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Citizens’ band radio

Citizens’ band radio

A typical 1980s CB base station. This twoway radio can also be used in a mobile as it can be powered by 13.8 volts DC. Shown with aftermarket Astatic Power D-104 desk mic.

Cobra 18 WX ST II mobile CB radio with microphone Citizens’ Band radio (often shortened to CB radio) is, in many countries, a system of short-distance radio communications between individuals on a selection of 40 channels within the 27-MHz (11 m) band. Similar personal radio services exist in other countries, with varying requirements for licensing and differing technical standards. The CB radio service is distinct from FRS, GMRS, MURS, or amateur ("ham") radio. In many countries, CB does not require a Hand-held CB transceiver license and, unlike amateur radio, it may be used for business as well as personal communications. Like many other two-way radio services, Citizens’ Band channels are shared by many users. Only one station may transmit at a time. Other stations must listen and wait for the shared channel to be available.


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Citizens’ band radio
the American FRS and GMRS services, these are more properly covered in their own articles, as much of this article is specific to the antenna and propagation issues of the upper HF and lower VHF bands.

The Citizens’ Band radio service originated in the United States as one of several personal radio services regulated by the FCC. These services began in 1945 to permit citizens a radio band for personal communication (e.g., radio controlled models, family communications, individual businesses). Originally, CB was located in the 460 MHz–470 MHz UHF band. There were two classes of CB: A and B. Class B radios had simpler technical requirements but were limited to a smaller range of frequencies. Al Gross, inventor of the walkietalkie, started Citizen’s Radio Corp. in the late 1940s to merchandise Class B handhelds for the general public.[1] The technology at the time was not advanced enough for UHF radios to be practical and affordable for the average consumer. So, in 1958,[2] the Class D CB service was opened at 27 MHz, and this is what is popularly known as CB. There were only 23 channels at the time; the first 22 were taken from what used to be an Amateur 11-meter band, while channel 23 was shared with radio-controlled devices. Some hobbyists continue to use the designation "11 meters" to refer to the Citizens’ Band and adjoining frequencies. Most of the 460 MHz–470 MHz band was reassigned for business and public safety uses, but Class A CB is the ancestor of the present General Mobile Radio Service GMRS. Class B, in the same vein, is a more distant ancestor of the Family Radio Service. The Multi-Use Radio Service is another two-way radio service, in the VHF high band. An unsuccessful petition was made in 1973 to create a Class E CB service at 220 MHz, this was opposed by amateur radio organizations[3] and others. There are several other classes of personal radio services for specialized purposes such as remote control devices. Over time, several countries have created similar radio services. While they may be known by other names, such as General Radio Service in Canada,[4] they often use similar frequencies (26 to 28 MHz), and have similar uses, and similar issues with antennas and propagation. Licenses may or may not be required, but eligibility is generally simple. Some countries have personal radio services in the UHF band, such as the European PMR446 and the Australian UHF CB. Like

In the 1960s, the service was popular with small trade businesses (e.g., electricians, plumbers, carpenters), as well as truck drivers and radio hobbyists. With the advancement of solid-state electronics, the weight, size, and cost of the radios decreased, giving the general public access to a communications medium that had previously been only available to specialists. Many CB clubs were formed, and a special CB slang language evolved, used alongside 10-codes similar to those used in the emergency services. Following the 1973 oil crisis, the U.S. government imposed a nationwide 55 mph speed limit, and fuel shortages and rationing were widespread. CB radio was often used to locate service stations with a supply of gasoline, to notify other drivers of speed traps, and to organize blockades and convoys in a 1974 strike protesting the new speed limit and other trucking regulations. The prominent use of CB radios in 1970sera films (see list below) such as Smokey and the Bandit (1977), Convoy (1978), and television shows like Movin’ On (debuted 1974) and The Dukes of Hazzard (debuted 1979) bolstered the appeal of CB radio. Moreover, popular novelty songs such as C.W. McCall’s Convoy (1976) helped establish CB radio as a nationwide craze in the USA in the mid- to late-1970s. Originally, CB required a license and the use of a call sign, but when the CB craze was at its peak, many people ignored this requirement and used made-up nicknames or "handles". The many restrictions on the authorized use of CB radio led to widespread disregard of the regulations, most notably in antenna height, distance restriction for communications, licensing and the use of call signs, and allowable transmitter power. Eventually, the license requirement was dropped entirely. Originally, there were only 23 CB channels in the U.S.; the present 40-channel bandplan did not come along until 1977. Channel 9 was reserved for emergency use in


