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					Performance
Solutions
Architecture




               Want Better Users?
                Performance Support for
                Making Products Obvious

                       William Bezanson
                Performance Solutions Architecture
                    Presented to CapCHI: June 2002
                What is the problem?
   • Poor on-job performance by computer users
     leads to much wastage
        – Lost productivity due to product usability
          problems:
            • Landauer: $30 billion per year (historically, in the
              US)
            • Nielsen: $100 billion per year (2001 estimate,
              globally)
   • “Throw training at it!”
                                                                     2
Performance Solutions Architecture
        What solution is proposed?
    • Making products obvious through
      performance-centered design.
        – Optimizing human and business performance in
          using a product and a work environment
        – Usability, learnability, performance-
          enablement, … ability to achieve goals

    • Result: Increased CSAT and Customer
      Loyalty, and increased market share.

                                                     3
Performance Solutions Architecture
  Performance support concepts, 1
   • Performance Support (PS): A product attribute
     to enhance user and business performance
        – Performance means achieving goals


   • Performance Support System (PSS): Just-in-
     time, just enough user support to enable optimum
     performance
        – Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) - software that
          integrates knowledge, task structuring support, data, tools and
          communications, and enables people to learn while doing complex
          tasks. (G Gery)

                                                                            4
Performance Solutions Architecture
A performance support model
                         Application
       Help               Software            Productivity
      Systems                                  Software


    Advisory                                       Interactive
                          Performer
    Systems                                         Training


           Information                   Other
            Databases                   Resources
   (Adapted from T. O’Driscoll, Achieving Desired Business
   Performance)
      A linked PSS architecture
                        Obviousness designed in



            Product                          Self-directed
                             Learning
                                              • Tutorials
                                              • Quizzes
                                             On demand
                PS          Job Aids          • Checklists
               Engine                         • Reminders
                                             Browsable
                           Knowledge          • Reference manuals
                                              • User guides
  Just in time, just                          Administration
enough performance           Admin             • Updates
    enablement                                 • Metrics

                                        Control or information flow
            Making products obvious
   • An obvious product:
        –   has a Business Focus
        –   is Intuitive to use
        –   permits Day One Performance
        –   is Performance Enhancing
        –   contains Embedded Knowledge
        –   enables Task Automation



                                          7
Performance Solutions Architecture
Making products odious




                (From Don Norman)
Making products odious




               (From Corel Gallery)
     The need for obvious products
  • A product-centric view can lead to feature isolation
  • Brand identification: unification, integration,
    consistency
  • Companies merge and acquire diverse enterprises and
    products
  • Also, customers want minimum training
  • So, obvious products are needed …
     … or obvious front-ends or overall UIs
     … or a common user support environment

                                                     10
Performance Solutions Architecture
           Demonstration:
  Integrated Network Manager PSS


                        This prototype was developed for
                      Nortel Networks as a demo of concept.




                                                              11
Performance Solutions Architecture
INM - Alarm is reported
INM PSS - Possible causes
INM PSS - Corrective procedure
INM PSS - Procedure demo
  Performance support concepts, 2

   • Performance-Centered Design (PCD): Iterative,
     user-tested design to enable goal achievement
        – Observe users in the workplace
        – Prototype a solution, do usability testing
        – Iterate until measurable goal attainment is evident
   • Want better users? PCD is well suited to making
     products obvious




                                                                16
Performance Solutions Architecture
       Performance-centered design
   • PCD focuses on human usage of systems,
     to optimize it
   • Example: 80% of users do F1, then F2
                        A            F2           F1


                        B
                                     Step 1 Step 2

                        C
                                          Begin
                                                       17
Performance Solutions Architecture
                  Demonstration:
               Network metaphor for
                information finding


              This prototype was developed by Ariel PCS Inc. for
              Nortel Networks as a demo of concept, January 2001.
              It is not intended as a definitive design, but simply to
               illustrate a concept of Metaphor-based Navigation.




                                                                         18
Performance Solutions Architecture
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            Making products obvious
   • An obvious product:
        –   has a Business Focus
        –   is Intuitive to use
        –   permits Day One Performance
        –   is Performance Enhancing
        –   contains Embedded Knowledge
        –   enables Task Automation



                                          25
Performance Solutions Architecture
             Making products odious




                                      26
Performance Solutions Architecture
              Making products odious

     • Customer: “I returned that item, but you billed me
       for it on my last invoice.”
     • Clerk:
         – Response: “OK, I’ll refund the amount to your
           account.”
         – Action: Mental translation to the accounting jargon
           “Credit posted as a debit!”


