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Continental Airlines

Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines, Inc.

IATA CO

ICAO COA

Callsign CONTINENTAL 1931 (as Varney Speed Lines)[1] July 15, 1934[1] • Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport (operated
by Continental Micronesia)

Founded Commenced operations Hubs

• Cleveland Hopkins International Airport • George Bush Intercontinental Airport • Newark Liberty International Airport Frequent flyer program Member lounge Alliance OnePass

Presidents Club SkyTeam
(until October 24, 2009)

Star Alliance
(from October 25, 2009)[2]

Subsidiaries Fleet size Destinations Company slogan Headquarters Key people

Continental Micronesia 352 (+87 orders) excl.subsidiaries 140 excl.subsidiaries and code-shares Work Hard. Fly Right. Houston, Texas, United States Lawrence W. Kellner (Chairman and CEO) Jeffery A. Smisek (President and COO) Zane Rowe (CFO)

Website: http://www.continental.com

Continental Airlines (IATA: CO, ICAO: COA, Callsign: CONTINENTAL) (NYSE: CAL) is a United States certificated air carrier. Based in Downtown Houston, Texas, it is the fourth-largest airline in the

US based on revenue passenger miles.[3] Since 1998, Continental’s marketing slogan has been "Work Hard, Fly Right." Continental operates flights to destinations throughout the U.S., Canada, Latin America, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific regions. Together with its subsidiaries it has more than 3,000 daily departures, serving over 151 domestic and 190 international destinations and has 85,200 employees (as of March 2007).[4] Principal operations are from its three hubs at Newark Liberty International Airport (in Newark, New Jersey), George Bush Intercontinental Airport (in Houston, Texas), and Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (in Cleveland, Ohio). Continental Micronesia, a wholly owned subsidiary, operates routes around Micronesia from its hub at Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport in Guam and connects the Micronesian region with destinations in East Asia, Southeast Asia, Honolulu and Cairns, Australia. Continental Airlines is a minority owner of ExpressJet Airlines, which operates under the trade name Continental Express but is a separately managed and publicly-traded company. Cape Air, Colgan Air, CommutAir, and Gulfstream International Airlines feed Continental’s flights under the Continental Connection identity, as does Chautauqua Airlines under the Continental Express identity, although Continental does not have any ownership interests in these companies. Since September 2005, Continental has been a member of the SkyTeam Alliance, in which it participates with Northwest Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Air France, Aeromexico, Alitalia and KLM. In addition to extensive code share arrangements with SkyTeam partner airlines, the airline also code-shares with Amtrak rail services to some cities in the northeastern United States, with US Helicopter which fly from Newark Liberty International Airport to Manhattan, and with SNCF French Rail to destinations in France. In January 2009, Continental announced that it will leave SkyTeam on October 24, 2009 and join Star Alliance the following day.

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Continental Airlines
would serve as Chairman of the Board of Continental until February 28, 1966). Mueller had helped found the Southwest Division of Varney in 1934 with Walter T. Varney. As an upshot of all this, Six bought into the airline with $90,000 and became general manager on July 5, 1936. Varney was awarded a 17-cent-rate airmail contract between Pueblo and El Paso; it carried passengers as a sideline. The carrier was renamed Continental on July 8, 1937. Six relocated the airline’s headquarters to Denver Union (later Stapleton) Airport in Denver in October, 1937.[5] Robert F. Six was one of the colorful group of innovators, pioneers, and visionaries (including Juan Trippe, William A. Patterson, Jack Frye, C.R. Smith, and Eddie Rickenbacker) who established and built the U.S. airline industry. Throughout his life, Six had a reputation as a combative and risk-taking executive who presided forcefully over the airline that was largely forged in his image for more than 40 years.[5][6] During World War II Continental’s Denver maintenance facilities became a conversion center where the airline converted B-17s, B-29s and P-51s for the United States Army Air Force. Profits from military transportation and aircraft conversion enabled Continental to contemplate expansion and acquisition of new aircraft types which became available following the war.[5] Among those types were the DC-3, the Convair 240 and the Convair 340. Some of the DC-3’s were acquired as surplus military aircraft following World War II. The Convairs were the first aircraft operated by Continental that were pressurized (see photo). The airline’s early route network was limited to the original El Paso to Denver route, with routes being added during the Second World War from Denver and Albuquerque across Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. By 1946 Continental had expanded new routes from Denver to Kansas City and to Tulsa/Oklahoma City, and from El Paso and Albuquerque to San Antonio. Each of these routes included intermediate stops in several of 22 smaller cities. In 1953 Continental achieved its first major expansion by merging with Pioneer Airlines, gaining access to 16 additional cities in Texas and New Mexico. These Pioneer destinations integrated well with the Continental’s post-World War II routes, and provided impetus for the Civil

History
Early history: 1931-1958

Varney Speed Lines Lockheed L-9 Orion in Burbank, California.

Stewardess and passenger, Mother’s Day, 1950 Continental Airlines began service in 1934 as Varney Speed Lines (named after one of its initial owners, Walter T. Varney, who was also a founder of United Airlines) operating out of El Paso and extending through Albuquerque, Santa Fe, and Las Vegas, NM to Pueblo, CO. The airline commenced operations with the Lockheed Vega, a single engine plane that carried four passengers. The airline later flew other Lockheed planes, including the Lockheed L-9 Orion, the Lockheed Electra Junior, and the Lockheed Lodestar.[5] Following cancellation of all domestic airmail contracts by the Roosevelt administration in 1934, Robert Six learned of an opportunity to buy into the Southwest Division of Varney Speed Lines, which needed money to handle its newly-won Pueblo-El Paso route. Six was introduced to Louis Mueller (who

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Aeronautics Board (CAB), the industry regulator, to subsequently streamline CAL’s routes from Denver to the principal traffic points in Texas, New Mexico, Kansas and Oklahoma. However, Continental was, like most U.S. carriers of the day, essentially a limited regional operation. Bob Six was highly dissatisfied with this situation. He vigorously petitioned the CAB for longer haul routes to larger cities, a part of his plan to transform the regional into a trunkline like United, TWA, and American. Simultaneously, he was quietly discussing with Boeing for Continental to become one of the first among the world’s airlines to operate the soon-to-belaunched 707 jet aircraft. The timing was crucial, since the new routes would justify the 707s, and vice versa.[5]

Continental Airlines

A Douglas DC-7 in flight, 1958

The "Airline that needed to grow," 1959-1969

Logo, ca. 1944-1967 "the Airline that needs to grow."[5][6] In 1957 it flew for the first time from Chicago to Los Angeles (both nonstop, and via Denver); and non-stop from Denver and Los Angeles to Kansas City. Continental Airlines introduced turboprop service with the Vickers Viscount, on the new medium haul routes. The CAB permitted Continental to drop service at many of the smaller cities on the system, enabling the carrier’s new aircraft to operate more economically between points with longer lengths-of-haul. Prior to the introduction of its Boeing 707 jets, Continental acquired the popular DC-7s to operate its nonstop route from Los Angeles to Chicago, as well as Denver-Los Angeles and Chicago-Kansas City (see photos).[5] During the late 1950s and early 1960s, Six clearly established himself as the airline industry’s leading lower-fare advocate. He correctly predicted that increased traffic, not higher fares, was the answer to the airline industry’s problems. Six stunned the industry when he introduced the economy fare on the Chicago-Los Angeles route in 1962. He later pioneered a number of other low or discount

Robert F. Six, in 1969. By the end of the 1950s, Six’s strategy had succeeded. Continental Airlines had seen a broad expansion of its routes, thanks to a responsive CAB and persistent efforts by Six, who frequently referred to his company as,

