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Speed limit

Speed limit

A typical speed limit sign in the United States showing a fifty mph restriction. A road speed limit is the maximum speed allowed by law for road vehicles. Speed limits are commonly set and enforced by the legislative bodies of nations or provincial governments, such as countries within the world. The first maximum speed limit was the 10 miles per hour (16 km/h) limit introduced in the United Kingdom in 1861. The Isle of Man is the only place in the world that does not have a general speed limit. In Germany, 57% of the autobahn system remains free from speed limits. Currently, the highest posted speed limit in the world is 140 kilometres per hour (87 mph) on Polish motorways [1], although a variable speed limit up to 160 kilometres per hour (99 mph) was permitted experimentally on a stretch of Austrian motorway in June 2006. [2][3]

A typical 60km/h speed limit sign used in Australia Locomotive Act of 1861 (or "Red Flag Act") in the United Kingdom (automobiles were in those days termed “light locomotives”). In 1865, the revised Locomotive Act reduced the speed limit to 4 mph (6 km/h) in the country and 2 mph (3 km/h) in towns. The 1865 Act required a man with a red flag or lantern to walk 60 yards (50 m) ahead of each vehicle, enforce a walking pace, and warn horse riders and horse drawn traffic of the approach of a self-propelled machine. The replacement of the "Red Flag Act" by the Locomotive Act of 1896, and the increase of the speed limit to 14 mph (23 km/h) has been commemorated each year since 1927 by the London to Brighton Veteran Car Run.

Safety and efficacy
Essential physics
The kinetic energy involved in a motor vehicle collision is proportional to the square

History
The first speed limit was the 10mph (16.1 km/h) limit introduced by the

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of the speed at impact. The probability of a fatality is, for typical collision speeds, empirically correlated to the fourth power of the speed difference (depending on the type of collision, not necessarily the same as travel speed) at impact,[4] rising much faster than kinetic energy.

Speed limit
A 1994 study by Jeremy Jackson and Roger Blackman[5] showed, consistent with the risk homeostasis theory, that although increased speed limits and reduced speeding fines significantly increased driving speed, there was no effect on accident frequency, with the 24 participants maintaining the same level of risk and risky behaviour. It also showed that an increased accident cost caused large and significant reductions in accident frequency but no change in speed choice. The abstract states that the results suggest that regulation of specific risky behaviors such as speed choice may have little influence on accident rates.

Speed limits, actual speeds, and aggregate safety
The 1998 report Synthesis of Safety Research Related to Speed and Speed Limits sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration[4] found that changing speed limits on low and moderate speed roads appeared to have no significant effect on traffic speed or the number of crashes, whilst on high-speed roads such as freeways, increased speed limits generally resulted in higher traffic speeds and more crashes. The report commented that on high-speed roads traffic speeds would change by about one-quarter of any speed limit change, and that international studies suggested that a 1 mile per hour (1.6 km/h) speed change would result in a 5% change in the number of injury accidents. The report noted that traffic calming significantly reduced speeds and injuries in treated areas but that the decrease may be due to reduced traffic volumes. The report also suggests that "variable speed limits that adjust with traffic and environmental conditions could provide potential benefits" as most of the speed related crashes involve speed too fast for conditions. The report noted the landmark study (D. Solomon, "Accidents on Main Rural Highways Related to Speed, Driver, and Vehicle", Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, July 1964) that observed a "Ushaped curve" -- subsequently referred to as the Solomon curve -- of crash probability versus speed, where crash rates were lowest for travel speeds near the mean speed of traffic, and increased with greater deviations above and below the mean. Subsequent research has found that "The occurrence of a large number of crashes involving turning maneuver partly explains the increased risk for motorists traveling slower than average and confirms the importance of safety programs involving turn lanes, access control, grade separation, and other measures to reduce conflicts resulting from large differences in travel speeds."

Speed and crash factors
Most "speed-related" crashes involve speed too fast for conditions such as limited visibility or reduced road traction, rather than in excess of the posted speed limit. Most speedrelated crashes occur on local and collector roads with relatively low speed limits. However, most speed-related traffic citations involve speeds in excess of posted maximum speed limits. Variable speed limits (q.v.) offer some potential to reduce speed-related crashes, but due to the high cost of implementation exist primarily on motorways. Speed-related crashes can occur on high speed limit roads at low speeds, e.g., below 30 mph (50 km/h); for example, truck rollovers on exit ramps.