                                               (From Gloria Gery)

                                                                    27
Performance Solutions Architecture
                       Demonstration
   • Siemens Integrated Development
     Environment for automation programming
   • Winner of the Platinum Award of Excellence
     in the 2001 Performance-Centered Design
     Competition




                                             28
Performance Solutions Architecture
                                     30
Performance Solutions Architecture
  Performance support concepts, 3

   • Performance Support Solution (PSSolution):
     A set of features and services addressing the
     performance needs of businesses and users,
     deployable in phases.
        – This scheme allows for a wide range of customer needs,
          depending on budget levels, infrastructure readiness,
          staff maturity, and so on.




                                                               33
Performance Solutions Architecture
  Example deployment of a PSSolution
 •   Preparatory: Vision, strategy, targets
 •   Level 1: Job aid, paper based
 •   Level 2: Job aids online
 •   Level 3: Reference documents online, linked to
     job aids
 •   Level 4: Online tutorials, demos, quizzes
 •   Level 5: Dynamic updates to materials
 •   Level 6: User-defined learning capability
 •   Future: Integrated user support/knowledge
     management environment
                                                 34
Performance Solutions Architecture
      PSSolution development plan
     1. Arrange a client/project engagement plan
     2. Do a requirements analysis & user interaction
        model
     3. Implement the PSSolution by iterating:
         –      Design the PSSolution; prototype it; test it
         –      Develop it
         –      Verify it
     4. Deliver the PSSolution
     5. Support it
     6. Repeat from step 1, 2, or 3, as necessary

                                                               35
Performance Solutions Architecture
            Vision to Action Cascade
 Vision: Make products obvious              5 years
   Mission: Deploy performance-centered design
   (PCD) methodology through product
   development                            2-3 years
      Strategy: Do PCD for a pilot product
                                          1-2 years
         Action: Choose a pilot project; train
         development team on PCD; start
         developing product via PCD this year
                                               36
Performance Solutions Architecture
 Performance support means business
• It is not learning, or reading, that is important…
     – Performance is important.
     – Learning can be accomplished while doing.
• Performance means achieving goals.
     – Not just user performance…but also business performance:
         • The user
         • The user’s business
         • The product supplier’s business
• Performance support means enabling business
  performance through user performance.



                                                             37
Performance Solutions Architecture
           The value proposition for PS
   • Modest investment in the product development
     process can yield high return in the cost of
     ownership and support
   • For customers:
        – Five to ten times reduction in training, documentation,
          user errors, and time to competence
        – Cost savings through increased ESAT
   • For product supplier:
        – Five to ten times reduction in help desks, course
          instruction, and document production
        – Enhanced market reputation, profitability
   • Attractive ROI
                                                                    38
Performance Solutions Architecture
             Making products odious




                                      39
Performance Solutions Architecture
 Making products odious




TRUCKS ONLY
                 (From Stephen Grant)
Making products odious

    DOOR




  STOP ALARM    (From Bill Bezanson)
        What’s happening out there?
   • Customer service: AMEX PSS reduced training time from
     12 to 2 hours, error rate from 20% to 2%.
   • Help desk reduction: American Airlines saved $2M per year
     with PS technology. GE Info Services saved as much as
     $250 per client call.
   • Sales support: Cadence Design Systems PSS cost $1.4M to
     develop, saved $7.6M over three years.
   • Commercial software and products: Nobody wants to take
     training any more, or even to read user manuals. Enormous
     savings.
   • Retail operations: Payless Shoes reduced sales clerk training
     time by 30% with “RPSS” and will recover its $10M
     investment in a year.
                                                               42
Performance Solutions Architecture
                             References
 • www.epsscentral.com This is the best Website for material on
    Performance Support. Includes many further references.
 • www.baddesigns.com This is a great site for illustrating usability
    problems.
 • T. O’Driscoll: Achieving Desired Business Performance,
   International Society for Performance Improvement, 1999. Gives
    a framework for human performance technology in organizations.
 • G. Gery: “Attributes and behaviors of Performance-Centered
   Systems,” Performance Improvement Quarterly, vol 8, no 1, pp
   47 -93, 1995. Classic introduction to PCD by EPSS pioneer.
 • W. Bezanson: Performance Support Solutions: Achieving
   Business Goals Through Enabling User Performance, Trafford
   Publishing, 2002. Elaborates much of this presentation.
                                                                        43
Performance Solutions Architecture
                          Conclusion
   • Performance support methods are suitable for a
     wide range of business, product, and user support
     applications.
   • Performance support participation on design teams
     will add value in end-user performance-
     enablement, thus reducing the need for external
     user support.
   • Such work will enhance a product supplier’s
     market reputation and lead to increased market
     share.
   • Want better users? Try performance support for
     making products obvious.
                                                         44
Performance Solutions Architecture

				
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