Document Sample
United_States_Environmental_Protection_Agency Powered By Docstoc
					From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Environmental Protection Agency

United States Environmental Protection Agency


Environmental Protection Agency logo Agency overview Formed Employees Annual budget Agency executive Website Footnotes

December 2, 1970 17,964 (2005) $7.3 billion (2007) Lisa P. Jackson, Administrator

EPA headquarters in Washington, D.C. The EPA employs 17,000 people in headquarters program offices, 10 regional offices, and 27 laboratories across the country. More than half of its staff are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists; other groups include legal, public affairs, financial, and computer specialists. The agency conducts environmental assessment, research, and education. It has the primary responsibility for setting and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates some permitting, monitoring, and enforcement responsibility to U.S. states and Native American tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines, sanctions, and other measures. The agency also works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged to regulate chemicals and protect human health by safeguarding the natural environment: air, water, and land. The EPA was proposed by President Richard Nixon and began operation on December 2, 1970, when its establishment was passed by Congress, and signed into law by President Nixon, and has since been chiefly responsible for the environmental policy of the United States.[3] It is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the President of the United States. The EPA is not a Cabinet agency, but the Administrator is normally given cabinet rank. Lisa P. Jackson is the current Administrator. The agency has approximately 18,000 full-time employees.[1]

On July 9, 1970, President Nixon transmitted Reorganization Plan No. 3 to the United States Congress by executive order, creating the EPA as a single, independent agency from a number of smaller arms of different federal agencies. Prior to the establishment of the EPA, the federal government was not


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
structured to comprehensively regulate the pollutants which harm human health and degrade the environment. The EPA was assigned the task of repairing the damage already done to the natural environment and to establish new criteria to guide Americans in making a cleaner, safer America.

United States Environmental Protection Agency
• Region 9 - responsible within the states of Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and the territories of Guam and American Samoa. • Region 10 - responsible within the states of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Each regional office also implements programs on Indian Tribal lands, except those programs delegated to Tribal authorities.

EPA offices
• Office of Administration and Resources • Office of Air and Radiation • Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance • Office of Environmental Information • Office of Environmental Justice • Office of the Chief Financial Officer • Office of General Counsel • Office of Inspector General • Office of International Affairs • Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances • Office of Research and Development • Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response • Office of Water Each EPA regional office is responsible within its states for implementing the Agency’s programs, except those programs that have been specifically delegated to states. • Region 1 - responsible within the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. • Region 2 - responsible within the states of New Jersey and New York in addition it’s also responsible for the US territories of Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. • Region 3 - responsible within the states of Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia. • Region 4 - responsible within the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. • Region 5 - responsible within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. • Region 6 - responsible within the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. • Region 7 - responsible within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska. • Region 8 - responsible within the states of Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

Related legislation
The legislation here is general environmental protection legislation, and may also apply to other units of the government, including the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture.

• 1955 - Air Pollution Control Act PL 84-159 • 1963 - Clean Air Act PL 88-206 • 1965 - Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act PL 89-272 • 1966 - Clean Air Act Amendments PL 89-675 • 1967 - Air Quality Act PL 90-148 • 1969 - National Environmental Policy Act PL 91-190 • 1970 - Clean Air Act Extension PL 91-604 • 1976 - Toxic Substances Control Act PL 94-469 • 1977 - Clean Air Act Amendments PL 95-95 • 1990 - Clean Air Act Amendments PL 101-549

• 1948 - Water Pollution Control Act PL 80-845 • 1965 - Water Quality Act PL 89-234 • 1966 - Clean Waters Restoration Act PL 89-753 • 1969 - National Environmental Policy Act PL 91-190 • 1970 - Water Quality Improvement Act PL 91-224 • 1972 - Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1972 PL 92-500 • 1974 - Safe Drinking Water Act PL 93-523 • 1976 - Toxic Substances Control Act PL 94-469 • 1977 - Clean Water Act PL 95-217 • 1987 - Water Quality Act PL 100-4 • 1996 - Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 PL 104-182


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Environmental Protection Agency
WaterSense to similarly foster water efficiency. EPA also administers the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) (which is much older than the agency) and registers all pesticides legally sold in the United States. It is also responsible for reviewing projects of other federal agencies’ Environmental Impact Statements under NEPA.