Factors in setting speed limits
Traffic engineers observe that the majority of drivers drive in a safe and reasonable manner, as demonstrated by consistently favorable driving records. A report from the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation includes in its summary the finding that the incidence of crashes depends more on variations in speed between vehicles than on absolute speed, and that the likelihood of a crash happening is significantly higher if vehicles are traveling at speeds slower or faster than the mean speed of traffic.[6] Speed limits are most frequently set through statutes. Speed limits can usually be lowered, or sometimes raised, from the legislated speed limit through a process called speed zoning. Common factors influencing speed zoning are:

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• 85th percentile speed • Design speed. • Road features. • Crash records. • Administrative judgment. • Engineering judgment. • Political influences. Fuel efficiency sometimes affects speed limit selection. The United States once had a maximum speed limit of 55 mph (89 km/h) to reduce fuel consumption. The law was widely disregarded by motorists and delivered a minimal fuel consumption reduction.[7][8] Less commonly, speed limits are reduced to address local air quality issues or other factors affecting environmental quality. An example are "environmental speed limits" in the United States.

Speed limit
In commonly accepted engineering practice, design speed is considered a "first guess" at an appropriate speed limit.

85th percentile rule
Traffic engineers may rely on the 85th percentile rule[9][10] to establish speed limits. The speed limit should be set to the speed that separates the bottom 85% of vehicle speeds from the top 15%. The 85th percentile is slightly greater than a speed that is one standard deviation above the mean of a normal distribution. The theory is that traffic laws that reflect the behavior of the majority of motorists may have better compliance than laws that arbitrarily criminalize the majority of motorists and encourage violations. The latter kinds of laws lack public support and often fail to bring about desirable changes in driving behavior. An example is United States’s old 55 mph (88 km/h) speed limit that was removed in part because of notoriously low compliance. Most U.S. jurisdictions report using the 85th percentile speed as the basis for their speed limits, so the 85th-percentile speed and speed limits should be closely matched. However, a review of available speed studies demonstrates that the posted speed limit is almost always set well below the 85th-percentile speed by as much as 8 to 12 mph (see p.88) (13 to 19 km/h). Some reasons for this include: • Political or bureaucratic resistance to higher limits. • Statutes that restrict jurisdictions from posting higher limits.

Design speed
In the United States the design speed is officially defined as "a selected speed used to determine the various geometric design features of the roadway", according to the 2001 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials highway design manual, commonly referred to as the "Green Book." Previous versions of the Green Book referred to design speed as the "maximum safe speed that can be maintained over a specific section of highway when conditions are so favorable that the design features of the highway govern"; however the 2001 edition removed the term "safe" in order to avoid the implication that speeds greater than the design speed were necessarily "unsafe." Safe operating speeds can exceed the design speed. Example reasons include: 1. A design speed is not a representative speed of an entire roadway. Rather, the road’s design speed is limited by its most restrictive feature, such as a curve, bottleneck, or hill. 2. Actual roadway design may exceed the design specifications. 3. Current parameters for determining the design speed assumes the capacity of outdated automotive technology. 4. The stated design speed for a given road is usually not changed. Therefore, the design speed on older roads, which were calculated with older methodologies, may not factor in improved automotive technology which can maintain designed safety at higher travel speeds.

Signage
Most public roads in most places are legally assigned a default maximum speed limit. The relevance of default speed limits to road users varies; in some places, authorities always post a sign stating the maximum speed limit(s) of a given road with a numerical value which may or may not be the default speed limit. In other places, default speed limits that are relevant to road users may be indicated by a non-numeric sign, a lack of speed limit signs, the presence of streetlights, or the physical arrangement of the road. If a default limit applies everywhere within one country or state, it is known as a

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Speed limit
common all around the world. In the U.S., the signs are usually rectangular with the words "SPEED LIMIT" (in Canada, "MAXIMUM") and the values in black on a white background, the color scheme for night speed limit signs can be polarized and with differing text. The U.S. Federal Highway Administration’s Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices provides guidelines for the appearance of speed limit signs. Australian signs are rectangular but have a red circle like the Conventional signs,[11] Sometimes, speed limits are also painted on the road surface as a reminder. The design of minimum speed signage also varies between countries. Most countries use blue circles based on the obligatory signs of the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals. A Japanese minimum speed sign has the same design as a maximum speed sign but with a horizontal line below the number. In the U.S they are also identical to their respective maximum speed limit signs with the exception of the text "MINIMUM SPEED".