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1969.[5] Channel 10 was used for highway communications, though channel 19 later became the preferred highway channel in most areas as it did not have adjacent-channel interference problems with channel 9. Until 1975[6], only channels 9–14 and [7] could be used for "interstation" calls to 23 other licensees. Channels 1–8 and 15–22 were reserved for "intrastation" communications among units under the same license.[8] After the interstation/intrastation rule was dropped, channel 11 was reserved as a calling frequency for the sole purpose of establishing communications; however this was withdrawn in 1977.[9] Until the late 1970s when synthesized radios appeared, CB radios were controlled by plug-in quartz crystals. Almost all were AM only, though there were a few single sideband sets in the early days. Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, a phenomenon was developing over the CB radio. Similar to the Internet chat rooms a quarter century later, the CB allowed people to get to know one another in a quasi-anonymous manner. Many movies and stories about CBers and the culture on-the-air developed. In more recent years, CB has lost much of its original appeal due to the advancement of technologies and changing values. Some of this rapid development includes: mobile phones, the Internet, and Family Radio Service. The changing radio wave propagation for long-distance communications, due to the 11 year sunspot cycle, is always a factor for these frequencies. In addition, CB in some respects became a victim of its own intense popularity. Because of the millions of users jamming onto frequencies during the mid-tolate 1970s and early 1980s, channels often were intolerably noisy and communication became difficult. Many CBers started to use their radios less frequently or not at all after this period.

Citizens’ band radio
meter band was still used by licensed ham operators[12] but not yet available for CBtype use. A number of CB clubs had formed by this time, which assigned callsigns to members, exchanged QSL cards, and lobbied for the legalization of CB. In 1977, CB was legalized with an 18-channel bandplan, and later in 1980 the American 40-channel bandplan was adopted. From the outset, the Government attempted to regulate CB radio with licence fees and call-signs etc, but some years later abandoned this approach. After peaking in the 1970s and early 1980s, the use of 27 MHz CB in Australia has fallen dramatically in the last decade. The later introduction of 477 MHz UHF CB, with FM and repeaters, and the proliferation of cheap, compact handheld UHF transceivers have been part of the reason. But other technologies such as mobile telephones, Internet chat, etc. have provided people with other choices for communications.

In Indonesia, CB radios were first introduced around 1977 when some transceivers were imported illegally from Australia, Japan and the United States. The dates are hard to confirm accurately but certainly early use was known around big cities such as Jakarta, Bandung, Yogyakarta, Surabaya and Medan. The Indonesian government legalized CB on October 6, 1980 through a decision of the Minister of Communications called the Ministerial Decree on the Licensing for the Operation of Inter-Citizens Radio Communication. Because many people were already using 40-channel radios prior to legalization, the American bandplan, with AM and SSB, was adopted; a VHF band was added later in 1994. On November 10, 1980, the Indonesian Directorate General of Posts and Telecommunications issued another decree establishing RAPI (Radio Antar Penduduk Indonesia) as the official citizens band radio organization in Indonesia.[13]

Before CB was authorized in Australia, there were hand held 27 MHz "walkie-talkies" that utilised several frequencies in between the present CB channels, such as 27.240 MHz.[10][11] By the mid-1970s, hobbyists were experimenting with these handheld radios, as well as with unauthorized American CB radios. At that time in Australia, the 11