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fares which brought air travel to many who otherwise could not have afforded it. One of Continental’s early innovations was a systemwide economy excursion fare which cut the standard coach fares by more than 25 percent. [5] As Six had planned, Continental was one of the earliest operators of the Boeing 707, taking delivery of its first of four 707s in spring of 1959. Although Pan Am and TWA inaugurated 707 service a few weeks before Continental did, Continental was the first airline in the world to widely use the Boeing 707 in domestic service, first utilizing the type on the Chicago-Los Angeles nonstop route on June 8, 1959.[6] However, because Continental’s 707 fleet was small relative to other carriers, it required radical innovations to the 707 maintenance program. To maintain its small jet fleet Continental developed an industry first: the innovative "progressive maintenance" program enabled Continental to fly its 707 fleet seven days a week, 16 hours a day, achieving greater aircraft utilization than any other jet aircraft operator in the airline industry.[5] Six, not being satisfied with 707 service alone, introduced exclusive innovations and luxe cuisine with Continental’s 707 operations which were described as, "...nothing short of luxurious" by the Los Angeles Times, and, "...clearly, the finest in the airline industry" by the Chicago Tribune.[6] Beginning in the early 1960s Continental added routes from Los Angeles to Houston, both nonstop and with 1- and 2-stop services to Houston via Phoenix, Tucson, El Paso, Midland-Odessa, Austin, and San Antonio. New service was also inaugurated from Denver to Seattle, Portland, New Orleans, and Houston (to Houston: both nonstop, and with 1- and 2-stop services via Wichita/Tulsa/Oklahoma City). In 1963 the company’s headquarters were moved from Denver to Los Angeles.[5] During the late 1960s, the company disposed of the last of its turboprop and piston powered aircraft—one of the first U.S. airlines to do so. Continental replaced the Viscount fleet with DC-9s from Douglas Aircraft and began an aggressive acquisition of Boeing 727 aircraft. These two types (DC-9 and B-727) were to become the workhorses of the Continental fleet from the late 1960s, and for the next twenty years. The DC-9’s were phased out and by the mid to late seventies,

Continental Airlines
Continental used the 727 for its narrow body fleet. In 1968 a new systemwide Continental Airlines livery was launched, the orange and gold cheatlines adorned with a black "jetstream" logo (by Six’s friend, the noted graphic designer Saul Bass) on the jets’ tails (logo was later altered to red; see photo of 747). The marketing slogans adopted in 1968 and employed for about a decade were, "The Airline That Pride Built" and, "The Proud Bird with the Golden Tail.".[5][6] Throughout the Vietnam War Continental provided extensive cargo and troop transportation for United States Army and Marine Corps forces to Asian and the Pacific bases. Continental’s 707s were the most common non-military aircraft transiting Saigon Tan Son Nhat airport.[6] As a result of Continental’s experience in Pacific operations, the carrier formed subsidiary Air Micronesia in May 1968, inaugurating island hopping routes between Yap/Saipan/Guam, Majuro, Rota, Truk, Ponape (Pohnpei) and Honolulu.[5] "Air Mike", as it was known, initially operated with Boeing 727-100 aircraft specially outfitted with open-ocean survival gear, doppler radar, and a large complement of spare parts (including tires).[5] A senior mechanic flew aboard every Air Mike flight until the late 1970s. Air Micronesia now operates as subsidiary Continental Micronesia. September 1969 saw the realization of a long-cherished goal: introduction of Continental service from Los Angeles to Honolulu/Hilo; and in 1970, Continental was awarded routes from the Seattle and Portland to San Jose, Hollywood-Burbank Airport, and Ontario, California—all rapidly growing airline markets. Nonstop San Francisco to Albuquerque and Dallas services were added in the same year .[5]

First African-American pilot
In 1963, Continental hired the first AfricanAmerican pilot to work for any major carrier in the United States, Marlon D. Green, after a United States Supreme Court decision allowed a Colorado anti-discrimination law to be applied to his case against Continental.[7] Green flew with Continental from 1965 to until his retirement in 1978. Continental’s hiring of Marlon Green paved the way for the hiring of minority pilots by all U.S. carriers, an industry milestone which was finally realized in 1977 after Southern Airways and Piedmont hired their first minority pilots.

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Continental Airlines
standard for service in the western U.S.[5][6] When asked by one Denver customer service agent in 1974 why he flew Continental wherever he could, Hollywood legend Henry Fonda remarked, "This operation is class; strictly class!"[6] On June 1, 1972 Continental’s widebody DC-10 service began. Six had insisted that Continental place a large order for DC-10s with manufacturer McDonnell Douglas. This decision again proved prescient, since the publicity associated with Continental’s splashy 747 service in the Chicago-DenverLos Angeles-Honolulu backbone corridor had stimulated not only increased market share, but increased traffic for all carriers in the markets. Additionally Denver, Houston and Seattle were experiencing very rapid growth. The DC-10s quickly assumed most of the duties of flying between Denver and Chicago, Los Angeles, Houston and Seattle (and between Houston-Los Angeles).[5][6] During the 1970s, Denver continued to be the central hub of the Continental system. The 747s were focused on the Chicago-Los Angeles-Honolulu routes, with a single daily round trip through Denver. The DC-10 aircraft operated in large inter-city markets (usually from Los Angeles to Chicago, Denver, Houston and Honolulu; and from Denver to Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle and Houston). DC-9 and B-727 types predominated over the rest of the system, as well as supplementing frequencies in the DC-10 markets.[6] Next to Braniff, Continental operated fewer aircraft types (four: the B-747, DC-10, B-727-200, and DC9-10) during this period than any U.S. trunkline, affording substantial savings in parts, maintenance, and crew training logistics and costs.[6] The DC-10 proved to be a timely addition to the Continental fleet, as it enabled the airline to capitalize on the burgeoning traffic growth in western U.S. markets. Continental saw market share grow annually in each DC-10 market through the 1970s, until relative market parity was achieved with United, the principal competitor on most of the DC-10 routes. The same service innovations introduced to the 747 fleet were initially implemented on the DC-10s, including the "Polynesian Pub"; although after the 1973 oil crisis-induced fuel price increases, higher seating capacity was needed to achieve profitable economics, and the DC-10 pubs would be removed.[6]

Continental introduces the widebody era: 1970-1976

Polynesian Pub, 1972

Flight attendant uniforms, 1972 At Six’s insistence, Continental (with Pan Am and Trans World Airlines) was a launch airline for the Boeing 747 aircraft. On June 26, 1970 Continental was the first carrier to introduce the 747 into U.S. domestic service.[6] Its upper-deck first class lounge and main deck "Polynesian Pub" won awards worldwide for the most refined cabin interior among all airlines, as did meal services developed by Continental’s Cordon Bleu-trained executive chef, Lucien DeKeyser.[6] Continental’s 747 services from Chicago and Denver to Los Angeles and Honolulu set the

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According to Six biographer Robert Serling, quality was the watchword in every detail of the Continental’s operations in the 1960s and 1970s.[5] In one anecdotal indication of Six’s passion for premium customer service, every page of the airline’s Customer Service Manual was inscribed with these words: "Nothing in this manual supersedes common sense." Bob Six relentlessly prowled the Continental system, as well as competitors’ flights, to assure tight quality standards and to search for ideas that could be adopted to Continental’s network.[5][6] In a continuing tribute to Six’s passion for quality customer service—and in spite of a period of difficulties resulting in deterioration of service between 1982 and 1994, during the Lorenzo years,-Continental now regularly garners more passenger-preference and travel industry professional awards for quality service than any other airline.[8]

Continental Airlines
October 1978 saw Continental begin flights from the New York area airports to Houston and Denver, and from Denver to Phoenix.[6] That same month, Continental inaugurated DC-10 service between Los Angeles and Taipei, via Honolulu and Guam. Service between Houston and Washington D.C. began in January 1979. In June 1979, Continental linked Denver with Washington D.C., Las Vegas, San Francisco and San Jose and also began Houston-Tampa service.[6] By the time of the Texas Air Corp. acquisition in 1981, Continental’s post-deregulation growth had allowed it to penetrate every major U.S. airline market (and all of the regional markets) from the hubs in Denver and Houston; and the rapid expansion in the air was answered with large-scale facilities expansions at each of these airports. In Denver, Continental’s very rapid growth provided the final impetus for the construction of the new Denver International Airport, which would be completed almost fifteen years later.[6] During 1978, Continental explored the possibility of a merger with Western Airlines.[6] Western was also headquartered at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and operated a fleet consisting predominantly of the same B-727 and DC-10 aircraft types as Continental. The route systems would have been complementary, with little overlap; because, although they both served the Western states, Continental had strength in Hawaii, southern-tier and the Great Plains states; Western’s strengths were in the California intrastate market, Alaska, Mexico, and the intermountain West. Both airlines served the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountain states, but along different routes from Los Angeles, Denver, San Francisco, Seattle and Phoenix. This merger was not consummated, however, and industry changes were to take Continental down a very different path.[6] Unlike some airlines (notably Braniff whose expansion was so rapid and unsustainable that the additional costs made investment recovery impossible, and the carrier was forced into bankruptcy and liquidation), Continental’s rate of expansion following passage of the Airline Deregulation Act seems, in retrospect, to have been appropriate. The markets that were added were almost all profitable, and formed a strong financial base for the wrenching challenges which the company would face between 1982 and 1994.

