South Africa - Get Now PowerPoint

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					National Association for Multicultural Education

17th Annual
International Conference
October 31st – November 4th, 2007 Hyatt Regency Baltimore, MD

Parallels and Contrasts between South Africa and the United States:
Charting the Course to Academic Excellence and Equity

This session will provide an overview of the South African context highlighting the postapartheid implementation of multicultural education. We will share observations from visits to historically Black primary and secondary schools and summarize issues addressed during meetings with the Department of Education in Johannesburg, the Western Cape Education Department in Cape Town, and faculty at the University of South Africa.


Dr. William A. Howe - Connecticut State Dept. of Education Dr. Jioanna Carjuzaa - Montana State University Eileen G. Kugler - Embrace Diverse Schools Dr. Lovie E. Lilly - South OrangeMaplewood School District Dr. Marjorie M. Edmonds-Lloyd- Howard University





Thirteen multicultural educators completed a study tour of South Africa in the fall of 2006, just 12 years after the country became a democracy.

Interviews of federal and provincial education officials; teacher educators in college settings, and public school teachers provided a wealth of information to contrast with efforts in multicultural education in the United States.

South Africa Dept. of Education

From the era of segregation in the US to the rule of apartheid in South Africa, the progress of civil rights and educational equity will be compared. A Fresh Perspective on Education that is Multicultural will be provided that examines the struggles to achieve academic success in both countries.

Brief History of South Africa
Dr. William A. Howe Connecticut State Dept. of Education


White South Africans do not think of ancestral connections to European ancestries, unlike Americans. For example, no one considers themselves an Italian South African.

South Africa twice the size of Texas, same population as California – 47.4 million people

Highest HIV AIDS in the world 27-40% unemployment

1948 Apartheid started. Whites were in the minority, unlike the U.S. White Government banned resistance.  South African government did not care about being shunned by the rest of the world.  1961 South Africa became a republic.

1976 – Soweto – student uprising to protest apartheid – one objection was to being taught in Afrikaans. Children were shot.

Hector Petersen Museum

1960-1990’s – repressive laws.  1990-94 – massive violence  1980’s – violent opposition to White South African government. P.W. Botha main proponent of apartheid.  F. W. De Clerk reversed Botha’s policy and began the end to apartheid.  1994 - Nelson Mandela was elected President in the country’s first democratic elections.

1990 – Nelson Mandela released after 30 years as a political prisoner.

President Mandela’s Cell

South Africa was a pariah state prior to 1994.  1999- second elections  2000 – Truth & Reconciliation Commission – amnesty for telling their stories


Desmond Tutu Home

Nelson Mandela Home

English is 5th most common. Zulu is #1.  Whites – 54% speak Afrikaans  Blacks often speak 5 languages.  80% black – nine ethnic groups, 10% white, 9% colored

11 official languages – English, Afrikaans, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Xhosa, Venda, Tswana, Southern Sotho, Zulu, Swazi and Tsonga.

The New Constitution and Education Regulations

Eileen G. Kugler - Embrace Diverse Schools EKugler@EmbraceDiverse

Separate Unequal Education
Bantu Education Act of 1953  HF Verwoerd : “Natives (blacks) must be taught from an early age that equality with Europeans (whites) is not for them.”  Student/teacher ratio
46:1-1955, 58:1 -1967

Overcrowded classrooms, poor facilities, under-qualified teachers

Opening Education to All

1994 - universal access to single system of education  1996 - Constitution extended compulsory education to grades 1 – 9 (ages 6 – 15)  1999 Tirisanot Programme of Action focused on improving the quality of secondary schools

Economic Equity in Education

Fee-free schools

Up to 40% of all schools in 2007

National Nutrition Program
 

Feeds 1.6-million schoolchildren every day Nearly 2000 school gardens with federal, local and NGO support

Human Rights in the Curriculum
2005 Revised Curriculum focuses on:  Justice  Inclusivity  Human rights

Laws are not enough  Requires commitment at highest levels to implement the goals of the Constitution  Comparison to El Salvador - Similar model constitution; little progress

“ The Chief Directorate could not implement most projects (on racial integration) related to rural education because of lack of funds and personnel…”

The Changing Roles of Principals Dr. Lovie E. Lilly ~ Principal of Columbia High School
South Orange-Maplewood School District

“Although we are expected to be instructional leaders, there are other administrative, managerial responsibilities that oftentimes interfere with our roles as principals. The parallels and contrasts that exist between South Africa and the United States clearly define us as educational leaders within our own contexts.”