United Kingdom
In Great Britain, some people were illegally using American CB radios in the 1970s, a craze which suddenly peaked in 1980 due to popularizing by the film Convoy. As late as the summer of 1981, the British government was still saying that CB would never be


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legalized on 27 MHz, and proposed a UHF service around 860 MHz called "Open Channel" instead. However, in November 1981, 40 frequencies unique to the UK, and using FM, were allocated at 27 MHz, plus 20 channels on 934 MHz (934.0125 to 934.9625 MHz with 50-kHz-spacing). CB’s inventor Al Gross made the first legal British CB call from Trafalgar Square, London. Later, the UK added the more usual 40 frequencies used worldwide for a total of 80 channels at 27 MHz, and the 934 MHz band was withdrawn in 1998. CB radio in the UK was deregulated in December 2006 by the regulatory body Ofcom, and CB radio in the UK is now licence free.

Citizens’ band radio
frequencies may be withdrawn in 2010, under plans to reassign the frequencies to the Community Audio Distribution System service.[14] In Poland (and probably some other former Warsaw Pact countries) the channels are shifted 5 kHz down, so for example channel 30 is 27.300 MHz, many operators add a switch that can change between the "zeroes" (the Polish channel assignment), and the "fives" (the international assignment). Australia now has the 40 North American channels, though in the late 1970s it had an 18-channel bandplan with unique numbering.[15] On the other hand, New Zealand and Japan have unique allocations that don’t correspond to any other country. Indonesia has the usual 40 channels at 27 MHz, plus a unique 60-channel allocation from 142.050 MHz–143.525 MHz.[16] A gray market trade in imported CB gear does exist in many countries. In many instances, sale or ownership of foreign-specification CB gear is not illegal, but the actual use of it is. With the FCC’s minimal enforcement of its rules regarding CB radio, enthusiasts in the USA often use "export" radios, or possibly European FM CB gear to get away from the overcrowded AM channels. American AM gear has also been exported to Europe. "Export" radios are marketed in the United States as 10 Meter Amateur transceivers. The marketing, importing and sale of such radios is illegal. It is also illegal to use these radios outside of the amateur radio bands by anyone in the USA as these radios are not type certified for the other radio services and usually exceed power limits. The use of these radios within the amateur radio service by a licensed amateur radio operator within his/her privileges is legal as long as all amateur rules are followed Using radios outside their intended market can be dangerous as well as illegal. For example, the British frequencies clash with a radio service used by ambulance services in Ukraine.[17]

CB Frequencies Worldwide
The frequencies for the 40 North American/ CEPT channels are given in CB usage in the United States. Similar radio services exist in other countries around the world. Frequencies, power levels, and modes (such as FM, AM and SSB) may vary from country to country, and usage of foreign equipment may be illegal. However, many countries have adopted the American frequencies. In Canada, the "General Radio Service" has the identical frequencies and modes as the United States "Citizen’s band", and no special provisions are required for either Canadians or Americans using CB gear while traveling across the border. In Europe, the CEPT adopted the North American channel assignments, except that FM is used instead of AM. Some member countries permit additional modes and frequencies. Before CEPT, most of the member countries used some subset of the 40 USA channels. The United Kingdom, on the other hand, originally had 40 unique 27 MHz channels, known as the 27/81 Bandplan. See CB radio in the United Kingdom. With the CEPT channels added, the UK now has 80 channels. Germany also has 40 unique channels at 26 MHz for a total of 80. In the UK the requirement to have a license has been dispensed with, but all permission for the public to use the UK-specific

CB Radio today
CB was once the only practical two-way radio system for the individual consumer, and as such served several distinct types of users such as truck drivers, radio hobbyists, and those who needed a short-range radio for particular tasks. While some of these users