• 1947 - Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act • 1964 - Wilderness Act PL 88-577 • 1968 - Scenic Rivers Preservation Act PL 90-542 • 1969 - National Environmental Policy Act PL 91-190 • 1970 - Wilderness Act PL 91-504 • 1977 - Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act PL 95-87 • 1978 - Wilderness Act PL 98-625 • 1980 - Alaska Land Protection Act PL 96-487 • 1994 - California Desert Protection Act PL 103-433 • 1996 - Food Quality Protection Act

Safer Detergents Stewardship Initiative
Through the Safer Detergents Stewardship Initiative (SDSI)[4], EPA’s Design for the Environment (DfE) Program recognizes environmental leaders who voluntarily commit to the use of safer surfactants. Safer surfactants are surfactants that break down quickly to nonpolluting compounds and help protect aquatic life in both fresh and salt water. Nonylphenol ethoxylates, commonly referred to as NPEs, are an example of a surfactant class that does not meet the definition of a safer surfactant. The Design for the Environment Program has identified safer alternative surfactants through partnerships with industry and environmental advocates. These safer alternatives are comparable in cost and are readily available. CleanGredients™[5] is a source of safer surfactants.

Endangered species
• 1946 - Coordination Act PL 79-732 • 1966 - Endangered Species Preservation Act PL 89-669 • 1969 - Endangered Species Conservation Act PL 91-135 • 1972 - Marine Mammal Protection Act PL 92-522 • 1973 - Endangered Species Act PL 93-205

Hazardous waste
• 1965 - Solid Waste Disposal Act PL 89-272 • 1969 - National Environmental Policy Act PL 91-190 • 1970 - Resource Recovery Act PL 91-512 • 1976 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act PL 94-580 • 1980 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act ("Superfund") PL 96-510 • 1982 - Nuclear Waste Repository Act PL 97-425 • 1984 - Hazardous and Solid Wastes Amendments Act PL 98-616 • 1986 - Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act PL 99-499 • 2002 - Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act ("Brownfields Law") PL 107-118

Fuel economy testing and results
American automobile manufacturers are required to use EPA fuel economy test results to advertise the gas mileage of their vehicles, and the manufacturers are disallowed from providing results from alternate sources. The fuel economy is calculated using the emissions data collected during two of the vehicle’s Clean Air Act certification tests, by measuring the total volume of carbon captured from the exhaust during the test. This calculated fuel economy is then adjusted downward by 10% city and 22% highway to compensate for changes in driving conditions since 1972. The current testing system was developed in 1972, and is a simulation of rush-hour Los Angeles of that era. Prior to 1984, the EPA did not adjust the fuel economy downward, and instead used the exact fuel economy figures calculated from the test. In December

Energy Star
In 1992 the EPA launched the Energy Star program, a voluntary program that fosters energy efficiency; in 2006 EPA launched


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2006, the EPA finalized new test methods to improve fuel economy and emission estimates, which would take effect with model year 2008 vehicles[6], setting the precedent of a 12 year review cycle on the test procedures. As of the 2000s, most motor vehicle users report significantly lower real-world fuel economy than the EPA rating; this problem is most evident in hybrid vehicles. This is mainly because of drastic changes in typical driving habits and conditions which have occurred in the decades since the tests were implemented. For example, the average speed of the 1972 "highway" test is a mere 48 miles per hour (mph), with a top speed of 60 mph. It is expected that when the 2008 test methods are implemented, city estimates for non-hybrid cars will drop by 10-20%, city estimates for hybrid cars will drop by 20-30%, and highway estimates for all cars will drop by 5-15%[6]. The new methods include factors such as high speeds, aggressive accelerations, air conditioning use and driving in cold temperatures. In February 2005, the organization launched a program called "Your MPG" that allows drivers to add real-world fuel economy statistics into a database on the EPA’s fuel economy website and compare them with others and the original EPA test results.

United States Environmental Protection Agency

Oil pollution prevention
SPCC - Spill Prevention Containment and Counter Measures. Secondary Containment mandated at oil storage facilities. Oil release containment at oil development sites.

Research vessel

the OSV Bold docked at Port Canaveral, FL On March 3, 2004 the United States Navy transferred the USNS Bold (T-AGOS-12) a Stalwart class ocean surveillance ship to the EPA, now known as the OSV Bold. The ship previously used in anti-submarine operations during the Cold War, is equipped with sidescan sonar, underwater video, water and sediment sampling instruments in study of ocean and coastline. One of the major missions of the Bold is to monitor sites where materials dumped from dredging operations in U.S. ports for ecological impact.[9]

