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					SOUTHWEST ASIA
PERSIAN GULF AND THE INTERIOR

ANCIENT HISTORY
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Cultural Hearths
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Mesopotamia
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Centers of ideas, innovations and ideologies that change regions and realms Home of first Cultural Hearth Between Tigris and Euphrates River Farmers used irrigation and food storage Domesticated cereal, vegetables, fruits, animals Developed calendar, math, astronomy, government and engineering Been controlled by many empires including Sumerian, Persia, Mongols, Romans, Ottoman Turks

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Empirically controlled
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HISTORY cont.
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Ottoman Turk Impact
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Ruled from 1453 until after WWI After WWI divided region into Syria, Iraq, Lebanon and Yemen controlled by British and French Didn’t adequately define border so when colonies gained independence, created problems

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Oil
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Most important resource for outside world Within the realm, water and land most important About 65% of known reserves in world located here

Impact of Oil
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American Influence on realm High Economics: most countries upper-middle class Modernization: brings money and business to pay for modernization Industrialization: some use oil money to build lasting industries Intra-realm migration: Shiites and Palestinians move into Arabia
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Saudi Arabia has 5 million foreigners in population of 23 million

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Disparities between oil rich and oil poor countries Foreign investment

IRAQ
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Size of California with 65% of total land and 42% of regions wealth Major oil reserves and large areas of irrigated farmland Site of Mesopotamia Modern Iraq Adversarial with neighbors
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3 regions
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Turkey, Iran, Kuwait, Jordan, Syria

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Core: around Baghdad, heart of country South: around Basra, major oil fields, invasion of Kuwait in 1990 North: Land of Kurds and Sunni, but not Arab Sunni’s
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Kurds want own country Treated poorly under Suddam

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Saudi Arabia
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Arabian Peninsula

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Periphery
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Mostly desert with huge oil reserves 22.9 million population with monarchy Created in 1920’s and stabilized now friendly to west Currently trying to update social programs Economy entirely dependent upon oil
Kuwait: can cut Iraq off from Persian Gulf Bahrain: island with dwindling oil supply Qatar: declining oil but increasing natural gas UAE (United Arab Emirates) unique government Oman: absolute monarchy that controls choke point of Hormuz Strait Yemen: united in 1990’s and created democracy, only one in region

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IRAN
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Formerly Persian Empire that ruled for 2500 years Controls area between Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf 69.4 million population with 63% urban Struggle between modernity and traditional Islamic rulers Revolution in 1979 that put in Ayatollah Khomeini 1980-1990 fought war with Iraq that left Iran very weak Late 1990’s saw desire to liberalize, but put down by government Current US policies becoming a question

MODERN ISSUES
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Economically dependent on oil OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Food importers Growing cities Capital of Islamic world What to do with Iraq?

EASTERN MEDITERREANEAN

ISRAEL
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Creation
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Wars
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Created in 1948 as Jewish homeland with UN support with idea of “Zionism” May 14, 1948 created Israel with Arabic neighbors immediately attacking At end of war, Israel controlled 80% of what had been Palestine 1967 week long war where Israel gains Golan Heights, West Bank and Sinai Peninsula 1973 war forces withdraw from Suez Canal 1978 Israel gives all of Sinai Peninsula back to Egypt

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MAJOR ISSUES: MODERN ISRAEL
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Golan Heights
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Syria wants it back but Israel wants to keep it Originally set as Palestinian Homeland but Jewish migration now makes it difficult 1977 5,000 Jews in West Bank 2000 200,000 Jews in West Bank

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West Bank
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Palestinians
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Nation without a state Many live in Jordan but still large percentage living in Israel

JERUSALEM
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Major issue in Middle East Suppose to be international city, but captured by Israel in 1967 Now considered capital of Israel History
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Moses leads Jews into Philistine land and created Jerusalem where lived 40 centuries After King Solomon, kingdom divided and conquered AD 70 Rome destroys 2nd temple leaving only part of West Wall Under Rome: became focus for Christians 700 AD Muslims move into Jerusalem

JERUSALEM, cont.
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Holy Site for 3 major religions
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Western Wall: Jewish Church of Holy Sepulcher: Christians, place where Jesus buried Dome of the Rock: Muhammad's ascension to heaven on Temple Mount

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Modern Issues
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1948-49 captures only part of Jerusalem Tel Aviv suppose to be capital of Israel Jerusalem divided into 2 sections: Old and New

MODERN ISSUES, cont.
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Jerusalem
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1967 Israel conquered West Bank and reunited Jerusalem with West mostly Jewish and East mostly Arabic 1980 called foreign nations to move from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, but most didn’t and Israel began huge resettlement attempt 1990’s UN tells Israel to stop construction and settlement, but Israel not listening One of wealthiest nations in region 90% of population urban Water issues: 30 % of useable water under West Bank but Israel uses 4X as much water as Palestinians Finding peace biggest issue and problem

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Modern Issues
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West Wall

Dome of the Rock

OTHER NATIONS IN REGION
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Syria
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Shares border with Israel Lost Golan Heights in 1967; military republic since 1963 75% Sunni, but ruled by Alawites who suppress all dissension On Mediterranean Coast so can grow crops creating come selfsufficiency Damascus: believed to be longest lived in city in world Needs Modernization
East of Israel and depends upon Lebanon for Port Access 1946 population 400,000 with 1 million Palestinians refugees coming in 1948 Received lots of aide, but hasn’t really helped

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Jordan
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Other Nations, cont.
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Lebanon
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25 % population is Christian creating Civil War 1975 civil war after Muslim population grows and Christian doesn’t Beirut destroyed and only 150,000 still lived there out of 1.5 million; now being rebuilt
Influenced by Chinese, Mongols, Russians, Byzantium and Islam Modern Turkey is remnants of Ottoman Turkish Empire Modern Problems
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Turkey
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20 % of population Kurdish creating human rights violations Islamic Fundamentalism gaining some support and strength Cultural conflict between Alevis Islam and Sunni Islam Wants EU membership but not likely Controls Bosporus and Dardanelles


				
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