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have moved on to other radio services, CB is still a popular hobby in many countries. In the United States it is strongly associated with semi truck drivers and rural life. The 27-MHz-frequencies used by CBs, which require a long antenna and don’t propagate well indoors, tend to discourage use of handheld radios for many applications. Many consumer users of handheld radios (ex. family use, hunters, hikers) have moved on to 49 MHz and then to the UHF Family Radio Service, while many who need a simple radio for professional use (ex. tradesmen) have moved on to "dot-color" business radios. On the other hand, CB is still popular among long-haul truck drivers to communicate directions, traffic problems, and other things of importance. This has long been the case in the United States, but less so in Europe where until recently conflicting regulations made it impossible for the same radio to be used across Europe. As a result, CB in Europe became more associated with hobbyists than with truckers. Most CB Radios sold in the United States today come with the following features: • ANL/NB – Automatic Noise Limiter or Noise Blanker reduces background noise, such as spark ignition noise. • CB/WX – selects weather radio receiver. • Dynamic or Mic Gain – adjust transmitted sound level (modulation level). • PA – some cb receivers can drive an external speaker • RF Gain – adjusts level of signals into receiver. • NOR/9/19 – quickly tunes pre-set channels for calling or emergency channels. • SWR – a tuner used to reduce the standing wave ratio caused by mismatched antennas and antenna cables. • Volume – speaker volume control. Popular microphone choices include: • Dynamic – A microphone#dynamic microphone uses a magnetic coil and permanent magnet. • Ceramic – uses a piezoelectric element; rugged, low cost, but high impedance. • Echo – These microphones deliberately introduce distortion and echo into the transmitted audio. • Electret – An electret microphone uses an electrostatic method to convert sound to electrical signals. • Noise-canceling microphone- uses two elements to reduce background noise.

Citizens’ band radio
• Power Mic – An amplified mic. [18] Legitimate, short-range use of CB radio is sometimes made difficult by uncooperative users and users of illegal high-power transmitters, which are capable of being heard hundreds of miles away. In the United States, the vast number of users and the low financing of the regulatory body mean that the regulations are only actively enforced against the most severe interfering stations, which makes legitimate operations on the Citizen’s band unreliable. The maximum legal CB power output level, in the U.S., is four watts for AM and 12 watts (peak envelope power or "PEP") for SSB, as measured at the antenna connection on the back of the radio. However, illegal external linear amplifiers are frequently used. In the 1970s the FCC banned the sale of linear amplifiers capable of operation from 24 to 35 MHz to discourage their use on the CB band, though the use of high power amplifiers by lawless operators continued. Late in 2006 the FCC amended the regulation to only exclude 26 to 28 MHz.[19] Extremely lax enforcement of these regulations by the FCC has led to manufacturers of illegal linear amplifiers (such as Fat Boy and Palomar Engineering) openly advertising their products for sale, and many CB dealers carry these and other amplifiers in their product lines and include them in catalogs.

CB Usage in the United Kingdom CB Usage in the United States Shooting skip
All frequencies in the HF spectrum (3–30 MHz) can be refracted by charged electrons in the ionosphere. Refracting signals off the ionosphere is called skywave propagation; the operator is said to be "shooting skip". CB operators have communicated across thousands of miles, sometimes around the world, making initial contact on the internationally recognized calling frequency (27.555 MHz), then moving to another frequency. Even lowpowered 27 MHz transmitters can sometimes transmit over long distances.


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The ability of the ionosphere to bounce signals back to earth is caused by radiation from the sun. The amount of ionization possible is related to the 11-year sunspot cycle. In times of high sunspot activity, the band can remain open to much of the world for long periods of time. During low sunspot activity, it might not be possible to shoot skip at all except during periods of sporadic electron propagation, which occur from late spring through mid-summer. Skip contributes to noise on CB frequencies. In the United States, it is illegal to engage in, or attempt to engage in, CB communications with any station more than 250 km (155.3 miles) from an operator’s location.[20] This restriction exists to keep CB as a local radio service. The legality of shooting skip is not an issue in most other countries.