Speed limit sign common to much of Europe, showing a 60 km/h restriction. Similar signs in the UK are in mph. national or state speed limit. Different default speed limits usually apply to urban streets, rural highways, and freewaylike roads and these values may also vary according to the type of vehicle. A posted limit that is lower than a default speed limit is generally given precedence. A posted speed limit differing from the default speed limit is typically a linear speed limit and only applies to that road, and not necessarily any intersecting roads. Zonal speed limits apply on all roads beyond the sign that defines them. The start of a different speed limit is usually marked numerically by posting a speed limit sign. Speed limit signs often appear near borders and road intersections, and in some cases, especially the U.S., speed limit reminder signs appear at regular intervals. In the European Union, large signposts showing the national (default) speed limits of the respective country are usually erected immediately after border crossings, with a repeater sign some 200 to 500 metres (about 650 to 1,650 ft) after the first sign. The same practice is followed in many American states. Design of speed limit signage varies between countries. Many nations, some of which are not contracting parties, but especially those in much of Europe use signage which conforms to the standards set forth in the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals. Thus a value in black text circumscribed in red on a white background is fairly

Variable speed limits
Recently some jurisdictions have begun experimenting with variable speed limits which change with road congestion and other factors (this is distinct from France’s reduction of limits during adverse weather). One example is on Britain’s M25 motorway, which circumnavigates London. On the most heavily-traveled 22 km section (junction 10 to 16) of the M25 variable speed limits combined with automated enforcement have been in force since 1995. Initial results indicated savings in journey times, smoother-flowing traffic, and a fall in the number of accidents, so the implementation was made permanent in 1997. Further trials on the M25 have been thus far proved inconclusive.[12] From December 2008 the upgraded section of the M1 between the M25 and Luton will have the facility for variable speed limits. In Germany, the first experiments with variable signs took place in 1965 on A8 Munich-Salzburg with signs that were operated manually.[13] Beginning in the 1970s, more and more advanced Streckenbeeinflussungsanlagen (linear control systems) were put into service. Modern motorway control systems can work without human intervention using various types of sensors to measure traffic

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Speed limit
The system keeps track of all traffic movement and lowers the speed limit if it detects the start of traffic congestion. When activated the speed limit can be set at 90, 70, or 50 km/h according to the level of expected traffic congestion. Variable speed limits are used on some stretches of highway in the United States. This has not, however, been implemented on a national basis. On Interstate 90 at Snoqualmie Pass, Washington, (near Seattle) variable speed limits are used to slow traffic in severe winter weather. This is also done on other mountain passes in Washington.[15] Variable speed limit signs, in combination with variable message signs, have been in use since the 1960s on the New Jersey Turnpike, where officials can adjust the speed limit according to weather, traffic conditions, and construction. Other roadways with variable speed limits include the Pulaski Skyway in New Jersey, I-495 in Delaware, and the Missouri part of the I-270/I-255 loop around St. Louis. In Catalonia, the Generalitat Autonomous Government is to begin applying variable speed limits in the Barcelona metropolitan area in March, 2009.

Units of measurement
The vast majority of countries use metric units (kilometres per hour) rather than Imperial units (miles per hour). Occasionally, different units of speed measurement are used on each side of a border. For example, Northern Ireland (part of the UK) uses values calculated in miles per hour (mph) for speed limits and miles for distance, whereas the Republic of Ireland uses kilometres per hour (km/h) for speed limits and kilometres for distance. The UK and the United States are the only major nations still using the Imperial units system. The U.S. has shown no intention to convert to SI units, and reverted to imperial units in states that had both imperial and SI systems such as California and Arizona. However, Ohio, South Dakota, Maine, and Vermont (especially near the Canadian border) still have some SI distances and speeds on their exit distance and speed limit signs (such as 70 mph (110 km/h) / 110 km/h, or 3 miles / 5 km to next exit). When entering Canada, signs are posted reminding drivers that metric signage is in use. Conversely

Example variable speed limit sign in the United States. flow and weather conditions. By 2007, 1200 km (10 %) of German motorways will be equipped with such systems.[14] In 2006, Austria began experimenting with a 160 km/h (100 mph) speed limit on a selected test stretch of Autobahn as part of their program of variable speed limit, using the slogan "flexibility with responsibility." New Zealand has had variable speed limits since 2001. The first installation was on the Ngauranga Gorge, a steep section of dual carriageway on SH1 north of the capital, Wellington. The speed limit is normally 80 km/h. The downhill section is monitored by a fixed speed camera. In The Netherlands, much of the dense motorway network is equipped with variable speed regulation systems. The electronic signage is commonly posted every 500 metres.