Deregulation and expansion: 1977-1980
In 1974, after years of delays and legal proceedings, Continental inaugurated service between Houston and Miami, and on May 21, 1976, Continental was authorized to operate between San Diego and Denver--both routes had been long-sought, and signaled a new era of rapid growth for Continental. President Jimmy Carter and Civil Aeronautics Board chairman Alfred Kahn had been promoting deregulation of the airline industry (see Airline Deregulation Act), which would dissolve the CAB and for the first time in industry history allow U.S. carriers to determine without government supervision where they would fly, and how much they could charge for their services. In this context, 1977 was an historic year for Continental and the industry at large, as the CAB began to loosen its regulatory grip. Continental began service from Denver to Miami/Ft. Lauderdale and Tampa/St. Petersburg. In that same year, President Carter authorized Continental to begin daily round trips between Air Micronesia destination Saipan and Japan, and approved a route for Continental from Los Angeles to Australia via Honolulu, American Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand and Australia. The South Pacific service began May 1, 1979.[6] After the 1978 passage of the Airline Deregulation Act, Continental embarked on an aggressive program of route expansion.

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Continental Airlines
Airline unions fought Lorenzo and Continental at every step. In the Federal courts, they unsuccessfully sued to stop the company’s reorganization. They were successful in working to persuade Congress to pass a new bankruptcy law preventing bankrupt companies from terminating contracts as Continental had successfully done. The law was too late to affect Continental and the cost cutting and changes that had rescued it from liquidation.[6][10][11]

Acquisition by Texas Air Corporation: 1981-82

First bankruptcy and labor relations: 1983-84

Frank Lorenzo, Continental CEO, 1981-1990 In 1981 Texas Air Corporation, an airline holding company controlled by U.S. aviation entrepreneur and raider Frank Lorenzo, acquired Continental after a contentious battle with Continental’s management who were determined to resist Lorenzo. Continental’s labor unions also fiercely resisted, fearing what they termed as, "Lorenzo’s deregulation tactics," which meant that he wanted to make Continental a non-union airline. During this struggle, Continental Airlines President, A. L. Feldman, committed suicide, on August 9, 1981, in his office.[9] In the end, Texas Air Corp. prevailed. Frank Lorenzo became Continental’s new Chairman and CEO. On October 31, 1982 Continental merged with Texas International (the merged carrier retained the Continental name, brand, and identity; the TI brand and identity disappeared), offering service to four continents (North and South America, Asia and Australia) with a fleet of 112 aircraft. The "new Continental" relocated its headquarters to Texas Air’s base in Houston, Texas. The merger resulted in a large expansion of Continental’s hub at Houston Intercontinental Airport and extensive new routes to Mexico and the south central U.S.[6][10]

Sign marking entrance the entrance to Continental Center I, Continental’s headquarters in Downtown Houston. Frank Lorenzo took Continental into Chapter 11 bankruptcy on September 23, 1983, after unsuccessfully attempting to negotiate a lower pay rate with labor unions. Rebuilding the company began immediately. Following bankruptcy, Continental was freed of its contractual obligations and imposed a series of new labor agreement on its union workers, sharply reducing the airline’s labor costs at the cost of employee morale.[12] This move made Continental vastly more competitive with the new airline startups then emerging and thriving in the southwestern U.S., but had notable negative impact on employee attitudes and loyalty. In financial terms, the airline’s decision to take bankruptcy worked—by the end of 1984, Continental recorded a $50 million profit. On June 30, 1986, Continental emerged from the Chapter

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11 bankruptcy.[10][11] Continental has the distinction of being the first U.S. airline to fly through bankruptcy.[10][11] During this period, Continental was forced to abandon its small hub in Los Angeles, although it maintained routes from LAX to Denver, Chicago, Houston, and the South Pacific.

Continental Airlines
New York market, the PeopleExpress hub at Newark would permit Continental to expand its east coast services dramatically for the first time in its history. Continental soon became the third-largest airline in the U.S., and the predominant force in the New York, Denver and Houston airline markets. Continental emerged from bankruptcy in 1986 with improved asset and cash flow positions and a more competitive route structure with routes radiating to every large U.S. city from major hubs at Denver and Houston.[6][11] On February 1, 1987, People Express, Frontier, New York Air, and several commuter carriers were merged into Continental Airlines to create the third-largest U.S. airline (and sixth largest airline in the world). In so doing, Continental became an even larger player in the northeastern markets. 1987 saw the creation of Continental’s OnePass frequent flier program (jointly with Eastern Airlines); and, in 1988 Continental formed its first strategic partnership (and the first international airline alliance of its kind) with SAS.[6]

European service and rapid growth by consolidation: 1985-89
On April 28, 1985, Continental began its rebound, as signaled by the inauguration of its first ever scheduled service to Europe with flights from Newark and Houston to London. Soon thereafter, services to Paris, Frankfurt, Madrid and Munich were added. In October 1985, Texas Air Corp. made an offer for a Denver-based regional carrier, Frontier Airlines, opening a bidding war with People Express, which was headed by Lorenzo’s former TI associate Don Burr. PeopleExpress paid a substantial premium for Frontier’s high-cost operation. The acquisition, funded by debt, did not seem rational to industry observers from either the route integration or the operating philosophy points of view, but was in the opinion of most industry analysts rather an attempt by Burr to best his former boss, Frank Lorenzo.[6][11]

Second bankruptcy, new leadership and structural changes: 1990-97

Boeing 757-200 with winglets departs for Newark On August 24, 1986, Frontier filed for bankruptcy and ceased operations. With People Express hemorrhaging cash, Texas Air acquired PeopleExpress on September 15, 1986, at the same time gaining Frontier whose strong network in the Great Plains and intermountain West reinforced Continental’s already formidable Denver hub. Because it had been the largest airline operating in the

Continental’s reemergence from its second bankruptcy was signaled by its taking on the naming rights to New Jersey’s Continental Airlines Arena, which it held until 2007. In 1990, Frank Lorenzo retired after 18 years at the helm of Texas International and later Texas Air and Continental Airlines, selling the majority of his Jet Capital Corporation to Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS). According to William F. Buckley, in his September 17, 1990 article on National Review, the sale

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to SAS was conditioned on Lorenzo leaving the company. On December 3, 1990, Continental filed for its second bankruptcy in a decade. There were a number of circumstances behind the second bankruptcy, most importantly: Lorenzo had dedicated himself almost full time to Eastern Air Lines acquisition and labor relations issues; the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the resultant Gulf War had prompted a dramatic increase in the price of jet fuel; and People Express had also been highly leveraged at the time of its merger with Continental, having purchased Frontier Airlines just two years before. In addition to Lorenzo embarking on deals which saddled the airline with other carriers’ debts, he also began consolidating the different airlines into one system. That resulted in a fleet comprising numerous aircraft types, evident in the patchwork array of liveries in the Continental fleet for years to come. In the late 1980s, following a dramatic reduction of service by United Airlines and an unsuccessful attempt by USAir to establish point-to-point service, Continental expanded at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and established what would become its thirdlargest system hub. Continental quickly gained nearly all of the gates in the airport’s C concourse (once dominated by United), and later expanded that concourse in addition to constructing a new Concourse D. On February 12, 1991, Continental unveiled its new blue and gray livery and the "globe" logo. These continue to be the identity for Continental’s fleet and facilities identification. In 1993 Air Canada, Air Partners and Texas Pacific Group, enabled Continental to emerge from bankruptcy by investing $450 million in the airline. Under the leadership of former Boeing executive Gordon Bethune, who became President in October 1994, Continental began a substantial work of reinvention. Bethune began by ordering new aircraft in an effort to convert to an all-Boeing fleet. After the opening of Denver International Airport on February 28, 1995, Continental management decided that the Denver hub - its historic operational base and heart of the system for almost 60 years would be abruptly reduced to spoke status (with service only to Houston, Newark, and Cleveland). This decision centered on cost-reductions, since DIA charges and landing fees