Citizens’ band radio
The bands are typically lettered A through F, with the normal CB band as D. For example, a freebander with an export radio who wants to use 27.635 MHz would choose Channel 19 (27.185 MHz) and then shift the radio up one band (+ 0.450 MHz). It requires arithmetic on the part of the operator to determine the actual frequency, though more expensive radios include a frequency counter. Even well-meaning, but illegal, operations can end up on frequencies which are very much in use. For instance, Channel 19, shifted two bands up, becomes 28.085 MHz, which is in a Morse code-only part of the 10-meter ham band. Licensed amateurs typically regard this activity as an intrusion, and have been known to record, locate, and report such transmissions.[22] Currently, many freeband operators use amateur radios modified to transmit out of band. Older amateur radios may require component changes; for instance, the 1970s-vintage Yaesu FT-101 was modified for CB by replacing a set of crystals used to tune portions of the 10-meter band,[23] while on some newer radios, the modification may be as simple as cutting a jumper or diode. Today many types of amateur radios can be found on CB and freeband, ranging from full-coverage HF transceivers to simpler 10-meter mobile radios. In the United States, the FCC bans the importation and marketing of radios it deems too easily modifiable for the CB frequencies,[24] and it is illegal to transmit on CB frequencies with a ham radio except in emergencies where no other method of communication is available.

Freebanding and export radios
Operation on bootleg frequencies above or below the citizen’s band (on the "uppers" and "lowers") is called "freebanding" or "outbanding".[21] While frequencies just below the CB band, or between the CB band and the amateur radio 10-meter band seem quiet and under-utilized, they are allocated to other radio services, including government agencies, and unauthorized operation on them is illegal. Furthermore, illegal transmitters and amplifiers may not meet good engineering practice for harmonic distortion or "splatter", which may disrupt other communications and make the unapproved equipment obvious to regulators. Freebanding is done with modified CB equipment, amateur radios modified to transmit on 11 meters, foreign CB radios that may offer different channels, or with radios intended for export. Unlike amateur radios with continuous frequency tuning, export CBs are channelized. Frequency selection resembles that of modified American CBs more than any foreign frequency plan. They typically have a knob and display that reads up to channel 40, but include an extra band selector that shifts all 40 channels above or below the band, plus a "+10 kHz" button to reach the model control ’A’ channels. These radios may have 6 or even 12 bands, establishing a set of quasi-CB channels on many unauthorized frequencies.

CB antennas
As 27 MHz is a relatively long wavelength for mobile communications, and as with all radio systems, the choice of antenna has a considerable impact on the performance of a CB radio. One common mobile antenna is a quarterwave vertical whip. This is roughly nine feet (2.7 m) tall and mounted low on the vehicle body, and often has a spring (known as a loading coil) and ball mount. A common misconception is that the ’102 inch’ whip is the correct length for US CB frequencies; in reality, it is designed to be paired with a six-inch (152 mm) spring, both to bring it to the proper electrical length, and to enhance its


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Citizens’ band radio
the circumstances preclude the use of an antenna that requires a ground plane to function properly. Handheld CBs often use either a telescoping center-loaded whip, or a continuously-loaded “rubber ducky” antenna. Base CB antennas may be vertical for omnidirectional coverage, or directional "beam" antennas may be used to direct communications to a particular region. "Ground Plane" kits exist as a mounting base for typical mobile whips, and have several wire terminals or hardwired ground radials attached. These kits are designed to have a mobile whip screwed on top (again, the full-length steel whip is a preferred candidate) and mounted on top of a mast. The ground radials take the place of the vehicle body, which is used as a counterpoise for the mobile whip in a typical vehicle installation.

