley Publishers. ISBN 0837607078. • Stefano d’ Amico and Maurizio Tabuchi (2004). Alfa Romeo Production Cars. Giorgio NADA Editore. ISBN 8879113224. • Hull and Slater (1982). Alfa Romeo: a History. Transport Bookman Publications. ISBN 0851840418. • Venables, David (2000). First among Champions. Osceola: Motorbooks International. ISBN 1859606318. • Moore, Simon (1987). Immortal 2.9. Parkside Pubns. ISBN 9780961726607.

• • • • • • • Alfa Alfa Alfa Alfa Alfa Alfa Alfa Romeo Romeo Romeo Romeo Romeo Romeo Romeo 430 (1942-1950)[27] 500 800 (1940-1943)[27] 900 950 Mille (Alfa Romeo 1000) A19n (Saviem license)

• • • • Alfa Alfa Alfa Alfa Romeo Romeo Romeo Romeo 140 A. 900 A. 950. Mille (Alfa Romeo 1000).

• Alfa Romeo 110AF (1938) • Alfa Romeo 140AF (1949)


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Alfa Romeo

See also motorsport/sportscars/other/ • Category: Alfa Romeo engines alfa_8c_competizione/2012.html. • Category: Alfa Romeo people Retrieved on 2007-04-25. [11] "New Powertrain Technologies Conference". [1] "Alfa Romeo Celebrates 90 Years Of 07_ane_ptc/speakers.html. Retrieved on Success". 2000. 2008-04-08. [12] "Alfa Romeo production between A_52638/title_Alfa-Romeo1998-2007". Celebrates-90-Years-Of-Success/ category/production-statistics/. Retrieved newsarticle.html. Retrieved on on 2008-12-27. 2009-01-09. [13] "Saving Fiat", The Economist, 3 [2] "Alfa Romeo". December 2005, p. 64, vol. 377. [14] "Fiat Group Automobiles". company-histories/Alfa-Romeo-Companyit-it. History.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-09. mediacentre/group/Documents/ [3] "STORY OF THE ALFA ROMEO MEDIAKIT_2009_ITA/FGA.pdf. Retrieved FACTORY AND PLANTS:" (PDF). on 2009-05-20. [15] "Welcome Back! Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione Launches in America". articolieriviste/galleryItaliano2006-2/ Alfa_Romeo_factory_1933-45.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-11-24. auto-news/welcome-back-alfa-romeo-8c[4] ^ "P. Italiano: ’Story of the Alfa Romeo competizione-launches-in-america/ factory and plants : part 1 the early index.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-24. Portello’". AISA. [16] "Latest News 07/13/06". articolieriviste/galleryItaliano2006/ article?AID=/20060713/FREE/ italiano.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-14. 307130001/1024/rss01&rssfeed=rss01. [5] Fusi, Luigi, Le Alfa di Romeo e Merosi, Retrieved on 2007-04-25. Edizione Dimensione S, Milan, 1985 [17] "Latest News 05/27/08". [6] ^ "Alfa Romeo History/The Company". alfa-romeo-exec-in-talks-with-chrysler/. Retrieved on 2008-05-27. pbrand.dll/ALFAROMEO_COM/history/ [18] "Alfa Romeo US return postponed to history.jsp?BV_SessionID=@@@@0765272378.1178052384@@@@&BV_EngineID=cccdaddkklmijljc 2011". Retrieved on 2007-05-02. [7] "News 12.07.2005". alfa-romeo-us-return-postponed-to-2011. Retrieved on 2008-10-25. index.php? [19] Patrick Italiano. "Story of the Alfa Romeo 2005/cars/maserati/07/future/1207.html. factory and plants: Part 1" (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-05-02. [8] "Press release 1 April 2005". news/cronache/docs/ 16-03-06-Story_of_the_Alfa_Romeo_factory_revised.p file_get.php?w=DA9NNPT81AQZM8S0ILGL. Retrieved on 2009-01-01. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. [20] Borgeson, Griffith. The Alfa Romeo [9] "Press release 23/01/2007". Tradition. ISBN 0-85429-875-4. [21] "Alfa Romeo AEREI Collezione Modelli di Marco Rigoni Settembre 2005" (PDF). index.php?method=news&group=3&action=zoom&id=200701231220567ec530483b40c86989a4c1b3 http://www.aereiRetrieved on 2007-05-02. [10] "Racing news 20.12.2006". Alfa%20Romeo_Album%20Modelli%20Aerei_Nov.05. Retrieved on 2007-04-25.



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[22] "La storia di due "duelli" inconsueti avvenuti a 50 anni di distanza l’uno dall’altro". sfide_f1.htm. Retrieved on 2007-04-25. (Italian) [23] "Retrospective: Automobiles and aeroplanes: Alfa Romeo". retrospective/5654/1. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. [24] "FiatAvio acquires Alfa Romeo Avio". newsc.htm. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. [25] "Alfa Romeo Avio (Italy), Buyer’s Guide Engine Manufacturers". Retrieved on 2008-12-23. [26] "ALFA ROMEO TROLLEYBUSSES" (PDF).

Alfa Romeo
KB104/ALFA%20TROLLEY5.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-04-25. [27] ^ "Le modélisme militaire italien à toutes les échelles". italie1935-45. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. (French) [28] "Alfa Romeo Maxi Yacht". default.asp?action=article&ID=8934. Retrieved on 2008-05-29.

External links
• Alfa Romeo International • Alfa Romeo Italy • Alfa Romeo United Kingdom • Alfa Romeo Australia • Alfa Romeo South-Africa • Alfa Romeo Ireland • Alfa Romeo Singapore • Alfa Romeo Vodcast (Official Video Site) • Alfa Romeo Press

Retrieved from "" Categories: Alfa Romeo, Motor vehicle manufacturers of Italy, Car manufacturers, Bus manufacturers, Truck manufacturers, Aircraft engine manufacturers of Italy, Companies established in 1910, Italian brands, Milan motor companies, Trolleybus manufacturers This page was last modified on 20 May 2009, at 22:44 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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