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					    John Bentley School                                 Department of Science

    BTEC First Diploma                                        Course tutor
    in Applied Science                                        Mrs E Laird

                       Unit 4: Physical Science Applications
                              Exploring the Universe

      Date set: 10th March 2009             Final Deadline: 30th March 2009



                                    Scenario
 Man has always been fascinated by the stars; but until about fifty years ago could
 study them only by using optical telescopes. Now we use equipment covering all
 parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Much of that equipment operates from
 space, rather than on Earth.
 You are working in a team of technicians for the European Space Agency. Your job
 involves working with scientists and astronauts on missions to explore the Universe.
 Your team have been asked by your old school to give a presentation to the current
 students about the methods used to explore the universe.


                             Assessment Evidence
Unit                              Grading Criteria
        State methods used to investigate the Universe, its galaxies, planets and
     P5
        stars
        Describe methods used to investigate the Universe, its galaxies, planets
 4   M5
        and stars
        Analyse the effectiveness and limitations of methods used to
     D5
        investigate the Universe, its galaxies, planets and stars




                                Assessors Feedback




                            Internal Verifiers Comment




    I declare that the work submitted for this assignment is all my own work

 Signed:                                                  Date:

 Name:
    John Bentley School                                  Department of Science

     BTEC First Diploma                                        Course tutor
     in Applied Science                                        Mrs E Laird

                       Unit 4: Physical Science Applications
                              Exploring the Universe

      Date set: 10th March 2009              Final Deadline: 30th March 2009

Man has always been fascinated by the stars; but until about fifty years ago could
study them only by using optical telescopes. Now we use equipment covering all parts
of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Much of that equipment operates from space, rather than on Earth.
We have:
 the Hubble Space Telescope
 the Chandra X-ray and Compton gamma-ray orbiting observatories
 the International Space Station
 space probes sent to other planets.
Since NASA’s moon missions ended, however, public interest has declined. Most
people know little or nothing about modern astronomical methods.
As you are working as a technician for the European Space Agency your old school
have asked you and your team to give a powerpoint presentation to the current
students about the methods used to explore the universe.



                               Task 1 – The Universe
Pass
Prepare an introductory slide about the universe to include
   □ What is the universe
   □ The difference between stars, planets and galaxies
   □ Other celestial bodies that may be found in space

Prepare an introductory slide about our solar system to include
   □ The name of the star in our solar system
   □ The planets in our solar system
                                                                                   P5
       John Bentley School                                Department of Science

       BTEC First Diploma                                       Course tutor
       in Applied Science                                       Mrs E Laird


                         Task 2 – Exploring the Visible Universe


On a clear night we can see a vast number of so-called ‘stars’. Most really are stars,
but some are planets and many are whole galaxies or other celestial objects.


Pass
        □       Prepare some slides to show the methods used by astronomers to make
        these   objects more clearly visible
        □       Include a picture/diagram of each method
        □       Give an example of where this method is found/used (i.e. location) P5

Merit
        □     For each method, describe how these instruments work.
        □     Include the difference between reflecting and refracting instruments,
        and a brief description of spectroscopy.                                 M5

Distinction
      □      Compare the effectiveness of observations when visible astronomy is
      carried out from:
             o      urban and rural locations [e.g. why did the Royal Observatory
             move from Greenwich (London) to Herstmonceux (Sussex)?]
             o      lowland and mountain-top locations
             o      terrestrial and orbital locations e.g. Hubble Space Telescope.
      □      For each pair, explain what limits the quality of observations made at
      the first location, compared with the second.
                                                                                      D5
    John Bentley School                                   Department of Science

     BTEC First Diploma                                        Course tutor
     in Applied Science                                        Mrs E Laird

                      Task 3 – Exploring the Invisible Universe

Celestial bodies don’t just emit visible light. They radiate across the electromagnetic
spectrum.


Pass
   □ Prepare some slides to explain which other types of electromagnetic radiation,
     besides visible light, are used to investigate the Universe
   □ Compare the frequencies and wavelengths of these various types of radiation.
   □ What sort of instrument is used with each type of radiation?                    P5




Merit
  □ Include in your presentation a table to show which types of celestial body emit
      which types of radiation.
   □ What information do astronomers obtain by studying these radiations?          M5


Distinction
   □ Produce slides to explain the terms red shift, big bang and black hole.
   □ Briefly describe how astronomers investigate and explain these phenomena by
     studying the radiations from celestial bodies.                          D5
       John Bentley School                                Department of Science

       BTEC First Diploma                                      Course tutor
       in Applied Science                                      Mrs E Laird


                             Task 4 – Taking a Closer Look

Astronomers have learned most of what we know about the Universe by using
terrestrial and orbiting instruments. But much more information can be obtained by
sending a spacecraft to take a closer look.