Air quality and air pollution
The Air Quality Modeling Group (AQMG) is in the EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) and provides leadership and direction on the full range of air quality models, air pollution dispersion models[7][8] and other mathematical simulation techniques used in assessing pollution control strategies and the impacts of air pollution sources. The AQMG serves as the focal point on air pollution modeling techniques for other EPA headquarters staff, EPA regional Offices, and State and local environmental agencies. It coordinates with the EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) on the development of new models and techniques, as well as wider issues of atmospheric research. Finally, the AQMG conducts modeling analyses to support the policy and regulatory decisions of the EPA’s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS). The AQMG is located in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Advance Identification
Advance Identification, or ADID, is a planning process used by the EPA to identify wetlands and other bodies of water and their respective suitability for the discharge of dredged and fill material. The EPA conducts the process in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and local states or Native American Tribes. As of February 1993, 38 ADID projects had been completed and 33 were ongoing.[10]

Air quality standards review
Since its inception the EPA has begun to rely less and less on its scientists and more on


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
nonscience personnel. EPA has recently changed their policies regarding limits for ground-level ozone, particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and lead. New policies will minimize scientist interaction with the agency and rely more on policy makers who have minimal scientific knowledge. This new policy has been criticized by Democrats.[11] On March 12, 2008, the Federal government of the United States reported that the air in hundreds of U.S. counties was simply too dirty to breathe, ordering a multibillion-dollar expansion of efforts to clean up smog in cities and towns nationwide.[12]

United States Environmental Protection Agency
published in The New York Times. Cooney said he had been planning to resign for over two years, implying the timing of his resignation was just a coincidence. Specifically, he said he had planned to resign to "spend time with his family."[21] One week after resigning he took a job at Exxon Mobil in their public affairs department. [22] In December 2007, EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson approved a draft of a document that declared that climate change imperiled the public welfare - a decision that would trigger the first national mandatory global-warming regulations. Associate Deputy Administrator Jason Burnett e-mailed the draft to the White House. White House aides - who had long resisted mandatory regulations as a way to address climate change knew the gist of what Johnson’s finding would be, Burnett said. They also knew that once they opened the attachment, it would become a public record, making it controversial and difficult to rescind. So they didn’t open it; rather, they called Johnson and asked him to take back the draft. U.S. law clearly stated that the final decision was the EPA administrator’s, not President Bush’s. Johnson rescinded the draft; in July 2008, he issued a new version which did not state that global warming was danger to public welfare. Burnett resigned in protest.[23]

Fuel economy
In July 2005, an EPA report showing that auto companies were using loopholes to produce less fuel-efficient cars was delayed. The report was supposed to be released the day before a controversial energy bill was passed and would have provided backup for those opposed to it, but at the last minute the EPA delayed its release.[13] The state of California sued the EPA for its refusal to allow California and 16 other states to raise fuel economy standards for new cars.[14] EPA administrator Stephen Johnson has claimed that the EPA is working on its own standards, but this move has been widely considered as an attempt to shield the auto industry from environmental regulation by setting lower standards at the federal level, which would then preempt state laws.[15][16][17]California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, along with governors from 13 other states, stated that the EPA’s actions ignored federal law, and that existing California standards (adopted by many states in addition to California) were almost twice as effective as the proposed federal standards.[18]It was reported that Stephen Johnson in making this decision, ignored his own staff.[19]

Greenhouse gas emissions
The Supreme Court ruled on April 2, 2007 in Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency that the EPA has the authority to regulate the emission of greenhouse gases in automobile emissions, stating that "greenhouse gases fit well within the Clean Air Act capacious definition of air pollutant." The court also stated that the EPA must regulate in this area unless it is able to provide a scientific reason for not doing so.[24] Jason K. Burnett, former EPA deputy associate administrator, told the United States Congress that an official from Vice President Dick Cheney’s office censored congressional testimony by Julie L. Gerberding, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[25] Reportedly, the testimony excluded said that "CDC considers climate change a serious public health concern."[25]

Global warming
In June 2005, a memo revealed that Philip Cooney, former chief of staff for the White House Council on Environmental Quality, and former lobbyist for the American Petroleum Institute, had personally edited documents, summarizing government research on climate change, before their release.[20] Cooney resigned two days after the memo was


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Environmental Protection Agency

In 2004, the Agency began a strategic planning exercise to develop plans for a more virtual approach to library services. The effort was curtailed in July 2005 when the Agency proposed a $2.5 million cut in its 2007 budget for libraries. Based on the proposed 2007 budget, the EPA posted a notice to the Federal Register, September 20, 2006 that EPA Headquarters Library would close its doors to walk-in patrons and visitors on October 1, 2006.[26] The EPA also closed some of its regional libraries and reduced hours in others,[27] using the same FY 2007 proposed budget numbers. On October 1, 2008, the Agency re-opened regional libraries in Chicago, Dallas and Kansas City and the library at its Headquarters in Washington, DC.[28]