Continental Airlines
were substantially higher than those at Stapleton, which DIA had replaced. Bethune also launched a ’Go-Forward Plan’, designed to repair damaged morale and to fix other problems with the airline. His experiences are chronicled in his 1999 book From Worst to First.[13] On March 26, 1996 Continental launched the first phase of its website.[14]

Recent and current operations

Boeing 777-200ER "Peter Max" (the colorful aircraft) at George Bush Intercontinental Airport in Houston, Texas. Downtown Houston is visible in the background. The livery was removed in the winter of 2007-2008. In September 1997 the airline announced that it would consolidate its Houston headquarters in Continental Center I in Downtown Houston.[15][16] Beginning in 1998, Continental again embarked on a program to expand its international operations. In that year it inaugurated services to Ireland and Scotland, and in October 1998 the airline received its first Boeing 777-200ER aircraft, allowing non-stop flights from Newark and Houston to Tokyo, Japan, and from Newark to Tel Aviv, Israel. Continental in the same year launched partnerships with Northwest Airlines, Copa, Avant Airlines, Transbrasil, and Cape Air, and Continental and America West Airlines became the first two US airlines to launch interline electronic ticketing. On March 1, 2001, Continental launched non-stop service from Newark to Hong Kong, operating over the North circumpolar route. This service was the first non-stop long-haul route for any airline with flying duration exceeding 16 hours. The SARS outbreak in Asia caused service to be suspended until August

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1, 2003. The launch in 2001 initiated a brief battle between Continental, United Airlines and Cathay Pacific over rights to non-stop flights between Hong Kong and New York. Continental introduced new non-stop service to Oslo, Norway in 2004. In 2005, Continental expanded service from Newark to Beijing after being awarded the China route. During the same year, five new European destinations were added: Stockholm in Sweden, Belfast and Bristol in the United Kingdom, and Hamburg and Berlin in Germany. Service was added to Cologne, Germany in 2006 and to Athens, Greece in 2007. Among U.S. airlines, only Delta serves more European destinations than Continental. In 2005 service to Asia was expanded as Continental introduced daily nonstop service between Newark and New Delhi, India. The success of this Newark-New Delhi route presaged establishment of a second gateway in India with the announcement of daily nonstop service to Mumbai. Establishment of the Mumbai service signifies that Continental will offer the most nonstop flights by any carrier from the United States to India. By May 2006, the carrier’s passenger traffic surpassed that of Northwest Airlines, and Continental became the fourth-largest U.S. carrier, the first change in the top-five passenger enplanement rankings since 2001. The Wall Street Journal reported on December 12, 2006 that Continental was in merger discussions with United Airlines. Of issue would be Continental’s golden share held by Northwest Airlines, dating from a stakeholding relationship during the late 1990s, and the divestiture of Continental’s Guamanian hub. A deal was not "certain or imminent", with the talks being of a preliminary nature.[17][18] Recognizing operational capacity limits at Newark, Continental announced plans to further utilize its Cleveland hub by developing more international services at Cleveland. On September 14, 2007, Continental outlined a two-year expansion of its Cleveland hub, including new service from Cleveland to Paris commencing May 22, 2008. Additional international routes are expected to follow, pending the completion of a newly-expanded Federal Inspection Services station in Continental’s primary concourse in Cleveland. Domestically, the planned expansion would involve two phases. The first phase

Continental Airlines

Continental Center I, Continental Airlines’s headquarters in Downtown Houston encompasses twelve destinations to be served from Cleveland primarily on regional jets, with the new service in place by May 2008. Later, in 2009, up to 20 new destinations were planned to be added, primarily on mainline aircraft. Continental stated that the expansion would be complete in time for the summer 2009 travel season, resulting in up to 700 new jobs at the Cleveland hub. However, the Economic crisis of 2008 has ended those plans and, in fact, resulted in a

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reduction of operations at the Cleveland hub.[19]

Continental Airlines
The airline also said it would reduce capacity and eliminate 67 mainline aircraft from its fleet by the end of 2009, retiring all of Continental’s 737-300s and all but 35 of its 737-500s. On June 19, 2008, Continental announced that it planned to withdraw from the SkyTeam Alliance and would join the Star Alliance in order to cooperate more extensively with United Airlines and other Star Alliance airlines. The new Continental-United relationship has been characterized as a "virtual merger" in some circles.[22] Continental notes that its SkyTeam affiliation would, however, be business-as-usual until further notice.[2] Continental had been in discussions with United Airlines earlier in 2008 which might have resulted in a merger of the two carriers, but Continental withdrew from these discussions stating that it intended to continue to operate as presently constituted. On August 19, 2008 The USA Today reported that Continental would furlough between 140 to 180 pilots. The article also mentioned that more than 2,500 jobs have already been eliminated, mostly by voluntary early out programs. Continental said in June that it would reduce U.S. capacity by 11% after the end of the peak summer travel season. [23] In September 2008, Continental announced that it would provide new nonstop seasonal service between Houston and Rio de Janeiro. The new nonstop flight is timed to provide roundtrip flight connections at Continental’s Houston hub to more than 160 cities throughout the U.S., Canada, Central America, Europe, and Asia. On January 7, 2009, Continental conducted the first biofuel-powered demonstration flight of a U.S. commercial airliner. The demonstration flight was powered by a special fuel blend including components derived from algae and jatropha plants - sustainable, second-generation fuel sources that don’t impact food crops or water resources and don’t contribute to deforestation.[24] On January 29, 2009, Continental announced that its 4th quarter 2008 net loss widened to $266 million on costs for pilot retirement and reducing the value of its fuel hedges.[25]

Continental is the dominant operator at Houston Intercontinental Airport

Continental, New York’s dominant carrier, operates from Terminal C at Newark Liberty International Airport[20] In May 2008, Continental Airlines sold its remaining 4.38 million share investment in Panamanian flag carrier Copa for $35.75 a share, netting proceeds of $149.8 million. Continental had been a principal shareholder in Copa.[21] Continental said on June 5, 2008 that due to national and international economic conditions, it would cut 3,000 jobs and that the CEO and president would reduce their salaries for the remainder of the year.

Recent awards and recognition
• No. 1 Most Admired Global Airline; Fortune magazine (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008, 2009)[26]

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• No. 1 Most Admired U.S. Airline; FORTUNE magazine (2006)[27] • "Airline of the Year" by OAG (2004, 2005)[28] • Best Executive/Business Class; OAG Airline of the Year Awards (2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006) • Best Airline Based in North America; OAG Airline of the Year Awards (2004, 2005, and 2006) • Best Trans-Atlantic and Trans-Pacific Business Class among U.S. airlines; Condé Nast Traveler (1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006) • Best Airline for Travel in North America, Best Flight Attendants in the US, and Best Inflight Service in the US by reader survey in the UK’s Business Traveller magazine (2006) • Continental was also named "World’s Most Admired Airline." by Yahoo! • Award for Highest-Ranked Network Airline by J.D. Power and Associates (2007)[29] • Best Large Domestic Airline (Premium class) by Zagat (2008) [30] • Continental was named the Best Value for the Money (International) among all airlines. by Zagat (2008) [30] • Best Airline for North American Travel by Business Traveler Magazine (2008) [31]

Continental Airlines

Boeing 777-200ER at Cibao International Airport in Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic

Continental Micronesia Boeing 737-800 at Fukuoka Airport, Japan international destinations with more than 550 additional points served via SkyTeam alliance partner airlines. [32] Continental Airlines operates primarily a hub-and-spoke route network with North American hubs in Cleveland, Houston, and Newark, and a west Pacific hub in Guam. Most flights are operated from its hubs, with a few exceptions (most notably Seattle-Anchorage and Los Angeles-Honolulu). Some affiliated airlines using the Continental Connection name also operate flights not involving hubs, such as Gulfstream International Airlines, which operates intra-Florida and Florida-Bahamas services. For almost 40 years, Continental operated a very large hub in Denver, Colorado, but took the decision to close that hub in 1995 immediately after the opening of Denver International Airport (D.I.A). D.I.A. represented a significantly higher-cost operation than the former Stapleton Airport, which D.I.A. had replaced. The abrupt nature of this change came as a shock to Denver, which was experiencing dramatic growth. The void left by

Continental destinations

A Boeing 757-224 landing at Bristol International Airport in England Continental, together with Continental Express and Continental Connection, offers more than 3,100 daily departures throughout the Americas, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. The summer 2008 schedule saw Continental serving 145 domestic and 138

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Continental’s departure allowed the establishment of the "new" Frontier Airlines (a startup, rather than the original carrier of that name). Frontier has expanded quickly to fill the vacuum created by Continental’s closing of its Denver hub. For the first forty years of its existence, Continental was a domestic airline; however, especially after the incorporation of Texas International routes, it has served more Mexican destinations than any other U.S. carrier since the mid-1980s. Continental first entered the transatlantic market in April, 1985, with the introduction of a Houston-London Gatwick service. Long prevented from serving London-Heathrow because of the provisions of the Bermuda II agreement, Continental has maintained its London services at London-Gatwick, where in 2007 as many as six flights a day were offered to Newark, Houston, and Cleveland. In March 2008, an Open Skies Agreement between the U.S. and the European Union became effective, invalidating Bermuda II restrictions that had limited the number of carriers and cities in the U.S. that could serve London-Heathrow. In November 2007 Continental announced that new, nonstop, twice-daily service from its hubs at HoustonGeorge Bush Intercontinental and NewarkLiberty to London-Heathrow would be offered; and this service was inaugurated on March 29, 2008. The service replaced existing frequencies to London-Gatwick and are offered with a combination of Boeing 777-200ER and 767-200ER equipment.[33]

Continental Airlines

Continental operates international flights from Terminal E at George Bush Intercontinental Airport, Houston, Texas. During the Vietnam War, Continental’s extensive military charter operations established a presence in the Pacific region that formed the basis for the Air Micronesia operation. Service to Japan was initiated in the 1970s from Guam and Saipan, and by the late 1980s, nonstop service between Seattle and Tokyo was briefly offered with 747 equipment, soon to be replaced with a direct Honolulu-Tokyo (Narita) flight. Through the 1990s, Continental maintained a minimal presence in the long-haul trans-Pacific market, until the delivery of 777-200ERs in 1998 which saw the addition of nonstop Tokyo service from Houston and Newark. By 2007, Hong Kong and Beijing were added to the network, and in 2009 Shanghai was added, all from the Newark hub. Continental has served Australia in the past with Douglas DC-10[34] and Boeing 747 service from Hawaii; Continental withdrew from much of the Australian market, but continues Air Micronesia Boeing 737-800 services between Cairns and Guam. Continental offers the most scheduled frequencies of any of the U.S. carrier to India, Japan, Mexico, and the United Kingdom, and is the only U.S. airline to fly to Norway, the Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, and Palau. Continental began service from Newark to Mumbai, India on October 1, 2007 making that city Continental’s second Indian destination. On September 24, 2007 the Department of Transportation tentatively awarded Continental permission to begin daily direct service between Newark and Shanghai, beginning in March 2009. The transpacific segment of the route will be operated with a Boeing

Continental operates domestic mainline flights from Lewis W. Cutrer Terminal C at George Bush Intercontinental Airport in Houston, Texas.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
777-200ER aircraft, while the flight will originate and terminate in Cleveland with a change of equipment at Newark.[35] Continental is considering routes from its hub in Houston to Dubai, Rome, Milan, and Madrid which are planned to commence when it takes delivery of 787 aircraft after 2010. [36] Continental announced on June 12, 2008 that it plans to end service to fifteen destinations as part of efforts to trim costs due to cost increases and reduced traffic.[37] The airline will close its gates and ticket counters in each of those airports.[37] Service the following cities will be discontinued completely: Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia; Cali, Colombia; Cologne, Germany; Guayaquil, Ecuador; Monclova, Mexico; Santiago, Dominican Republic; Oakland, California; Palm Springs, California; Reno, Nevada; Sarasota, Florida; Tallahassee, Florida; Green Bay, Wisconsin; Chattanooga, Tennessee; Toledo, Ohio and Montgomery, Alabama.[37][38] As worldwide passenger traffic contracts as a result of economic conditions, service to other destinations may also be reduced or eliminated from Continental’s hubs in Newark, Houston, Cleveland and Guam. Travelers at Houston and Cleveland are expected to be hardest hit by the planned service reductions.[37] Boeing 737-500 41

Continental Airlines
0 114 (8/106)

Domestic short-med um haul

Boeing 737-700

36

32[40]

124 (12/ 112)

Domestic and Caribbean short-med um haul

Boeing 737-800

117

9

152 (20/ 132) 157 (16/ 141) 160 (16/ 144)

Domestic and Centr America short-med um haul Continent Micronesi US, Mexic Canada, Caribbean

Boeing 737-900

12

0

169 (20/ 149)

Domestic short-med um haul

Fleet
Continental’s all-Boeing fleet had an average Boeing 21 age of 10.2 years as of April 2008. The fleet 737-900ER consists of four types (Boeing 737, 757, 767, and 777) in eleven variants, with two variants of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner scheduled to enter service in 2011. Continental has consistently been the most efficient trunkline operator of jets since they came on the aviation Boeing 41 scene. The company’s daily aircraft utiliza757-200 tion is usually at the top of the industry.[6] The Continental fleet consists of the following aircraft:[39] Continental Airlines Fleet, May 2009 Aircraft In Orders Passengers Routes Service (First*/ Boeing Economy) 757-300 21 0 124 (12/ Domestic 112) short-medium haul US, Mexico, Canada Notes 17 4 (used) 216 (24/ 192) 9 173 (20/ 153)

Domestic mediumlong haul US, Mexic Caribbean

0

175 (16/ 159)

Domestic/ ternationa mediumlong haul and Caribbean

Boeing 737-300

Will be retired by end of 2009

Domestic mediumlong haul, Caribbean

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Continental Airlines
Continental was one of the first major airoffered by lines to fly the Boeing 757 on transatlantic LiveTV routes. There have been some instances of Largest operrange limitations on the ator of west-bound transatlantic flights due toBoeing headwinds resulting in a strong fuel stop which does not appear on the 757-300. timetable, but theseretro- are not common. Will be stops The use of the 757 with its smaller seating fitted with capacity has allowed for "thin" routes (routes blended with less passenger traffic) to be economicwinglets. ally viable. It are ex-ATA non-stop service 8 has allowed from smaller Airlines. cities, such as Oslo, Norway and Hamburg, Germany to the New York gateInternational way. Previously, customers originating at mediumthese and similar cities needed to connect at long haul European gateways like London, Paris or Europe, Frankfurt in order to travel to New York. South America The 1960 CAL fleet hub to hub Continental Air Lines fleet in March, domestic 1960 [43] (EWR-IAH) Aircraft Total Orders Notes International One of only Boeing medium- 707-320 operat- 1 two 4 long haul DC-3 of 10 ors the Douglas 0 Continental Boeing Douglas 1 Leased Micronesia,DC-6 767-400ER 0 Mainland DC-6B Douglas 2 0 One Hawaii, leased Europe, Douglas DC-7B 5 0 South AmerVickers 15 0 ica, Asia Viscount 812 International All equiped Total 37 long haul with AVOD 1 hub to hub Deliveries: domestic The 1970 2010-2012. CAL fleet (EWR-IAH) 2 dry leased fleet in March, Continental Air Lines from ILFC.[44] 1970 International Entry into Aircraft Total Orders Notes long haul service: 2011 Boeing 707-320 13 0 International Entry into Boeing long haul 720 service: 8 2013 0 Boeing 727 13 0 Boeing 747-100 Total 0 53 4 0 4 Douglas DC-9-10F 19

Boeing 10 767-200ER

0

174 (25/ 149)

Boeing 16 767-400ER

0

235 (35/ 200) 256 (20/ 236)

Boeing 20 777-200ER

8

285 (50/ 235)

Boeing 787-8 Boeing 787-9 Total

0 0 352

8 17 87

*First Class is offered on Domestic Flights. BusinessFirst is offered on Transatlantic/Transpacific Flights.

Continental Airlines was one of three carriers (with American Airlines and Delta Air Lines) to sign an exclusivity agreement with Boeing in the late 1990s. When Boeing acquired McDonnell Douglas, the European Union forced Boeing to void the contracts. Both parties have been adhering to the terms under a gentlemen’s agreement.

Cabin
Continental Airlines, along with all United States SkyTeam carriers, has a two-class service configuration, First/BusinessFirst and

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Economy Class, for aircraft in the mainline fleets.[45]

Continental Airlines
can watch movies on overhead TV screens located throughout the cabin. Beginning in 2009, Continental plans to add LiveTV television and Wi-Fi services to all next-generation Boeing 737s and Boeing 757-300s which will be free of charge to First Class customers.[41]

BusinessFirst

International Economy Class

Boeing 767-400ER BusinessFirst Class. Continental’s recently announced, but not yet installed, BusinessFirst seats will allow customers to lie completely flat, reclining 180-degrees and providing 6 1/2 feet (2 m) of sleeping space in the fully extended position on its widebody aircraft. The lie-flat seat will offer a seat wide measuring up to 25 inches (640 mm) when the adjustable armrest is positioned flush with the seat cushion. Electronic "one-touch" controls will enable customers to easily move the seats to pre-set upright, cradle and fully extended sleep positions and additional controls allow customers to adjust the seat back, lumbar support and leg and foot rests. iPod connectivity will also be available in the new Business Class at the seat. The new BusinessFirst seats will also have a six-way adjustable head rest, an individual overhead reading light and an adjustable seat light allowing a Business Traveller to read in bed without disturbing their neighbor and a privacy shell that allows for seclusion from other travelers. The new BusinessFirst seats are currently announced to begin flying in Fall 2009. No date is forthcoming for the completion of the roll-out across the fleet.

Boeing 777-200ER Economy Class Economy Class is available on all international flights. Seats range from 17.2 to 17.9 inches (450 mm) wide, and have between 31 and 32 inches (810 mm) of pitch. Passengers aboard this class receive free meals, snacks, and non-alcoholic refreshments; alcoholic beverages can be purchased for five United States dollars per drink or one Continental Currency coupon per drink.[46]

Domestic Economy Class
Economy Class is available on all domestic flights. Seats are 17.2 inches (440 mm) wide, and have between 31 and 32 inches (810 mm) of pitch. Passengers aboard this class receive free meals, snacks, and non-alcoholic refreshments. Alcoholic beverages may be purchased for $5 or one coupon per drink. Passengers on select Boeing 737-300 and most Boeing 737-700, -800, -900, -900ER, and 757-300 aircraft can watch movies on overhead television screens located throughout the cabin and headsets for these are $1 each. In January 2009, Continental began to add LiveTV television and WiFi services to all next-generation Boeing 737s and Boeing 757-300s. LiveTV will cost $6.00 to use for Economy Class customers, while the Wi-Fi service will reportedly be complimentary.[41]

Domestic First Class
Domestic First Class is offered on domestic flights. It is available on all Boeing 737 family aircraft, as well as Boeing 757-300 aircraft. Seats range from 20.75 to 21 inches (530 mm) wide, and have between 37 and 38 inches (970 mm) of pitch. Passengers aboard this class receive free meals, refreshments, and alcoholic beverages. Passengers

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Continental Airlines
• Hawaiian Airlines OnePass members may also earn miles through partner car rental companies and hotels. Because of their partnership with Amtrak, miles may also be earned on certain Amtrak trains as well.[49]

AVOD (Audio, Video on Demand)
Boeing 757-200 and 777-200ER aircraft include Audio-Video On-Demand (AVOD) in every seat back. Boeing 767 family aircraft are equipped with a personal television located in every seat back, using a tape system. On all Boeing 757-200 and AVOD Boeing 777-200ER aircraft, all rows are equipped with power-ports (two power ports per group of 3 seats) that do not require special power adapters or cables.

Presidents Club

OnePass
Established in 1987, OnePass is the frequent flyer program for Continental Airlines, Copa Airlines and AeroRepública. OnePass offers regular travelers the privilege to obtain free tickets, First Class upgrades on flights, discounted membership for its airport lounge (President’s Club), and other types of rewards. Customers accumulate miles from flight segments they fly or through Continental Airlines partners. OnePass elite tiers are Silver, Gold, and Platinum Elite which have benefits such as free upgrades, mileage bonus, priority check-in, priority boarding, and much more. Continental previously had a frequent flyer program prior to OnePass, which was started not long after American Airlines started its frequent flyer program in 1981 and when most large United States airlines followed, but this was merged with Eastern Airlines’ frequent flyer program in 1987 to form OnePass.[47][48] The name "OnePass" refers to the ability to accumulate miles on two major airlines, namely Continental and Eastern, in one frequent flyer program. In addition to its Continental Express, Continental Connection, and SkyTeam alliance partnerships, Continental has frequent flyer partnerships with the following airlines: • Alaska Airlines • American Eagle
(only within California)

The Presidents Club is the membership airport lounge program of Continental Airlines, Copa Airlines and AeroRepublica. The clubs all have open bars, but have also started a premium bar service where higher end wines can be purchased by the glass. Continental was the first airline to offer free wi-fi in their lounge.[50] There are 26 clubs throughout the world and members have full reciprocal privileges at over 40 additional locations including lounges operated by selected SkyTeam partners including Delta Air Lines, Aeroméxico, Alitalia, and Northwest Airlines. Presidents club members also have access to Alaska Airlines lounges and Amtrak Acela clubs. The Presidents Club offers lifetime memberships, something that as of November 2008 costs non-elite OnePass members $5,500.[51] BusinessFirst customers flying an international itinerary as well as International Business Class customers are allowed access to the clubs. BusinessFirst customers may bring up to two guests and Presidents Club members may bring two guests or their immediate family (spouse and children under 21 years of age). American Express Platinum and Centurion card members are granted access to Presidents Clubs if they are flying on a Continental operated flight that day under a Continental flight number.

Locations
The Presidents Club locations are listed below: • • • • Atlanta Austin Boston Chicago O’Hare
(Shared with Northwest

• Cape Air • Emirates Airline • EVA Air

• Horizon Air • Island Air • Kingfisher Airlines • Qantas • US Helicopter • Virgin Atlantic

• Denver • Newark (3) • Fort • Panama Lauderdale City, • Guam Panama • Honolulu (Shared with • Houston Copa Airlines) (5) • San Antonio

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Los • San Angeles Francisco Partnership • Las Vegas • Seattle/ June 1 • New York Tacoma • Cleveland La Guardia • Washington • Dallas/ Reagan Fort Worth
Airlines) Leaving

Continental Airlines

Continental Currency
At airport kiosks Continental Airlines allows customers to buy "Continental Currency", a prepaid credit for audio headsets and alcoholic beverages on flights.[52] Continental allows customers to buy "Continental Currency" in the following quantities:[52] • 1 coupon for $5USD • 2 for $10 • 3 for $13 (airline advertises this as a $2 discount) • 6 for $25 (airline advertises this as a $5 discount)

Codeshare agreements
Continental Airlines has codeshare agreements with the following airlines as of May 2008: (This list does not include SkyTeam airlines) • AeroRepública • Alaska Airlines and Horizon Air • American Eagle (services within California only) • Cape Air, and the Continental Connection agreement, ’Continental Connection operated by Cape Air in Micronesia and Southern Florida. • Emirates Airline • EVA Airways • Hawaiian Airlines • Island Air • US Helicopter • Virgin Atlantic Airways The Continental Center I at night, with the airline logo displayed

Continental Connection codeshares
Continental Connection has a codeshare with American Eagle (the American Airlines’ equivalent of Continental Express), yet not with American Airlines. Also, American Eagle does not operate as Continental Connection, it codeshares specifically with Continental

Continental Connection aircraft Connection, not Continental Airlines. The operators of Continental Connection are: • CommutAir operates mostly from Continental’s Cleveland and Newark hubs. • Colgan Air operates out of Houston and Newark. Colgan, as a subsidiary of Pinnacle Airlines Corp. operates

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bombardier Q400 aircraft out of Newark and Saab 340B aircraft out of Houston as ’Continental Connection’. • Cape Air operates (Continental also has a codeshare with the mainstream Cape Air) in Southern Florida and from Guam to Saipan, Saipan to Rota and Rota to Guam. • Gulfstream International Airlines operates in the Bahamas, Miami, Ft. Lauderdale, Orlando, Tampa, and West Palm Beach, Jacksonville, Fort Walton, Tallahassee, Fort Myers, Key West, and Sarasota.

Continental Airlines
flight, making the carrier the first U.S. carrier to conduct tests using biofuels. The test bed, a 737, ran one of its engines on a mix of kerosene, algae, and jatropha, a weed that bears oil producing seeds.[55] Continental Airlines has been recognized by NASA and Fortune Magazine for positive environmental contributions.[53]

Incidents and accidents

Environmental record
Continental Airlines has made efforts to minimize negative environmental effects of commercial airline activities. Continental employees have made substantial efforts to modify operational activities to reduce environmental impact. The carrier has invested $12 billion for purchase of 270 fuel-efficient aircraft and related equipment.[53] These efforts have contributed to significant reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, and has improved fuel consumption by 45% per mainline revenue passenger mile over the past 10 years.[53] Continental has implemented a program that affords passengers the opportunity to offset their carbon emissions per flight for a fee of two additional dollars. Funds collected against carbon offsets are directed for tree planting in reforestation areas. Passengers can also contribute $50 dollars or more to fund renewable-energy projects such as wind- or solar-power projects, or to reestablish algae in oceans or large scale reforestation.[54] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) "Design for the Environment Program" has recognized Continental (2008) for use of a non-chromium aircraft surface pretreatment that is environmentally compatible. Continental Airlines is the first carrier to utilize this technology on their aircraft. The product, "PreKote", eliminates hazardous chemicals that are usually used in the pretreatment phase before repainting aircraft. This technology affords improved environmental conditions for maintenance employees, while also reducing process wastewater.[53] Continental Airlines is planning flight tests employing a biofuelled aircraft. On January 7,2009, Continental partnered with GE Aviation to conduct a biofuelled demonstration

The following are major incidents and accidents that occurred on Continental Airlines mainline aircraft. Continental Airline Flight Date Aircraft Location

Descrip

11[56]

May 22, 1962

Boeing 707-100

Unionville, A passen MO intent on claiming money fr life insur planted a bomb on aircraft w departed ChicagoO’Hare destined Kansas C Municipa port. The bomb ex ploded, a craft tail broke off the plane crashed farm nea Unionvil Missouri 45 on bo died. Thi craft had viously b subject t attempte jacking t Cuba, although t jackers w

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
captured in El Paso, Texas. 290
[57]

Continental Airlines

January 29, 1963

Vickers Viscount

Kansas City, MO

Flight 290 en- 8 route from Midland, Texas to Kansas City crashed on approach. The plane crashed near the south end of the runway and burst into flames. After bringing 2 Bob and Audrey Six to their Colorado ranch, the Sabreliner crew departed MTJ for return flight to LAX. The thrust reverser of the aircraft was deployed in flight shortly after takeoff. The Sabreliner des603 March 1, cended from [60] 1,000 feet 1978 (300 m) and struck the ground, being instantly destroyed.

8

N/A [58]

April 13, 1973

NA-265 Sabreliner

Montrose, CO

2

preclude covery le flight, ca the aircr descend rate whic could no overcom even tho the aircr was flow or near i maximum capabilit througho the enco The wind was gene by the ou from a th derstorm which wa over the craft’s de ture path passenge and crew safely ev ated. The craft dec a total lo

McDonnell Los Douglas Angeles, DC-10 CA

426
[59]

August 15, 1975

Boeing 727-200

Denver, CO

Flight 426, 131 bound for Wichita, Kansas, crashed near the departure end of runway. The aircraft’s encounter, immediately following takeoff, with 1713[61] November McDonnell Denver, severe winds15, Douglas CO hear at an alti- 1987 DC-9 tude and airspeed which

Flight 60 schedule fly to Honolulu from Los Angeles. DC-10 ov the runw 15 duri LAX aborted takeoff a result of explosion ulting in engulfing aircraft. aircraft w declared total loss

Flight 17 bound fo Boise, Id crashed

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
take-off during a snowstorm at Stapleton Intl. Airport. 55
[62]

Continental Airlines

July 25, 2000

McDonnell Paris, Douglas France DC-10

Flight 55 contributed to the crash of Air France Concorde Flight 4590 in Paris. The Continental jet dropped a strip of titanium alloy from its thrust re1404 December Boeing Denver, verser on the 2008 20, 737-500 CO runway during its takeoff roll. When AF4590 subsequently departed, Concorde’s left main landing gear tires struck the strip of metal and were punctured. The tires exploded as Concorde began its takeoff roll. The tire rubber fragments penetrated Concorde’s wing fuel tanks, starting fires in engines 1 and 2, leading to the crash which killed allincidents Minor aboard. Ac-1, 1965 Continental Airlines Flight • On July cording to off the runway at Kansas City 12 ran the official report Airport landing in heavy rain. Downtown on the 66 on board survived. All accident, the strip 28, 2006, Continental Flight • On October of metal in-Boeing 757-200 aircraft carrying 1883, a stalled on the 160 passengers, landed on a narrow Continental jet taxiway parallel to runway 29 unoccupied was made at Newark Liberty International Airport. from a one was injured and both pilots were No

different than had approved the US F al Aviatio ministrat 1 or the en f manufac This led French a thorities gin a crim investiga into Con ental Air lines.[63]

Flight 14 bound fo Houston pulled le ran off o runway d its takeo at Denve ternation Airport. cause of incident known, however right sid aircraft caught fi once com to a stop the 115 people o board, 38 tained in ies, with iously inj including pilot.[64]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
temporarily removed from flying status duties pending an investigation and have since been reinstated. Potentially confusing runway lighting and pilot error were cited in the investigation.[65]

Continental Airlines

Advantage (ISBN 0-520-07359-2), University of California Press, 1999. [12] Moss Kanter, Rosabeth, Confidence How Winning Streaks and Losing Streaks Begin and End (ISBN 1-4000-5290-4), Crown Business, 2004 [13] Bethune, Gordon, From Worst to First: Behind the scenes of Continental’s [1] ^ Norwood, Tom; Wegg, John (2002). remarkable comeback (ISBN North American Airlines Handbook (3rd 978-0471356523), Wiley & Sons, 1999. ed.). Sandpoint, ID: Airways [14] "CONTINENTAL AIRLINES FLIES ONTO International. ISBN 0-9653993-8-9. THE INTERNET." PR Newswire. March http://www.airwaysnews.com. 26, 1996. Retrieved on May 18, 2009. [2] ^ Continental Airlines To Leave [15] "Company History 1991 to 2000." SkyTeam To Join Star Alliance (Official Continental Airlines. Retrieved on Press Release: June 19, 2008) February 11, 2009. [3] "Continental now USA’s 4th-biggest [16] "Headquarters Location." Continental airline, passing Northwest", USA Today Airlines. Retrieved on December 7, notes Continental overtaking Northwest 2008. according to a Bloomberg News study [17] "UAL, Continental Discuss Merger As [4] "Directory: World Airlines". Flight AirTran Presses Bid for Midwest." Carey, International: p. 68. 2007-04-03. S.; Trottman, M.; Berman, D. K. The Wall [5] ^ Serling, Robert J., Maverick: The story Street Journal. December 13, 2006. of Robert Six and Continental Airlines [18] "United and Continental Discussing (ISBN 0-385-04057-1), Doubleday & Possible Merger." Sorkin, A. R. and Company, 1974. Bailey, J. The New York Times. [6] ^ Christian, J. Scott, former Continental December 12, 2006 employee and manager, Bring Songs to [19] "[1]"Continental Airlines Press Release the Sky: Recollections of Continental September 14, 2007. Airlines, 1970-1986, Quadran Press, [20] http://crainsnewyork.datajoe.com/app/ 1998. ecom/ [7] U.S. Supreme Court, COLORADO pub_viewhtml.php?listid=3006&year=2007&htmlkey COMM’N v. CONTINENTAL, 372 U.S. [21] "Copa says Continental Airlines sold 714 (1963) 372 U.S. 714 COLORADO remaining stake in company". Thomson ANTI-DISCRIMINATION Financial News (Forbes). 2008-05-21. COMMISSION ET AL. v. http://www.forbes.com/afxnewslimited/ CONTINENTAL AIR LINES, INC. feeds/afx/2008/05/21/afx5035184.html. CERTIORARI TO THE SUPREME COURT Retrieved on 2008-05-31. OF COLORADO. No. 146. Argued March [22] http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2008/ 28, 1963. Decided April 22, 1963. 06/continental_united_agree_to_li.html [8] "Continental Airlines Ranked No. 1 [23] "Continental will furlough up to 180 World’s Most Admired Airline by pilots". 2008-08-19. FORTUNE Magazine". Reuters http://www.usatoday.com/travel/flights/ (2008-03-11). Retrieved on 2008-06-21. 2008-08-19-continental[9] "Continental Air Chief Dies, Apparent pilots_N.htm?csp=34. Suicide". New York Times. 1981-08-10. [24] "Continental Airlines Continental Airlines http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ tests biofuel in flight". fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9C02E0D9143BF933A2575BC0A967948260. http://www.journalstar.com/articles/ Retrieved on 2008-07-16. 2009/01/12/news/business/ [10] ^ Buckley, William F. Jr., [5] Frank doc4967d159ca7b0632086096.txt. Lorenzo & the free market in National [25] "Continental, USAir bring U.S. airline Review, September 17, 1990. losses to $1.35 billion". 2009-01-29. [11] ^ Delaney, Kevin J., Strategic http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news. Bankruptcy: How Corporations and [26] "Continental Airlines Ranked No. 1 Creditors Use Chapter 11 to Their World’s Most Admired Airline by FORTUNE Magazine". Reuters.