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upon entering the U.S. from Canada, some drivers are shown a metric speed limit sign. Some exit distance signs on Interstates in New Hampshire are marked with the distance in miles followed by the distance in kilometres shown in parentheses. Houston, Texas has some signs in both SI and imperial units near its airports and downtown. Delaware Route 1 and Interstate 19 have exits numbered by kilometre - I-19 also has kilometre posts.

Speed limit
• The Isle of Man has no speed limit on many rural roads. A 2004 proposal for 70 and 60 mph (112 and 96 km/h) speed limits was very unpopular,[17] although measured travel speeds are often low. Montana, USA has had a speed limit since June 1999 (see Montana Speed Limit). Montana’s fatality rate reached its lowest when there was no speed law, from January to May 1999. Fatalities doubled after a speed limit was enforced.[18] Australia’s Northern Territory had no blanket speed limits outside major towns until January 2007, when rural speed limits were reduced to 110 km/h or 130 km/h.[19] Prior to the (now defunct) 1974 national 55 mph (88 km/h) speed limit in the U.S., German Autobahns had a higher fatality rate than U.S. Interstates; however, a few years later, the Autobahn rate fell below that of (then) 55 mph (88 km/h) limited U.S. Interstates. IRTAD records show the U.S. rate remains higher than that on the largely unrestricted German Autobahn network. While the fatality rate on the UK’s 70 mph (112 km/h) speed-limited motorways is about half of Germany’s, the 62 mph (100 km/h) limit in ruleconscious Japan corresponds to a motorway fatality rate greater than Germany’s. However, simple comparisons of fatality rates between countries neglect to account for differences in traffic density, quality of medical care, technical conditions of the vehicles involved, and Smeed’s law. The unprecedented experience of East German motorization after the opening of the border in November 1989 is instructive. Prior to German reunification in 1990, the "available cars were technically outdated and had small engines. Accidents were prevented by restrictive traffic regulation." Within two years after the opening, motorized traffic increased by 54% and annual traffic deaths doubled, despite "interim arrangements [which] involved the continuation of the speed limit of 100 km/h on Autobahns and of 80 km/h outside cities and a blood alcohol limit of 0.0‰". An extensive program of the four Es (enforcement, education, engineering, and emergency response) brought the number of traffic deaths back to pre-unification levels after ten years while traffic regulations were raised to western standards (e.g., 130 km/h freeway advisory limit, 100 km/h on other rural roads, and 0.5 milligrams BAC).[20]

Special cases
Reasonable & Prudent
Governments also prosecute speeds that are unreasonable for conditions even if speeds are within any posted speed limits; for example, drivers are required to adjust their speed when driving in fog or heavy rain, and to not drive faster than they can see to stop in the line of sight. California Vehicle Code section 22350 is typical; it states that "No person shall drive a vehicle upon a highway at a speed greater than is reasonable... and in no event at a speed which endangers the safety of persons or property." This "basic rule", or similar legal language, applies even where no maximum speed limit is in place (such as formerly in the U.S. state of Montana) or the majority of German motorways[16]. Typically the burden of proof is upon the government to prove that a given speed is unreasonable for the then prevailing conditions.

Minimum speed limits
Some roads also have "minimum speed limits", where slow speeds are considered to impede traffic flow or be dangerous. Such roads are typically motorways strictly limited to motorized traffic. In the UK such slowness would be charged as ’Failure to make safe, reasonable progress’.

Roads without speed limits
In some jurisdictions, public roads have no speed limits: • The German intercity Autobahn, twothirds of which have only advisory limits (Richtgeschwindigkeit); German law on such roads is the equivalent of "reasonable and prudent."

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Speed limit
• Misleading definition of ’speeding’ or ’speed-related’ to combine the concepts of: • crashes that occur often at relatively low speeds, but excessive for adverse conditions, such as low visibility • citations that are issued for travel in excess of the posted speed limit • Surprisingly broad range for ’speedrelated’ fatalities as a percentage of total traffic fatalties, suggesting that categorizing accidents as ’speed-related’ is highly subjective. Among the U.S. States, the range is from 10% in New Jersey to over 60% in Rhode Island. • "Evidence that suggests the net effect of [higher motorway] speed limits may be positive on a system wide basis [by shifting more traffic to these safer roads]." This statement from 1998 U.S. Federal Synthesis is based on the published, peerreviewed work of Charles A. Lave et al., e.g., "Did the 65 mph Speed Limit Save Lives?" • Motorists generally pick reasonable speeds for conditions, even on motorways.[23] For example, the 75 mph (120 km/h) speed limit in the U.S. State of South Dakota has good compliance: the average speed is less than or equal to the posted limit almost a decade after it was increased.[24] • "When speed limits are set artificially low, tailgating, weaving and speed variance (the problem of some cars traveling significantly faster than others) make roads less safe".[25]

Opposition
Speed limits and their enforcement have been opposed by some motorists since their inception. The AA was formed in 1905, initially to warn members about speed traps.[21] In more recent times, other organizations, such as the Association of British Drivers, Safe Speed, the North American National Motorists Association, and German Auto Club ("ADAC"), seek to ban or discredit certain speed limits as well as other measures, such as automated camera enforcement. The debate over speed limit enforcement has become a large part of the road safety and environmental policy debate in some countries. Organizations critical of speed limits and strict enforcement point to: • An "undetectable correlation" between speed limits and safety. The German Auto Club concludes an autobahn speed limit is unnecessary since there are numerous countries with a general highway speed limit having worse safety records than Germany; for examples, Belgium, Austria, Slovenia, Czech Republic, and the United States.[22] • Inconclusive results from most speed limit studies. For example, a 1972 OECD Road Research Group report entitled ’Speed Limits Outside Built-Up Areas’ reviewed most international studies to that date. They concluded that "because of the weaknesses in the research designs of many investigations, scientifically wellestablished conclusions cannot be drawn." "Indeed, some of the speed limit changes were more in the nature of administrative exercises than scientifically designed experiments and the methods of analysis in these cases were deficient from the statistical point of view." The Group stated that "speed limit policies should be based on reliable research work and generally accepted scientific evidence." They proposed an international co-operative experiment to overcome weaknesses in prior studies. However, the 1973-1974 oil price crisis intervened, and widespread blanket speed limits became more common without exacting study. More recently, a review of the effect of speed on vehicle crash rates noted that the studies and evidence are "ample, but not unequivocal."

Enforcement
Further information: Road safety camera Prior to the invention of radar, speed limits were normally enforced by clocking vehicles traveling through speed traps. This is done by timing how long it takes for the automobile to pass between two fixed landmarks along a roadway, from which the vehicle’s average speed can be determined. Setting up a speed trap that could provide legally satisfactory evidence was usually time consuming, however, and early speed traps were often difficult to hide. As a result, organizations such as The Automobile Association could often keep fairly accurate records of speed trap locations.

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In the early 21st century, police used radar, laser rangefinders, aircraft, and automated devices. Officers also used a method called pacing: following a car for a certain time to establish speed using the calibrated speedometer of the patrol car. In several countries, notably the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, an increase in automated speed enforcement has resulted in a significant increase in the number of fake, stolen, tampered with, or incorrectly registered number plates. In France, the use of automated enforcement has been credited with contributing to a substantial reduction in fatalities.[26] Most Western European countries now use automated enforcement on at least some roads. Speed limit policy can affect enforcement. According to the AASHTO, "experience has ... shown that speed limits set arbitrarily below the reasonable and prudent speed perceived by the public are difficult to enforce, produce noncompliance, encourage disrespect for the law, create unnecessary antagonism toward law enforcement officers, and divert traffic to lesser routes".[27]