Mercury emissions
In March 2005, nine states, California, New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut, New Mexico and Vermont, sued the EPA. The EPA’s inspector general had determined that the EPA’s regulation of mercury emissions did not follow the Clean Air Act, and that the regulations were influenced by top political appointees.[29][30] The EPA had suppressed a study it commissioned by Harvard University which contradicted its position on mercury controls[31]. The suit alleges that the EPA’s rule allowing exemption from "maximum available control technology" was illegal, and additionally charged that the EPA’s system of pollution credit trading allows power plants to forego reducing mercury emissions.[32] Several states also began to enact their own mercury emission regulations. Illinois’ proposed rule would have reduced mercury emissions from power plants by an average of 90% by 2009.[33]

An Environmental Protection Agency employee checks one of the many air sampling locations set up around the World Trade Center site. Foreign governments like Australia and most EU states have addressed this issue. The EPA first established standards in 1997, and strengthened them in 2006. As with other standards, regulation and enforcement of the PM2.5 standards is the responsibility of the state governments, through State Implementation Plans.[35]

Political pressure
In April 2008, the Union of Concerned Scientists said that more than half of the nearly 1,600 EPA staff scientists who responded online to a detailed questionnaire reported they had experienced incidents of political interference in their work. The survey included chemists, toxicologists, engineers, geologists and experts in other fields of science. About 40% of the scientists reported that the interference has been more prevalent in the last five years compared to previous years. The highest number of complaints came from scientists who are involved in determining the risks of cancer by chemicals used in food and other aspects of everyday life. [36]

9/11 air ratings
See EPA 9/11 pollution controversy

Very fine airborne particulates
Tiny particles, under 2.5 micrometres, are attributed to health and mortality concerns[34] so some health advocates want EPA to regulate it. The science may be in its infancy although many conferences have discussed the trails of this airborne matter in the air.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Environmental Protection Agency
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BioWatch Category:Air dispersion modeling Environmentalism Environmental Justice Small Grants Program Environmental Technology Verification Program Federal On Scene Coordinator FMVSS Green Sticker programs List of waste management companies List of waste management topics List of solid waste treatment technologies List of Superfund sites in the United States Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training Regulatory Flexibility Act Renewable energy Stormwater U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board U.S. Climate Change Science Program Wise Use Movement

Environmental justice
The EPA has been criticized for its lack of progress towards environmental justice. Administrator Christine Todd Whitman was criticized for her changes to President Bill Clinton’s Executive Order 12898 during 2001, removing the requirements for government agencies to take the poor and minority populations into special consideration when making changes to environmental legislation, and therefore defeating the spirit of the Executive Order.[37] In a March 2004 report, the inspector general of the agency concluded that the EPA "has not developed a clear vision or a comprehensive strategic plan, and has not established values, goals, expectations, and performance measurements" for environmental justice in its daily operations. Another report in September 2006 found the agency still had failed to review the success of its programs, policies and activities towards environmental justice.[38] Studies have also found that poor and minority populations were underrepresented the EPA’s Superfund program, and that this equity was worsening.[37]

List of EPA administrators
1970–1973 William D. Ruckelshaus 1973–1977 Russell E. Train 1977–1981 Douglas M. Costle 1981–1983 Anne M. Gorsuch (Burford) 1983–1985 William D. Ruckelshaus 1985–1989 Lee M. Thomas 1989–1993 William K. Reilly 1993–2001 Carol M. Browner 2001–2003 Christine Todd Whitman 2003–2005 Michael O. Leavitt 2005–2009 Stephen L. Johnson 2009– Lisa P. Jackson


See also
• • • • Acid mine drainage Air pollution American Heritage Rivers AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors • Atmospheric dispersion modeling

[1] ^ Joseph Kahn and Jim Yardley (August 26, 2007). "As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes". New York Times. 26/world/asia/26china.html. Also see U.S. Census Bureau spreadsheet [2] EPA budget (PDF) [3] "Public Access – When and how was the EPA Created?". U.S. EPA. publicaccess.cfg/php/enduser/ std_adp.php?p_faqid=217&p_created=1087594315& Retrieved on 2008-06-14. [4] EPA SDSI Home Page [5] CleanGredients Home Page [6] ^ EPA Fuel Economy [7] Turner, D.B. (1994). Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates: an introduction to dispersion modeling (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-023-X. [8] Beychok, M.R. (2005). Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion (4th ed.). authorpublished. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Environmental Protection Agency