References

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Continental Airlines

2008-03-11. http://www.reuters.com/ proposes through flight service between article/pressRelease/ Cleveland and Shanghai idUS176168+11-Mar-2008+PRN20080311. [36] "Continental thinks ahead to next era / Retrieved on 2008-06-21. When new 787 arrives, carrier may go [27] "Continental flies veterans to Iwo Jima nonstop to Dubai, elsewhere", Houston today". Saipan Tribune. 2006-03-08. Chronicle. December 14, 2007. http://www.saipantribune.com/ [37] ^ Credeur, Mary Jane (2008-06-12). newsstory.aspx?cat=1&newsID=55458. "Continental Drops 15 Cities, Trims Retrieved on 2008-06-24. Flights at Hubs". Bloomberg News. [28] "OAG Airline Industry Awards - Previous http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/ AOY". OAG. 2008. news?pid=20601087&sid=a0NxXEzlecXs&refer=hom http://www.oagairlineawards.com/ Retrieved on 2008-06-12. previousAOY.html. Retrieved on [38] Makishima, Paul (2008-06-12). 2008-06-24. "Continental to cut service to 15 cities". [29] "2007 North America Airline Satisfaction Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/ Study". J.D. Power. 2007-06-19. travel/blog/2008/06/continental_to.html. http://www.jdpower.com/corporate/news/ Retrieved on 2008-06-12. releases/pressrelease.aspx?ID=2007097. [39] http://www.continental.com/web/en-US/ Retrieved on 2008-06-24. content/company/investor/docs/ [30] ^ "Continental Airlines Named Best continental_8k_2009_042201.pdf#fleet Large Domestic Airline by Zagat". [40] Boeing 737 Orders and Deliveries MarketWatch. 2008-11-25. [41] ^ Continental Airlines To Add LiveTV http://www.marketwatch.com/news/ and Wi-Fi To Next-Gen 737 and 757-300 story/Continental-Airlines-Named-BestAircraft (Official Press Release: January Large/story.aspx?guid={0860256A29, 2008) C8A2-4FFB-AAE3-D87851BE143C}. [42] "Continental Airlines Completes Retrieved on 2008-12-07. Installation of Audio/Video on Demand [31] "Continental Airlines Chosen as Best System on Boeing 757-200 Fleet - Yahoo! Airline for North American Travel by Finance". Finance.yahoo.com. Business Traveler Magazine Readers http://finance.yahoo.com/news/ (2008, 2009)". MarketWatch. Continental-Airlines2008-12-12. prnews-13756528.html. Retrieved on http://www.marketwatch.com/news/ 2009-01-08. story/Continental-Airlines-Chosen-Best[43] Flight International 8 April 1960 Airline/ [44] Flight International 26 March 1970 story.aspx?guid={6B188AE6-0FBB-4DC1-8B1C-97915BACD8F4}. [45] Continental Airlines Aircraft Information Retrieved on 2008-12-12. [46] "In-flight Beverage Selection", [32] "Continental Airlines Announces New Continental Airlines Policy for Same-Day Flight Changes."". [47] personal collection of Eastern Airlines Continental Airlines News Release (via frequent flyer program newsletters from Reuters). 2008-06-26. 1987. http://www.reuters.com/article/ [48] InsideFlyer.com: The First Frequent pressRelease/ Flyer Programs idUS161663+26-Jun-2008+PRN20080626?symbol=CAL.N. Airlines—Amtrak Alliance [49] Continental Retrieved on 2008-08-02. [50] Continental Airlines First to Offer Free [33] "Continental Airlines to Launch TwiceWi-Fi in Airport Lounges Daily Nonstop Flights to Heathrow From [51] "Membership & Passbook Rates", Both New York and Houston", Continental Airlines Continental Airlines [52] ^ "Airport Kiosks." Continental Airlines. [34] "Continental to cut Fiji service in Retrieved on May 18, 2009. response to Australian protest. [53] ^ "Continental gets EPA award for (Continental Airlines)", Travel Weekly PreKote use". Saipan Tribune. [35] Continental Airlines Applies to Fly 2008-04-18. Nonstop Between New York/Newark and http://www.saipantribune.com/ Shanghai, China in Spring 2009, Also newsstory.aspx?cat=5&newsID=79091. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[54] Gogoi, Pallavi (2008-03-28). "Carbon Offsets Take Flight". BusinessWeek. http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/ dnflash/content/mar2008/ db20080321_437700.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-06. [55] "Airline industry advances use of biofuels". Biodiesel Magazine. http://www.biodieselmagazine.com/ article.jsp?article_id=2265. Retrieved on 2008-05-06. [56] "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 707-124 N70775 Unionville, MO". Aviationsafety.net. http://aviation-safety.net/ database/record.php?id=19620522-0. Retrieved on 2009-01-08. [57] "ASN Aircraft accident Vickers 812 Viscount N242V Kansas City, MO". Aviation-safety.net. 1963-01-29. http://aviation-safety.net/database/ record.php?id=19630129-0. Retrieved on 2009-01-08. [58] "ASN Aircraft accident North American NA-265 Sabreliner 60 N743R Montrose, CO". Aviation-safety.net. 1973-04-13. http://aviation-safety.net/database/ record.php?id=19730413-0. Retrieved on 2009-01-08. [59] "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 727-224 N88777 Denver-Stapleton International Airport, CO (DEN)". Aviation-safety.net. 1975-08-07. http://aviation-safety.net/ database/record.php?id=19750807-0. Retrieved on 2009-01-08. [60] http://libraryonline.erau.edu/online-fulltext/ntsb/aircraft-accident-reports/ AAR79-01.pdf

Continental Airlines
[61] "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas DC-9-14 N626TX Denver-Stapleton International Airport, CO (DEN)". Aviation-safety.net. 1987-11-15. http://aviation-safety.net/ database/record.php?id=19871115-0. Retrieved on 2009-01-08. [62] "ASN Aircraft accident Aérospatiale / BAC Concorde 101 F-BTSC Gonesse". Aviation-safety.net. http://aviationsafety.net/database/ record.php?id=20000725-0. Retrieved on 2009-01-08. [63] "Judge places Continental under investigation in Concorde crash." USA Today [64] "The Denver Post." December 21,22,23 24, and 26, 2008. [65] Weiss, Murray & Jeremy Olshanp. "Airline Pilot in Blunder Land", NYPOST.COM, October 31, 2006. Retrieved June 21, 2007. • Continental Airlines, , 1970 edition. • Vietor, Richard H. K. "Contrived Competition: Airline Regulation and Deregulation, 1925-1988", , Vol. 64, No. 1, Government and Business (Spring, 1990), pp. 61–108

External links
• Continental Airlines official website • Flycontinental.com (Official website archive) • Coair.Com - Employee Website • Continental inflight magazine • Continental Airlines Cargo • OnePass (Official website archive)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continental_Airlines" Categories: Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange, SkyTeam, Star Alliance, Airlines of the United States, IATA members, Air Transport Association members, Airlines established in 1937, Companies based in Denver, Colorado, Companies based in Houston, Texas, Continental Airlines, Open Travel Alliance, Texas Pacific Group This page was last modified on 20 May 2009, at 04:26 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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