Pass
   □ Prepare some slides to explain what sort of manned space missions have been
     carried out so far, and for what purposes?
   □ Sending a space probe to investigate another planet is more complicated than
     just firing a rocket from here to there. What techniques are used …
           o to make the journey as effective and productive as possible, e.g. ways of
             probing other planets on their journey?
           o to obtain the maximum amount of information once the spacecraft
             reaches the planet?                                                    P5


Merit
  □ Describe various ways in which manned space missions have helped astronomers
      investigate the Universe.
   □ Outline ways in which we expect them to continue to do so in the near future.
   □    Give examples of the equipment that space probes have taken to other planets,
        and some results obtained from them.                                    M5


Distinction
   □ In your opinion, how effective have spaceflights been in improving our
      knowledge of the Universe? Back up your arguments with suitable evidence
      rather than your own emotions.
   □ Explain the limitations in the use of manned and unmanned spaceflights for
     investigating the Universe.                                                D5




   Email your completed presentation to jmk@johnbentleyschool.com
    Include a final slide that explains the role undertaken by each
           member of the group in producing the presentation
     John Bentley School                                Department of Science

     BTEC First Diploma                                        Course tutor
     in Applied Science                                        Mrs E Laird


                       Unit 4: Physical Science Applications
                                 Exploring the Universe

Student:                                    Final Deadline: 30th March 2009




Unit                  Grading Criteria                  To improve your grade … …

                      Task 1 – The Universe
              □   What is the universe
              □   The difference between stars,
                  planets and galaxies
              □   Other celestial bodies that may be
                  found in space
              □   The name of the star in our solar
                  system
              □   The planets in our solar system

             Task 2 – Exploring the Visible Universe
                 □     Show the methods used by
                 astronomers to make these objects
                 more clearly visible
 4     P5        □     Include a picture/diagram of
                 each method
                 □     Give an example of where this
                 method is found/used (i.e. location)

            Task 3 – Exploring the Invisible Universe
              □ explain which types of
                 electromagnetic radiation are used
                 to investigate the Universe
              □ Compare the frequencies and
                wavelengths of these types
              □ What sort of instrument is used with
                each type of radiation?
    John Bentley School                                 Department of Science

    BTEC First Diploma                                      Course tutor
    in Applied Science                                      Mrs E Laird
                Task 4 – Taking a Closer Look

              □ explain what sort of manned space
                missions have been carried out so
                far, and for what purposes
              □ What techniques are used when
                sending a space probe …
                     o to make the journey as
                       effective and productive as
                       possible, e.g. ways of probing
                       other planets on their
                       journey?
                     o to obtain the maximum amount
                       of information once the
                       spacecraft reaches the
                       planet?



            Task 2 – Exploring the Visible Universe
                □     For each method, describe
                how these instruments work.
                □     Difference between reflecting
                and refracting instruments, and
                describe spectroscopy

           Task 3 – Exploring the Invisible Universe
              □    show which types of celestial body
                  emit which types of radiation.
4     M5      □ What information do astronomers
                obtain by studying these radiations?


                Task 4 – Taking a Closer Look
              □ Describe how manned space missions
                have helped astronomers investigate
                the Universe
              □ Outline ways in which we expect
                them to continue to do so in the near
                future.
    John Bentley School                                     Department of Science

    BTEC First Diploma                                          Course tutor
    in Applied Science                                          Mrs E Laird

              □    Give examples of the equipment that
                   space probes have taken to other
                   planets, and some results obtained
                   from them.



            Task 2 – Exploring the Visible Universe
                □      Compare the effectiveness of
                observations when visible astronomy
                is carried out from:
                       o      urban and rural
                       locations
                       o      lowland and
                       mountain-top locations
                       o      terrestrial and orbital
                       locations
                □      For each pair, explain what
                limits the quality of observations
                made at the first location, compared
                with the second.

           Task 3 – Exploring the Invisible Universe
4     D5
              □ Produce slides to explain the terms
                red shift, big bang and black hole.
              □ Briefly describe how astronomers
                investigate and explain these
                phenomena by studying the
                radiations from celestial bodies.


                Task 4 – Taking a Closer Look
              □ In your opinion, how effective have
                spaceflights been in improving our
                knowledge of the Universe?
                    Explain the limitations in the use of
                  manned and unmanned spaceflights for
                     investigating the Universe.

				
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