[9] "About the OSV Bold". EPA. EPA content/article/2008/07/08/ 842-F-05-004. AR2008070801442.html?referrer=delicious. osvbold/brochure.html. Retrieved on [26] "Notification of Closure of the EPA 2009-01-17. Headquarters Library" (pdf), September [10] EPA > Wetlands > Wetlands Fact Sheet 20, 2006 [11] C&E News, December 18, 2006, page 15 [27] Letter to Appropriations Committee, [12] CNN, March 13, 2008 Interior and Related Agencies [13] Danny Hakim (July 28, 2005). "E.P.A. Subcommittee, June 29, 2006 (pdf), from Holds Back Report on Car Fuel leaders of 16 local EPA unions Efficiency". New York Times. [28] EPA Newsbrief, October 1, 2008 accessed January 17, 2009 business/28fuel.html. [29] Proposed Mercury Rules Bear Industry [14] Mark, Washington Post, January 31, 2007/10/governor-arnie-.html 2004 [15] "EPA Denies California Waiver". ABC. [30] EPA Inspector Finds Mercury Proposal February 29, 2008. Tainted, Washington Post, February 4, 2005 story?section=news/state&id=5980352. [31] New EPA Mercury Rule Omits [16] Data, Washington Post, me-epa20dec20,0,1603760.story?coll=laMarch 22, 2005 home-center [32] States Sue EPA Over Mercury Emissions, [17] LA Times, March 30, 2005 sharedcontent/dws/dn/opinion/editorials/ [33] Governor Blagojevich and Illinois EPA stories/DNPropose Aggressive Mercury Controls EPA_30edi.ART.State.Edition1.36bb1ef.html For Illinois Power Plants, Environmental [18] Progress, Spring 2006, page 12 [19] [34] Reasons Why Particulate Matter (PM) printedition/california/la-meShould be Included in EPA Settlements epa21dec21,0,7077099,full.story?coll=lawith Electric Utility Companies headlines-pe-california [35] PM Standards Revision - 2006 | [20] U.S. Official Edited Warming, Emission Particulate Matter | Air & Radiation | US Link - Report, Reuters, June 8, 2005 EPA [21] White House Official Resigns After [36] "Meddling at EPA? Activists point to Climate Documents Flap, Agence France survey; Two thirds of 1,586 EPA Presse, June 12, 2005 scientists polled cite interference, UCS [22] Ex-White House environment official reports". Associated Press. April 23, joins Exxon, Reuters, June 15, 2005 2008. [23] John Shiffman and John Sullivan 24276709/. (December 7, 2008). "An Eroding [37] ^ O’Neil, S. G. (2007). Superfund: Mission at EPA; The Bush administration Evaluating the Impact of Executive has weakened the agency charged with Order 12898. Environmental Health safeguarding health and the Perspectives, Volume 115, Number 7, environment". Philadephia Inquirer. pgs 1087-1093 [38] Bullard, Robert (2007-07-25). front_page/ "Subcommittee on Superfund and 20081207_An_Eroding_Mission_at_EPA.html?viewAll=y. Environmental Health of the Senate [24] Linda Greenhouse (April 2, 2007). Environment and Public Works "Justices Say E.P.A. Has Power to Act on Committee Regarding Environmental Harmful Gases". New York Times. Justice".. Retrieved on 2008-10-25. washington/03scotus.html. [25] ^ Juliet Eilperin (July 9, 2008). "Cheney’s • Environmental Protection Agency Staff Cut Testimony On Warming". • US EPA Glossary Washington Post. • EPA’s Toxic Release Inventory Map

External links


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Articles and documents from EPA’s development 1970• The environmental statutes for which EPA has primary responsibility • • CLUIN Haz Waste Site Cleanup Information by US EPA Technology Innovation Program • Collected Papers of William Sanjour, a retired EPA employee and whistleblower

United States Environmental Protection Agency
• Current 40 CFR Books in Digital Format • High Court Rules Against White House on Emissions, Breaking Legal News, April 2, 2007 • UDDS. • EPA Water Regulations • Selected Digitized Environmental Protection Agency Records Available in the National Archives’ Archival Research Catalog

Retrieved from ited_States_Environmental_Protection_Agency"


Categories: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Regulators of biotechnology products, Emission standards, Government agencies established in 1970 This page was last modified on 15 May 2009, at 00:50 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


Shared By: