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									                   OR-OSHA 212

ORGANIZING YOUR


     WORKPLACE
  EMERGENCY ACTION
       PLAN
                 R
             CTO
            U
         STR IDE
       IN GU


          Presented by the Public Education Section
        Department of Business and Consumer Business
                       Oregon OSHA




                                                       0102-03
                     OR-OSHA Mission Statement
To advance and improve workplace safety and health for all workers in Oregon.
Consultative Services
  • Offers no-cost on-site safety and health assistance to help Oregon employers recognize and correct safety and health
    problems in their workplaces.
  • Provides consultations in the areas of safety, industrial hygiene, ergonomics, occupational safety and health
    programs, new-business assistance, the Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP), and the
    Voluntary Protection Program (VPP).
Enforcement
  • Offers pre-job conferences for mobile employers in industries such as logging and construction.
  • Provides abatement assistance to employers who have received citations and provides compliance and technical
    assistance by phone.
  • Inspects places of employment for occupational safety and health rule violations and investigates workplace safety
    and health complaints and accidents.
Appeals, Informal Conferences
  • Provides the opportunity for employers to hold informal meetings with OR-OSHA on workplace safety and health
    concerns.
  • Discusses OR-OSHA’s requirements and clarifies workplace safety or health violations.
  • Discusses abatement dates and negotiates settlement agreements to resolve disputed citations.
Standards & Technical Resources
  • Develops, interprets, and provides technical advice on safety and health standards.
  • Provides copies of all OR-OSHA occupational safety and health standards.
  • Publishes booklets, pamphlets, and other materials to assist in the implementation of safety and health standards and
    programs.
  • Operates a Resource Center containing books, topical files, technical periodicals, a video and film lending library,
    and more than 200 databases.
Public Education & Conferences
  • Conducts conferences, seminars, workshops, and rule forums.
  • Presents many workshops that introduce managers, supervisors, safety committee members, and others to
    occupational safety and health requirements, technical programs, and safety and health management concepts.

 Additional Public Education Services
   § Safety for Small Business workshops
   § Interactive Internet courses
   § Professional Development Certificates
   § On-site training requests
   § Access workshop materials
   § Spanish training aids
   § Training and Education Grants
   § Continuing Education Units/Credit Hours
 For more information on Public Education services,
 please call (888) 292-5247 Option 2                                            Go online to check out our
                                                                      Professional Development Certificate Program!
Portland Field Office              (503) 229-5910
Salem Field Office                 (503) 378-3274                   Salem Central Office: (800) 922-2689 or
Eugene Field Office                (541) 686-7562                                         (503) 378-3272
Medford Field Office               (541) 776-6030
Bend Field Office                  (541) 388-6066
Pendleton Field Office             (541) 276-9175
                                                                         Web Site: www.orosha.org
                                              This material is for training use only



         INTRODUCTION

         We’ve all heard it said, “Hope for the best, but be prepared for the worst!” This
         expression is a blending of what’s wished for with what’s realistic. It applies to
         individuals, communities, companies, nations, and specifically to the workplace.
         When we use “worst-case scenario” in relation to workplace disasters, the words
         take on an urgent, even ominous tone.

         Recognizing that any place of employment is subject to workplace disasters, OR-
         OSHA requires all employers to do whatever is necessary to minimize the likelihood
         of such an occurrence and requires a plan that will minimize harm to people and
         property should one occur.

         The plan covers the 6 basic “Elements,” plus regulations covering alarms,
         evacuation procedures, and required training. For fire prevention, regulations on
                   .
         housekeeping and maintenance are also included.


         WORKSHOP GOALS

                         1. Introduce OAR 437 Division 2/E 437-002-0042 Emergency Action
                            Plan and OAR 437 Division 2/E 437-002-0043 Fire Prevention
                            Plan, and OAR 437 Division 2/L 29CFR 1910.165 Employee Alarm
                            Systems.


                         2. Provide step-by-step advice on how to create and maintain a
                            comprehensive emergency action plan for your workplace.


                         3. Complete a vulnerability analysis.




Notice: This safety program is intended to provide general information and guidance. It does not replace OR- OSHA standards or
                     established organization policies and practices. Rather, its purpose is to enhance them.
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Be sure to…….
Bring copies of:

    •       OAR 437 Division 2/E 437-002-0042 Emergency
        .
            Action Plan
    •       OAR 437 Division 2/E 437-002-0043 Fire Prevention
            Plan
    •       OAR 437 Division 2/L 29CFR 1910.165 Employee
            Alarm Systems.




    Also, recommend additional information on emergency
    action plans from websites including federal OSHA
    (www.osha.gov), NIOSH (www.cdc.gov/niosh), and FEMA
    (www.fema.org)




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    How do OR-OSHA’s Emergency Action Plan and Fire
            Prevention Plan standards apply?

The following standards specifically require an emergency action plan and fire prevention
plan:

1910.119 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS {Process Safety Management}

1910.120 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS {Hazardous Waste Operations}

1910.157 FIRE PROTECTION {Portable Fire Extinguishers}

1910.160 FIRE PROTECTION {Fixed Extinguishing Systems}

1910.164 FIRE PROTECTION {Fire Detection Systems}

1910.272 SPECIAL INDUSTRIES {Grain Handling Facilities}

1910.1047 TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES {Ethylene Oxide}

1910.1050/1926.60: TOXIC AND HAZARD SUBSTANCES {Methylenedianil (MDA)}




                      ….and more on OSHA’s Portable Fire Extinguisher standard:


                      An emergency action plan and fire prevention plan is required
                      when:

                             â          The employer requires a total evacuation of the
                                        workplace regardless if extinguishers are
                                        provided (but not intended for employee use) or
                                        not.

                             â          The employer provides fire extinguishers and
                                        designates certain employees to use them and
                                        all other employees evacuate.



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The standard that applies to most employers is

1910.157 FIRE PROTECTION {Portable Fire Extinguishers}




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   What is an emergency?



   What workplace emergencies have you personally witnessed or known
   details about from first-hand observers?

   What happened?


   How many people were effected?


   What was the loss in human tragedy? Property damage?


   Was the business, industry, or organization impacted as a result of the emergency
   that occurred?         How?



Emergencies businesses can experience include:

Natural Disasters                     Technological                      Human

Avalanche                             Aircraft Crash                     Arson
Biological                            Structural Collapse                Civil Unrest
Drought                               Business Interruption              Economic
Dust/Sand Storms                      Communication                      Enemy Attack
Earthquakes                           Dam/Levee Failure                  General Strike
Extreme Heat/Cold                     Explosions/Fire                    Hostage Situation
Fire                                  Extreme Air Pollution              Mass Hysteria
Flood                                 Financial Collapse                 Sabotage
Hurricane/Tsunami                     Fuel/Resource Shortage             Special Events
Landslide/Mudslide                    Hazardous Material Release         Terrorism
Lightning                             Power/Utility Failure              War
Snow/Ice/Hail                         Radiological/Nuclear Accidents     Workplace Violence
Tornado                               Strikes
Volcanic Eruption                     Transportation Accidents
Windstorm



     So……….what is emergency management?

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What is an emergency?
  An emergency is any unplanned event that can cause
  death or significant injury to employees, customers, or
  the public.

  An emergency can shut down your business or
  organization, disrupt operations, cause physical or
  environmental damage, and/or threaten the facility’s
  financial standing or public image.


What workplace emergencies have you personally witnessed or known
details about from first-hand observers?

I have been mentioning the earthquake we had here in the
PDX metro area during the Spring of 2001. Although not as
bad as it could have been, it did open many eyes!




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Emergency management is a comprehensive system set up to address and handle
natural and man-made hazards. It has four parts:
1. Prevention                     2. Preparedness                       3. Response                        4. Recovery


In an ideal world, we would practice the first two steps, prevention and preparedness,
and go no further. OR-OSHA’s Emergency Action Plan (OAR 437-002-0042) standard
requires employers to do just that. However, reality has shown us all four elements must
be in place and additional OR-OSHA standards would then apply such as
Division2/Subdivision H 29 CFR 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency
Response.




Response programs are designed to combat emergencies                     Recovery programs are designed to help restore the
when they have occurred, and include measures such as the                environment or communities to their pre-emergency
implementation of emergency plans, activation of emergency               condition, and include measures such as physical
operations centers, mobilization of resources, issuance of               restoration and reconstruction, economic impact studies,
warnings and directions, provision of medical and social                 counseling, financial assistance programs, temporary
services assistance, and declaration of emergencies as                   housing and health and safety information.
enabled by appropriate legislation.




The focus of this workshop is preparedness; however, we will discuss the planning
aspects of anticipating emergencies as well as determining various resources for
developing an emergency action plan. Planning is a crucial component in any safety and
health program including emergency action. Planning is prevention and preparedness!
You should plan for emergencies by first doing everything reasonable to prevent them.
Once you have accomplished this, prepare for emergencies by developing an emergency
action plan.




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Important to consider all four elements of emergency
management; however, OSHA basically requires all
employers to prevent and prepare. Mostly prepare.




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        The “Six” Elements of an Emergency Action Plan

OR-OSHA requires the following “Six Elements” be developed and implemented into
your emergency action plan. These elements do not have to be in writing for
employers with 10 employees and less.                           { OAR 437-002-0042}

Please describe how these elements can be implemented at your facility.




 Procedures for emergency evacuation and exit route assignments
 ____________________________________________________________________
 ____________________________________________________________________


 Procedures to follow for emergency operation or shut down of critical
 equipment before evacuation
 ____________________________________________________________________
 ____________________________________________________________________


 Procedures to account for all employees after evacuation
 ____________________________________________________________________
 ____________________________________________________________________


 Procedures to follow for rescue and medical duties
 ____________________________________________________________________
 ____________________________________________________________________


 Procedures for reporting a fire or other emergency
 ____________________________________________________________________
 ____________________________________________________________________


 Names and regular job titles of persons or departments who can be contacted
 for further information or explanation of plan duties
 ____________________________________________________________________
 ____________________________________________________________________




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Procedures for emergency evacuation and exit route assignments
    Procedures must be developed and communicated.
    Maps/diagrams can supplement. Don’t forget
    employees who are not able to understand
    maps/diagrams.

Procedures to follow for emergency operation or shut down of critical
equipment before evacuation
    Step by step procedures for the employees who
    remain behind. Additional training is required.



Procedures to account for all employees after evacuation
    Assign individuals to count heads.




Procedures to follow for rescue and medical duties
    Emergency medical plan (911, first responders, etc.?)




Procedures for reporting a fire or other emergency
    Voice? Pull boxes? Radios/phones?
    Everyone must be on the same page!



Names and regular job titles of persons or departments who can be contacted
for further information or explanation of plan duties
    Keep it updated!


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         The “Five” Elements of a Fire Prevention Plan

OR-OSHA requires the following “Five Elements” be developed and implemented
into your fire prevention plan. These elements do not have to be in writing for
employers with 10 employees and less.                             {OAR 437-002-0043}

Please describe how these elements can be implemented at your facility.



 A list of all major fire hazards including proper handling and storage
 procedures for hazardous materials, potential ignition sources and their
 control, and the type of fire protection equipment necessary to control each
 major hazard
 _____________________________________________________________________
 _____________________________________________________________________


 Procedures to control accumulations of flammable and combustible waste
 materials
 _____________________________________________________________________
 _____________________________________________________________________


 Procedures for regular maintenance of safeguards on heat producing
 equipment to prevent accidental ignition of combustible materials
 _____________________________________________________________________
 _____________________________________________________________________


 Names or job titles of employees responsible for maintaining equipment to
 prevent or control sources of ignition or fires
 _____________________________________________________________________
 _____________________________________________________________________


 Names or job titles of those responsible for control of fuel source hazards
 _____________________________________________________________________
 _____________________________________________________________________




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A list of all major fire hazards including proper handling and storage
procedures for hazardous materials, potential ignition sources and their
control, and the type of fire protection equipment necessary to control each
major hazard
   Use your Hazard Communication Program here! You
   already have a listing of chemicals (focus on the
   flammables, combustibles, reactors, oxidizers). Ensure you
   have the appropriate suppression equipment (Dry
   chemical? Halon? Water? What about metal fires? Etc.)

Procedures to control accumulations of flammable and combustible waste
materials

   Ventilation? Overspray? Focus on areas of buildup - bag
   houses, ducts, etc.?


Procedures for regular maintenance of safeguards on heat producing
equipment to prevent accidental ignition of combustible materials

   Housekeeping




Names or job titles of employees responsible for maintaining equipment to
prevent or control sources of ignition or fires

   Keep it updated! Ensure competency and training.




Names or job titles of those responsible for control of fuel source hazards

   Keep it updated! Ensure competency and training.



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                    Employee Training and Review


Employers must designate employees to assist in the safe emergency evacuation of
other employees. These designated employees must receive training in emergency
evacuation procedures.

What should this training address?

_________________________                                    _________________________
_________________________                                    _________________________
_________________________                                    _________________________
_________________________                                    _________________________


Emergency action training can take many forms. What methods do you like?



Each employee must receive a review of the emergency action plan and fire prevention
plan. Each employee must be informed of

      ã     the fire hazards in their work area
      ã     the criteria for self-protection as outlined in the fire prevention plan

At a minimum, the review must be accomplished

      ã     when either the plan or the employee’s job is new
      ã     when the employee’s responsibilities under the plan change
      ã     when the plan changes.
                                                             Training is essential! In one instance the
                                                              floor of an office building was filling with
                                                                smoke while the supervisors debated
                                                             whether they should order an evacuation.




Should visitors to your facility receive some sort of review?




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                    Employee Training and Review

Employers must designate employees to assist in the safe emergency evacuation of
other employees. These designated employees must receive training in emergency
evacuation procedures.

What should this training address?
 Individual roles and responsibilities; information about
 threats and hazards; protective actions; notification and
 communication procedures; warning signals and
 procedures; means for locating family members; emergency
 response procedures; evacuation, shelter and
 accountability procedures; location and use of emergency
 equipment; emergency shutdown procedures.



Emergency action training can take many forms. What methods do you like?
 Regularly scheduled discussion sessions providing
 information, answering questions, and identifying needs and
 concerns.
 Emergency management group meetings to review and
 discuss their responsibilities.
 Evacuation drills that involve most or all personnel.
 Functional drills that test specific functions in the plan.

Should visitors to your facility receive some sort of review?

 You betcha! Plus, consider a full-time escort.