Musi Comprehensive HS
Physical Address

Postal Address
PO BOX 90969 BERTSHAM 2013

Two Secondary Principals

Looking at the Whole School
•The learners •The teachers •Basic functionality of the school •Leadership, management and communication •Governance and relationships •Quality of teaching and professional development •Curriculum provisioning and resources •Student performance and achievement •School safety, security and discipline •School infrastructure •Parents and the community

Instructional Leadership
•National Expectations

•NCLB (US) •Bantu Education (SA) •General Education Training (SA) •Further Education Training (SA) •Outcomes Based Education (OBE 2005) (SA)

•Transparency of instructional leadership, administration, and managerial expectations

•Professional development
•Growing “new leaders”

The Learners
•Diversity of the learners

•Teaching strategies are based upon what students already know •Motivating learners •Social and governmental influences

•Linguistic and cultural •Immigrant populations •Practical based learning vs. academic trajectories

•Safety and Security •Parental involvement

•HIV/AIDS •Poverty •Disproportionate monies

Common Ground

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Experienced professionals Strategic thinking ~Defining the vision Whole School Reform Quality of education  (Needs of the school/learners/teachers) Struggles between instructional leadership and administrative management Professional Organizations  South African Principals’ Association

National Association of Secondary School Principals

“But we teach anyway!”

LEAP School in Cape Town
Issues - the curriculum; the lack of qualified teachers; particularly the lack of Xhosa-speaking teachers; service learning. Dr. Jioanna Carjuzaa – Montana State University

LEAP Learning Metaphor LEAP Learning Metaphor
1) The First Step, 1) The First Step, 2) Training for the 2) Training for the Leap, Leap, 3) The Run-Up, 3) The Run-Up, 4) The Leap, 5) The Landing, 4) The Leap, 6) Stumbling, 7), The Next Step 5) The Landing, 6) Stumbling, 7) The Next Step

The role of technology in education in South Africa, Cuba, and US Dr. Marjorie M. Edmonds-LloydHoward University

Technology: Parallels and Paradoxes in the US and abroad
“…tools and technology enhance environments for learning; they do not supplant them… The efficacy of the citizens as stakeholders is demonstrated in their active participation in their technological culture and, hence, social change.” (Edmonds-Lloyd, 2005)

Technology Implementation: Parallels and Paradoxes in South Africa, Cuba, and the US



Technology as
• a teaching tool (US, South Africa, Cuba) • a global information gateway (US, South Africa) • a means to effectively compete in the 21st century market place (US, South Africa)

Technology Implementation: Parallels and Paradoxes in South Africa, Cuba, and the US (Con’t)

Paradoxes  Limited infrastructure in rural and nonaffluent schools (US, South Africa, Cuba)  Limited opportunities for teacher training in technology (US, South Africa, Cuba)  Limited access linkages to gender and/or class (US, Cub, South Africa.)

Implications for Technology Use


Powerful tool for teaching Vital for preparation for the 21st century workforce
Infrastructure Location- lack of satellite or cable Equipment and long-term maintenance Expectations for learning community Student/teacher training Need for 21st century market place strategic training framework


Limited Access
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Vision of leadership
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Wrap-up – Q & A

Website Resources
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This Session Handout Final Journal

Comparative Education Professional Delegation to South Africa Delegation Leader: Lovie Lilly, Ed.D Principal, Columbia High School

Program Dates: April 14-24, 2008

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