Typical center-loaded mobile CB antenna. Note the size of the loading coil, which is typical of higher transmit power capability. resilience to scraping and striking overhead objects. Where a nine-foot whip would be impractical, shorter antennas include loading coils to make the antenna electrically longer than it actually is. The loading coil may be on the bottom, middle, or top of the antenna, while some antennas are wound in a continuously loaded helix. Many truckers use two co-phased antennas mounted on their mirrors. This arrangement reduces the distortion of the wave propagation due to an unequally-shaped ground plane, lessening the effect of the truck body on the radiation pattern. In addition, when such an array is properly constructed, it enhances performance to the front and back, while reducing it to the sides, a desirable pattern for long-haul truckers. However, the efficiency of such an arrangement is only an improvement over a single antenna when the co-phased antennas are separated by approximately eight feet or more, restricting this design to use mainly on tractor trailers and some full-size pickups and SUVs. Some operators will use only one of the antennas in the pair; this removes both the complexity and benefit of a true cophased array but gives a symmetrical cosmetic appearance that some truck drivers prefer. Another mobile antenna is the continuously-loaded half-wave antenna. These do not necessarily require a ground plane to present a near 50 Ohm load to the radio, and are often used on fiberglass vehicles such as snowmobiles or boats. They are also ideal for base station usage where

CB Trivia
Famous CBers
• Betty Ford, a former First Lady of the United States, whose CB handle was "First Mama".[25] • Voice actor Mel Blanc was an active CB Radio operator. He often used the CB handles Bugs or Daffy and talked over the air in the Los Angeles area using his many voices. He appeared in an interview with clips of him having fun talking to children on his home CB radio station in the NBC Knowledge Series television episode about CB radio in 1978.

CB in movies
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1974 Dirty Mary, Crazy Larry 1976 The Gumball Rally 1976 Cannonball 1977 Breaker! Breaker! 1977 Handle with Care - Also known as "Citizen’s Band" 1977 Smokey and the Bandit 1978 Convoy 1979 The North Avenue Irregulars 1980 The Shining 1980 Smokey and the Bandit II 1981 The Cannonball Run 1981 The Great Muppet Caper 1983 Smokey and the Bandit Part 3 1984 Cannonball Run II 1986 Big Trouble in Little China


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1988 Die-Hard[26] 1989 Powwow Highway 1990 Tremors 1993 Dazed and Confused 1995 The Brady Bunch Movie 1996 Twister 1997 Breakdown 1997 Contact 2001 American Pie 2 2001 Joy Ride 2001 Roadkill 2002 Austin Powers in Goldmember 2004 Without a Paddle 2005 The Dukes of Hazzard (film) 2007 The Dukes of Hazzard: The Beginning • 2007 Live Free or Die Hard • 2008 Transformers • 2008 Joy Ride 2: Dead Ahead • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Citizens’ band radio
between Shirley and Squirley (presumably male and female squirrels?). See Nutty Squirrels for more background on this group. "The Bull and the Beaver" by Merle Haggard and Leona Williams – More truck driver flirtation, this time between Merle and Leona, his then real-life wife. "Paris, Tennessee" by Tracy Lawrence in 1991 (later covered by Kenny Chesney), contains the line "I wanna show you the Riviera. Got good tires and a good CB." "Novacane" by Beck – Beck sings, in a distorted CB style transmission, "What’s your handle?" "Pure Denizen of the Citizen’s Band" by Frank Black (from the 1994 album Teenager of the Year) features clips of CB radio transmissions. "Breaker, Breaker by GZA (1999) – Features a hook with a CB-style "Breaker breaker one nine, clear the line can you read me?" by RZA "Full Trucker Effect" by Johnny Socko – Lyrics and sound bites include many examples of CB lingo. "The Happening" by The Pixies uses CB slang in the lines "I put it on the air I put it in the hammer lane". "Breaker Breaker" by Outlaws , a popular Southern Rock Group, with the song on the 1976 album Lady in Waiting "Bump It Down" by rapper and long time CB’er Sir Mix-A-Lot CB handle "Primeminister" (who also owns a company that makes and sells CB accessories). The song talks about his onthe-air activities mixed in with actual recorded CB audio. "Truck Drivin’ Song" by "Weird Al" Yankovic – A 1999 original from Running with Scissors that parodies all the CB/ trucker-fueled songs of the ’70s. "CB Song" by The Legendary Shack Shakers "Cadillac Cowboy by Chris Ledoux. The song involves a rodeo cowboy driving a 1959 Cadillac Coupe DeVille towing a horse trailer. The refrain goes, "10-4 buddy come on back, horse trailer with the cadillac....".