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                        Employee Alarm Systems



Alarms (OAR 437 Division 2/L 29 CFR 1910.165)

OSHA’s employee alarm standard is a performance-based standard basically meaning
employers have some flexibility to comply. The ultimate goal of this standard is to
assure that all employees who need to know that an emergency exists can be notified of
the emergency. The method of transmitting the alarm should reflect the situation found
at the workplace. For example, in small workplaces, a simple shout throughout the
building may be sufficient warning where more sophisticated equipment is necessary in
larger workplaces.


Some important points to consider:

     ã     Describe to the workers the alarm system used.
     ã     Alarm systems can be paging systems, audible tone systems, detectors,
           word-of-mouth, visual systems, tactile devices, vibration, air fans, etc.
     ã     The alarm must be capable of being perceived above ambient noise or light
           levels by all employees affected.
     ã     Tactile devices, vibration, or forced air may be used to alert those who
           would not otherwise be able to recognize an audible or visual alarm.
     ã     The alarm must be distinctive and recognizable as a signal to evacuate the
           work area or to perform actions designated under your emergency action
           plan (i.e. Allow for reaction time for safe escape from the entire facility or
           work area, or for other emergency action).
     ã     Where a communication system also serves as the employee alarm system,
           all emergency messages take priority!


What is your alarm system?


How is your alarm system actuated/transmitted?



                                     Test alarm systems monthly. One company conducted its first
                                     test of a sophisticated alarm system 21 years after the system
                                     was installed. Rather than alarm bells, it played Christmas
                                     music.



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What is your alarm system?

    Performance-based standard. Whatever is effective works!

    Remember to distinguish signals if a common
    communication system is used.




How is your alarm system actuated/transmitted?


     Voice? Pull alarms? Dispatch? Radios/phones?

     Again, whatever is effective for the employer works for us!

     Make sure everyone is on the same page!

     Consider multi-stories, outside areas, separate facilities, etc.

     Is there already existing noise in your facility?

     Consider physical and mental disabilities.




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                                                          References


Developing your Emergency Action Plan

        4   Analyzing Capabilities
        4   Vulnerability Analysis
        4   Direction & Control
        4   Communications
        4   Emergency Evacuation Procedures
        4   Plan Evaluation




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                                                 References




 Exactly that - Reference Material




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                                                 Prevention

    Prevention programs are designed to prevent or mitigate the effects of emergencies and
    include measures such as building codes, building use regulations, zoning and land use
    management, diking, public education, legislation, and tax and insurance incentives.

    Mitigation is the cornerstone of emergency management. It's the ongoing effort to lessen
    the impact disasters have on people and property. Mitigation involves keeping homes
    away from floodplains, engineering bridges to withstand earthquakes, creating and
    enforcing effective building codes to protect property from hurricanes -- and more.
    Mitigation is also defined as "sustained action that reduces or eliminates long-term risk to
    people and property from natural hazards and their effects.” It describes the ongoing
    effort at the Federal, State, local, and individual levels to lessen the impact of disasters
    upon our families, homes, communities and economy.
    Through the application of mitigation technologies and practices, our society can ensure
    that fewer Americans and their communities become victims of natural disasters.
    Mitigation is basically a hazard analysis. For example, mitigation measures can be
    applied to strengthen your home, so that your family and belongings are better protected
    from floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and other natural hazards. They can be utilized to
    help business and industry avoid damages to their facilities and remain operational in the
    face of catastrophe. Mitigation technologies can be used to strengthen hospitals, fire
    stations, and other critical service facilities so that they can remain operational or reopen
    more quickly after an event. In addition, mitigation measures can help reduce disaster
    losses and suffering so there is less demand for money and resources in the aftermath.

    Mitigation is OR-OSHA’s version of hazard identification and control!



                                         Preventative actions can also include:

                                         ä    Promoting sound land use planning
                                         ä    Relocating or elevating structures out of the floodplains
                                         ä    Securing shelves and water heaters to nearby walls
                                         ä    Installing hurricane straps to secure structures
                                         ä    Developing and enforcing effective building codes
                                         ä    Engineering roads/bridges to withstand earthquakes
                                         ä    Using fire-retardant materials in new construction
                                         ä    Developing and implementing a plan in your business
                                              or community to reduce your susceptibility to hazards


While researching potential emergencies, one facility discovered that a dam -50 miles away posed a threat to its
                             community. The facility was able to plan accordingly.

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                                            Preparing

   An emergency action team can be very effective in preparing and developing an
   emergency action plan. Of course, this emergency action planning team can be in
   addition to the “team” you may already have established! The s_______ c___________!

   Who should be on the team?




                           Analyze Capabilities and Hazards

   This entails gathering information about current capabilities and about possible hazards
   and emergencies, and then conducting a vulnerability analysis to determine the facility's
   capabilities for handling emergencies.


WHERE DO YOU STAND AT THIS TIME?

Review Internal Plans, Policies, and Supporting Documents

What documents will you look for and possibly need during an emergency?

            Safety and health programs                                      Evacuation plan
            Employee manuals                                                Plant closing policy
            _______________________                                         ___________________
            _______________________                                         ___________________



Meet with Outside Groups Meet with government agencies, community
organizations, similar industries and associations, and utilities. Ask about
potential emergencies, plans, and available resources for responding to them.

What sources of information will you seek out?

            Police & Fire Depts                          Local Emergency Planning Committees
            Hospitals                                    Utilities
            ________________                             _________________
            ________________                             _________________




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    ………….this emergency action planning team can be in addition to the “team” you may
    already have established! The safety committee !

    Who should be on the team?

           Consider employees with prior experience in emergency
           situations (i.e. EMTs, Firefighters, etc.), maintenance,
           etc.



What documents will you look for and possibly need during an emergency?

          Evacuation Plan; Fire Protection Plan; Safety & Health
          Program; Environmental Policies; Security Procedures;
          Insurance Programs; Finance/Purchasing Procedures;
          Plant Closing Policy; Employee Manual; Hazardous
          Materials Plan; Risk Management Plan; Capital
          Improvement Program; Mutual Aid Agreements



.

What sources of information will you seek out?
          Fire Department; Police Department; Community Emergency
          Management Office; Mayor’s Office; Local Emergency
          Planning Committee; Emergency Medical Services
          Organizations; Red Cross; National Weather Service; Public
          Works Department; Telephone Company; Electric Utilities;
          Hospitals




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                                         Preparing

Identify Codes and Regulations Identify applicable
Federal, State, and local regulations.

Where will you look for these codes and regulations?

      ã      OSHA
      ã      DOT
      ã      NFPA/Life Safety
      ã      DEQ
      ã      Uniform Building Code
      ã      etc…….


Identify Critical Products, Services, and Operations You’ll need
this information to assess the impact of potential emergencies and to
determine the need for backup systems.

What areas will you review?

      ã     Products and/or services provided by suppliers
      ã     Lifeline services (electricity, water, sewer, gas, telecommunications, etc.)


Identify Internal Resources and Capabilities

What resources and capabilities will you need in the event of an emergency?

      ã     Personnel like hazardous materials response team, emergency medical
            services, & evacuation team
      ã     Fire protection and suppression equipment, communications equipment,
            warning systems, emergency power equipment
      ã     Facilities like emergency briefing areas
      ã     Organizational capabilities including evacuation plan and employee
            support system




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Where will you look for these codes and regulations?

     OR-OSHA; Emergency Management; Environmental regs;
     Seismic safety codes; Transportation regs; Uniform
     Building Code; Life Safety Code; Zoning regs; Corporate
     policies; Public agency policies; Law libraries; Internet




What areas will you review?
   Organization products/services and the facilities/equipment
   needed to produce them; Products and/or services provided
   by suppliers; Lifeline services like electricity, water, sewer,
   gas, telecommunications, and transportation; and Operations,
   equipment, and personnel vital to continued functioning.


What resources and capabilities will you need in the event of an emergency?

  Personnel like hazardous materials response team, emergency
  medical services, & evacuation team; Fire protection and
  suppression equipment, communications equipment, warning
  systems, emergency power equipment; Facilities like
  emergency briefing areas; and Organizational
  capabilities,including evacuation plan and employee support
  system.




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                                               Preparing

Identify External Resources Many external resources may be
needed in the event of an emergency. Remember, community emergency
workers like paramedics, police, and firefighters will focus their response where the
need is greatest, or they may be victims themselves. That means response to your
facility may be delayed.

What ones might you need?

        ã       Emergency Management Division
        ã       Fire department, emergency medical services, hospital, local and state
                police, community service organizations, utilities, suppliers of emergency
                equipment, and insurance carrier.

What else must be addressed when considering outside resources?

        ã       _____ ahead! Make _____________ with them when developing your plan.
        ã       Some may require _________ agreements.


Do an Insurance Review Meet with your insurance carrier to review all policies.




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What ones might you need?
 In Oregon, it’s the Emergency Management Division,
 Executive Department, 595 Cottage Street NE, Salem, Oregon
 97310. Their phone number is (503) 378-2911.
 Also, your fire department, emergency medical services,
 hospital, local and state police, community service
 organizations, utilities, suppliers of emergency equipment,
 and insurance carrier.


What else must be addressed when considering outside resources?

  Plan ahead! Make arrangements with them when developing
  your plan. Some may require written agreements.




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                           Vulnerability Analysis

Part of analyzing capabilities and hazards is conducting a vulnerability analysis.
What is the probability and impact of any emergency? Use the Vulnerability
Analysis Chart on the next page to guide the process. The process involves
assigning probabilities, estimating impact, and assessing resources using a
numerical system.


TYPE OF EMERGENCY. In the first column of the chart, list all emergencies
that could affect your facility.

Historical - What types of emergencies have occurred in your community, at
your facility, and at other facilities in the area?

Geographic - What can happen as a result of the facility’s location?

Technological - What could result from a process or system failure?

Practices and Conditions - What emergencies can be caused by employee
practices and working conditions? Are employees trained to work safely?
Do they know what to do in an emergency?

Physical - What types of emergencies could result from the design or
construction of the facility? Does the physical facility enhance safety?

Regulatory - What emergencies or hazards are you regulated to deal with?

Analyze each potential emergency from beginning to end. Consider
what could happen as a result of:

     •     Prohibited access to the facility
     •     Loss of electric power
     •     Communication lines down
     •     Ruptured gas mains
     •     Water damage
     •     Structural damage
     •     Air or water contamination
     •     Explosion
     •     Building collapse/Trapped persons.
     •     Chemical release
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  Vulnerability Analysis

       Self-Explanatory




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ESTIMATE PROBABILITY. In the probability column, rate the likelihood
of each emergency’s occurrence. This is a subjective consideration, but
useful nonetheless. Use a simple scale of 1 to 5 with 1 as the lowest
probability and 5 as the highest.

ASSESS THE POTENTIAL HUMAN IMPACT. Analyze the potential
human impact of each emergency - the possibility of death or injury.
Assign a rating in the Human Impact column of the Chart. Use a 1 to 5
scale with 1 as the lowest impact and 5 as the highest.

ASSESS THE POTENTIAL PROPERTY IMPACT. Consider the
potential property for losses and damages. Again, assign a rating
in the Property Damage column, 1 being the lowest impact and
5 being the highest. Consider: Cost to replace; Cost to set up
temporary replacement; and Cost to repair.

ASSESS THE POTENTIAL BUSINESS IMPACT. Consider the loss
of market share. Assign a rating in the Business Impact column.
Again, use 1 as lowest, 5 as highest impact. Consider: Business
interruption; Employees unable to report to work; Customers unable
to reach the site; Company in violation of contracts; Imposition of fines,
penalties, and legal costs; Interruption of supplies; Interruption of
product distribution.

ASSESS INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL RESOURCES. Assess your
resources and ability to respond. Can we respond? Will external
resources be able to respond as quickly as we need them? If the
answer is, “No,” then you may need to develop additional emergency
procedures, add training, acquire additional equipment, establish
mutual aid agreements, or contract with specialized services.

ADD THE COLUMNS. Total the scores for each emergency. The lower
the score the better. While this is subjective, the comparisons will help
determine planning and resource priorities.




                   OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
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        This material is for training use only




  Vulnerability Analysis

       Self-Explanatory




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                     This material is for training use only




               Vulnerability Analysis

                    Self-Explanatory

    The higher the score, the higher the priority

Each member of the team can do this - a good way to
                reach consensus!




             OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
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                                 This material is for training use only



                                Developing the Plan

    Direction & Control

It is obvious that no single listing of planning considerations can be
prescribed for all business and industry. Every emergency action plan
is different in some respect. The primary concern is that all important
functions based upon the types of anticipated emergencies be properly covered in your plan.

One of the first actions your emergency planning team should address when developing the
action plan is direction and control. This function in emergency action planning includes
the use of a centralized management center for emergency operations {emergency
operating center (EOC), incident command post, etc.} to facilitate policymaking,
coordination, and control of operating forces in a large-scale emergency situation. It must
cover the process of obtaining and analyzing emergency management information to provide
a basis for decision-making.

     â     Describe the use of alternate operating centers and disaster site command
           posts, as appropriate.
     â     Identify who is in charge for each emergency or disaster situation and citing the
           location of the EOC or on-the-scene command post from which direction and
           control will emanate.
     â     Determine the need to evacuate the facility or site and when to issue evacuation
           orders.
     â     Identify the individual responsible for issuing evacuation orders and how they
           will be announced.
     â     Alternate EOC to serve as a backup if the primary EOC is not able to function.
     â     Identify the personnel assigned to the EOC for emergency operations.
     â     Line of succession to assure continuous leadership, authority, and accountability
           in key positions.
     â     Logistical support for food, water, lighting, fuel, etc., for the response team.
     â     Timely activation and staffing of emergency response teams and/or personnel.
     â     Assign operational and administrative support for response activities.
     â     Clear and concise summary of emergency functions, direction and control
           relationships, and communications system.
     â     Ensure that operating center staff members can be recalled on short notice.
     â     Describe operating center functions, layout, concept of operations, duties of
           staff, use of displays, and process to bring the operating center to full readiness
           on a 24 hour basis.
     â     Protect resources (essential personnel and equipment) during disaster
           situations. Safeguard essential records.



                         OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
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                  This material is for training use only




Guidance mostly based upon the National Institute
of Occupational Safety and Health and the Federal
Emergency Management Administration.

Tailor as much as you reasonably can (based upon
your resources) to suit your facility and people.




          OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
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                               This material is for training use only



                                Developing the Plan

    Communications

The Communications function deals with establishing, using, maintaining, augmenting,
and providing backup for all channels of communication needed for emergency response
and recovery. Effective communications are dependent on planning and establishing
coordinated response and communication procedures that everyone understands.

Further, experience has shown that communications options will be more likely to work in
an emergency if they are part of the day-to-day operating system. Systems that are
critical to everyday operations are immediately repaired when failures are encountered,
and maintenance staff will be well acquainted with the systems.

      â     Primary and backup radio communications with gas generators or extra
            batteries (fixed and mobile as available)

      â     Describe the methods of communications between the EOC and response
            teams, dispersed company/plant operating locations, adjacent firms, and local
            government emergency services (fire, police, etc.)

      â     Detail the communication requirements for emergency response organizations
            and warning systems

      â     Two-way radio communications between the EOC and emergency response
            teams if available

      â     Assure that the response team members (and their backups) assigned to
            communications tasks know where to obtain communications equipment and
            how to operate it effectively and understand communications terminology.

      â     Recall communications staff members on short notice.

      â     Obtain additional telephone services during emergencies

      â     List key telephone numbers for industry emergency assistance organizations




                       OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
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                  This material is for training use only




Guidance mostly based upon the National Institute
of Occupational Safety and Health and the Federal
Emergency Management Administration.

Tailor as much as you reasonably can (based upon
your resources) to suit your facility and people.




          OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
                                36
                                 This material is for training use only



                                  Developing the Plan

     Emergency Evacuation Procedures

These procedures spell out how the facility will respond to emergencies. Develop them as
a series of checklists that can be quickly accessed by senior management, department
heads, response personnel, and employees.

The goal of this function is to evacuate people and move resources (equipment, supplies,
inventory) out of threatened areas. Evacuation is an expedient option that depends on
sufficient warning time to get away from an impending emergency. An assortment of
evacuation options should be available to the decisionmaker that are tailored to the
different types of hazards you already determined through your vulnerability analysis.

The evacuation plan should establish clear and detailed procedures for carrying out
complete or partial evacuations from buildings or work areas in an organized and
consistent manner. This function is an integral part of the company’s overall emergency
action plan; therefore, it is very important that evacuation planning be coordinated with all
other elements of the company emergency operations plan as well as with outside
responders (i.e. Fire departments, HAZMAT teams) and government authorities in the
respective communities involved.

Depending on the emergency circumstances, evacuation of a building or work area will
require provision for completing a number of concurrent and sequential actions, all of
which should be addressed via written procedures. Checklists should be developed from
the procedures and located wherever more than one action is required (i.e. process
shutdown) so that important response sequences will not be overlooked. Further, all the
interactions and dependencies among these responses need to be identified and thought
out in systematic fashion, so a proper sequence can be established to ensure that
operations flow smoothly and no unnecessary risks occur.

Does your plan address….

      â     Describing the conditions under which evacuation would be ordered?
      â     Developing evacuation procedures, with appropriate options for the various
            hazards, that avoid potential secondary hazards (i.e. Live high voltage wires
            that could fall, fuel lines that could be ruptured by earthquake explosion or fire
            damage, traffic exposures if you have to cross a street, etc.)?
      â     Establishing an emergency operations center (EOC)?
      â     Coordinating site and area evacuation procedures with local government
            (Area evacuations requiring coordination with reception area governments
            would be initiated for floods, hurricanes, tsunamis, large hazardous spills,
            etc.)?


                         OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
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                  This material is for training use only




Guidance mostly based upon the National Institute
of Occupational Safety and Health and the Federal
Emergency Management Administration.

Tailor as much as you reasonably can (based upon
your resources) to suit your facility and people.


…and don’t forget about those ‘secondary hazards’
after an evacuation (i.e. crossing a busy street,
downed power lines, etc.)




          OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
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                              This material is for training use only



                               Developing the Plan

    Emergency Evacuation Procedures

â    Communications with personnel and community responders?
â    Identifying the individual responsible for ordering an evacuation and
     establishing lines of succession for carrying out evacuation functions?
â    Indicating under what conditions it would be safe to complete facility shutdown
     before ordering general evacuation?
â    Describing the alerting and communication systems for signaling impending or
     immediate evacuation for each type of evacuation your facility requires?
â    Methods of warning employees and customers?
â    Procedures for search and rescue teams to follow if evacuation alarms are
     inoperative?
â    Maps indicating evacuation routes from buildings and the facility site? Clearly
     marked evacuation routes throughout company facilities with two exit options (and
     fire escapes where needed) for every employee? Keep in mind the colorblind
     employee when you mark emergency exit routes using a color scheme. Safety
     lighting (to ensure adequate light for evacuation during a power outage) in stair
     wells or corridors?
â    Assuring that all personnel know the evacuation routes, routines, and check-in
     procedures for both area and site evacuations? Assisting any handicapped
     employees to evacuate? Special attention to ensure that any non-English
     speaking employees understand warning signals and know where and how to
     evacuate the workplace?
â    Identifying public or company provided safe reassembly areas that will not leave
     evacuees exposed to adverse weather conditions (below freezing temps, driving
     rains, etc.)? Assigning responsibility in an evacuation to a rear guard to ensure all
     personnel get clear?
â    An organized head count to ensure that all facility occupants have exited? And a
     system for identifying missing persons?
â    Ensuring that vital records are evacuated?
â    Identifying critical equipment to be evacuated and explaining how and by whom it
     will be moved (i.e. central computer facilities)?
â    Fighting fires? What is a “manageable fire”? Employee training in suppression
     equipment?
â    A facility status report to specified company and civil authorities from the
     responsible onsite person following a site evacuation?
â    Restoring operations?
â    Periodic evacuation drills for all facilities?
â    Designating responsible staff members (by name and titles) to maintain and
     update the evacuation plan on a standby basis?



                      OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
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                   This material is for training use only




Guidance mostly based upon the National Institute
of Occupational Safety and Health and the Federal
Emergency Management Administration.

Tailor as much as you reasonably can (based upon
your resources) to suit your facility and people.


…..and try to run drills as often as you can! Practice
makes perfect!



…..and don’t forget about your policy on fire
suppression equipment such as fire extinguishers.
Who is required/expected to use them? Based on
what type of fire (manageable)? And don’t forget to
train your folks on the proper use of fire
extinguishing equipment.




           OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
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                                  This material is for training use only



                                   Developing the Plan

Coordinate with Outside Organizations Meet periodically with local government
agencies and community organizations. Let appropriate government agencies know that
you’re creating an emergency management plan. Their approval may not be required, but
they may have some valuable insights and information to offer your effort.

      ã     Determine State and local requirements for reporting emergencies, and build
            them into your procedures.

      ã     Determine protocols for turning control over to outside agencies.




Write and distribute the plan

Who is it that should be given a copy of the plan once it’s in final draft form?




                          OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
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                                  This material is for training use only




Who is it that should be given a copy of the plan once it’s in final draft form?



       Distribute the final plan to your CEO and senior mangers, key
       members of the organization’s emergency response group,
       organization headquarters, community emergency response
       agencies.

       Have key personnel keep a copy of the plan in their homes.

       Inform all employees about the plan and training schedule.




                          OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
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                                This material is for training use only



                                 Developing the Plan

Incident Evaluation     Why is it important to evaluate the plan after an actual event?



Plan Evaluation         Conduct a formal audit of the entire plan at least once a year.
                        Among the issues to consider are:


      ã     Keeping detailed logs of actions taken during an emergency and/or drill.
            Describe what happened, decisions made, and any deviations from policy. Log
            the time for each event.
      ã     How can you involve all levels of personnel in evaluating and updating the
            plan?
      ã     Are the problem areas and resource shortfalls identified in the vulnerability
            analysis being sufficiently addressed?
      ã     Does the plan reflect lessons learned from drills and actual events?
      ã     Do members of the emergency management group and emergency response
            team understand their responsibilities? Have new members been trained?
      ã     Does the plan reflect changes in the physical layout of the facility? Does it
            reflect new facility processes?
      ã     Is the facility attaining its training goals and objectives?
      ã     Have the hazards in the facility changed?
      ã     Are the names, titles, and telephone numbers in the plan current?
      ã     Are steps being taken to incorporate emergency management into other facility
            processes?
      ã     Have community agencies and organizations been briefed on the plan?
      ã     Are they involved in evaluating the plan?

            In addition to the annual audit, why would you make changes/modifications to
            the plan at other times during the year?




            NOTE: Remember to brief personnel
            whenever a change to the plan occurs!



                        OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
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                                This material is for training use only



                                 Developing the Plan

Incident Evaluation     Why is it important to evaluate the plan after an actual event?


    Learn from the oversights, mistakes, and also the good things that
    happened! Recognize folks!



In addition to the annual audit, why would you make changes/modifications to the plan at
other times during the year?

     Consider review/evaluation:

     After each training drill or exercise.
     After each emergency.
     When personnel or their responsibilities change.
     When the layout or design of the facility changes.
     When policies or procedures change.




                        OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
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                               This material is for training use only




www.fema.org                       [Federal Emergency Management Association]
www.redcross.org                   [Red Cross]
www.orosha.org                     [Oregon OSHA]
www.osha.gov                       [Federal OSHA]
www.cdc.gov/niosh                  [National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health]
www.osp.state.or.us/oem            [Oregon Emergency Management]
www.asfpm.com                      [also redpages.org - Many Links!]
www.floods.org                     [Assoc of State Floodplain Managers]
www.nsc.org                        [National Safety Council]
www.nfpa.org                       [National Fire Protection Association]
www.geophys.washington.edu [UofW Geophysics Program]
www.safeguard.ca                   [Emergency Preparedness Partners in Canada]
www.pep.bc.ca                      [Provincial Emergency Program - British Columbia]
www.vep.city.victoria.bc.ca/victoria_emergency_plan [Victoria, BC emergency plan]




                       OR-OSHA 212   Workplace Emergency Action Plans
                                             45
In Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), this
publication is available in alternative formats by calling the
OR-OSHA Public Relations Manager at (503) 378-3272 (V/TTY).

								
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