CB radio in music
CB radio figures prominently in several country and novelty songs, mostly from the mid-1970s: • "East Bound and Down" by Jerry Reed – Catchy, popular theme song to movie Smokey and the Bandit with Burt Reynolds. • "I’m into CB" by The Fall – Affectionate account of CB’ing in the North of England in the late ’70s. • "One Piece at a Time" by Johnny Cash – As the song ends, Cash describes his incredibly weirdo Cadillac car, which he built himself, over the CB. • "Convoy" by C.W. McCall – "Pig Pen" and "Rubberduck" form a gigantic convoy of rigs who drive across the U.S., evading police and toll booths along the way. • "Teddy Bear" by Red Sovine – A physically disabled boy in a wheelchair tells his tales of woe to a trucker over his CB. • "The White Knight" by Cledus Maggard – Is the mysterious, Bass-voiced White Knight giving out dubious information for a reason, other than helping out his fellow-truckers? • "C.B. Savage" by Rod Hart – Is the mysterious "C.B. Savage" really a gay truck driver? Or is he hiding an even bigger secret? – A gay-themed parody of both White Knight and Convoy. • "Hey Shirley (This Is Squirley)" by Shirley and Squirley – a truck driver flirtation on the CB in the style of The Chipmunks







• •

See also
• Amateur radio • CB slang


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• • • • • • Citizens Band radio in India FRS GMRS MURS PMR446 Ten-code

Citizens’ band radio
[14] Office of UK Communications Regulator: CB frequencies plan [15] These roughly corresponded to the present channels 5–22, except for two unique frequencies. See ACBRO: "Aussie" 18 Channel Radio Guide. [16] An Indonesian government decision regarding CB, with frequency charts [17] Ukrainian Ministry of Emergencies (in Ukrainian) [18] NewCompanyDriver – Learn the basics of CB radio [19] FCC Releases Long-Awaited "Omnibus" Amateur Radio Report and Order [20] FCC Part 95 Subpart D. [21] The term "outbanding" was introduced by Kneitel in the August 1979 issue of S9 Magazine.(Kneitel 1988:165) [22] ARRL: Amateur-related FCC enforcement letters [23] (Kneitel 1988:174) [24] Illegal CB Transceiver List [25] Steinhauer, Jennifer, "A First Lady Whose Legacy Rivals Husband’s", The New York Times, 30 December 2006 [26] The handheld radios used as CB’s in DieHard don’t resemble actual CB handhelds.

Chilton Automotive Editorial Department (1977). Chilton’s CB Handbook. Radnor, PA: Chilton Book Company. ISBN 0-8019-6623-X. Kneitel, Tom (1988). Tomcat’s Big CB Handbook. Commack, NY: CRB Research Books. ISBN 0-939780-07-0.

[1] Kneitel (1988:13) [2] Kneitel (1988:14) [3] In the Americas, the 220 MHz band is used by ham operators. [4] Canadian "General Radio Service" [5] Chilton (1977:12) [6] Chilton (1977:14) [7] Channels 10-14 and 23, after channel 9 was reserved for emergency use [8] The terms "interstation" and "intrastation" appear in the FCC’s Part 95 rules from that time period. [9] Chilton (1977:120) [10] ACRM: CB Radio History [11] ACMA: 27 MHz Handphone Stations Class Licence [12] ACRM: Movement [13] Indonesian DX Club: CB Radio

External links
• UHF CB Australia - UHF CB News, Information, Repeater Locations & Sales. UHF CB Australia Supporting and expanding the UHF CB network • CB Radio information from the FCC • DMOZ: Citizen Band Radio

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