Speed limit
with automated speeding cameras. After the "zero tolerance" on speeding created controversy,[30] effective 00:00 (UTC+8) on September 16, 2006, a tolerance of 10 km/h has been allowed as on other Taiwanese roads.[31] In Hong Kong and Poland, there is a tolerance of 10 km/h over the posted speed limit. In the United Kingdom ACPO guidelines[32] recommend a tolerance level of the speed limit "+10% +2 mph" (e.g., a tolerance level in a 30 mph (50 km/h) zone of 35 mph). However, each police force or safety camera partnership has the ability to use its discretion when setting the levels at which drivers will be prosecuted. In the Netherlands drivers can get a fine for driving 4 km/h over the speed limit, after applying a 3 or 4 km/h correction factor to compensate for measuring errors. Police officers are usually not allowed to use their discretion when setting the speeding threshold during enforcement activities by photo radar. Road safety improvements in the Australian state of Victoria are largely attributed by the state government to infrastructure improvements and speed management including tougher tolerances and enforcement. Low level speeding is targeted because of the overall population effects. This is best explained by the recent Auditor General’s independent review[33] which cites: The relative risk of casualty crash involvement for vehicles travelling only a few km/h above the speed limit is lower than for those travelling a greater amount above the limit. However the contribution of “low level speeders” to the total number of casualty crashes is high because of the high number of motorists travelling at these speeds. Therefore, “low level speeding” represents a substantial risk across the road network.[34] Victoria has some of the tightest speeding tolerances in Australia, with 3 km/h if the speed is under 100 km/h, or 3% if over 100 km/h. This is despite the fact that the Australian Design Rules only stipulate that a car’s speedometer must be accurate within a 10% tolerance. In Germany, a 3 km/h tolerance (4 km/h when speeding over 100 km/h) in favor of the

Tolerance
Speed limit enforcement often begins at a small amount above the speed limit. For example, speeding citations for 1 unit (mph or km/h) above the limit are rare. In certain cases, such as Houston, Texas, only 1% of speeding citations are for less than 10 mph (16 km/h) above the speed limit.[28] In the United States, speeding enforcement tolerance is usually up to the discretion of the arresting officer. A small tolerance is almost always allowed, even where traffic signs advise "NO TOLERANCE". Some states (such as Pennsylvania) have official tolerances. Per state law, one cannot be cited by an officer using a radar/laser gun for traveling less than 10 mph (16 km/h) over a speed limit of less than 55 mph (89 km/h) or for traveling less than 6 mph (10 km/h) over a speed limit of 55 mph (89 km/h) or greater.[29] In Taiwan, even though the Regulations on Establishing Traffic Signs and Indicating Lines (zh:??????????????) define the speed limit signs to show absolute limits, police agencies have generally agreed a tolerance of up to 10 km/h. A notable exception was the Hsuehshan Tunnel opened on June 16, 2006

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offender is always deducted. Fines for speeding depend on how high above the speed limit the measured speed is and where the offense occurred. Speeding in built-up areas invariably carries higher fines than outside city limits. While fines for minor offenses tend to be moderate, speeds in excess of 20 km/h above the limit in built-up areas and 30 km/h on other roads result in distinctly higher fines and points on the driver’s license, and, depending on the speed at which the offender was clocked, may lead to a driving ban of at least one month. In New Zealand, the speed limit is not enforced up to 11 km/h over the posted limit, unless the speed was considered dangerous for the road. The tolerance is reduced to 4 km/h within 250 metres of schools. In Romania, exceeding the speed limit by up to 10 km/h is not taken into consideration, however this means that the starting fine (at 11 km/h over the posted limit) is high.

Speed limit

Evading enforcement
Methods for evading enforcement of speed limits have entered popular culture. Among the most familiar techniques is to purchase a radar detector to seek out police radar signals before one enters an enforcement zone. Observers have pointed out a small-scale arms race ensues, as speeders buy radar detectors of greater technology and police purchase equipment that is harder to detect. Such detectors are illegal in certain jurisdictions. Speeders can also alter their traffic behavior according to known police stakeout positions.[35]

See also
• • • • • • • Design speed Operating speed Road-rule enforcement camera Road-traffic safety Speed limits by country Traffic violations reciprocity Train speed limit (United States)

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [1] [2] [3] ^ "Synthesis of Safety Research Related to Speed and Speed Limits". U.S. Federal

Highway Administration. http://www.tfhrc.gov/safety/speed/ speed.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-03. [5] Jackson JSH, Blackman R (1994). A driving-simulator test of Wilde’s risk homeostasis theory. Journal of Applied Psychology. [6] (PDF) Review and Analysis of Posted Speed Limits and Speed Limit Setting Practices in British Columbia. British Columbia Ministry of Transportation. Spring 2003. http://www.th.gov.bc.ca/ publications/eng_publications/ speed_review/Speed_Review_Report.pdf. [7] Copulos, Milton R. (1986-09-09). "The High Cost of the 55 MPH Speed Limit". The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/Research/ SmartGrowth/bg532.cfm. Retrieved on 2007-04-19. [8] "Trucking Industry Asks Congress for National 65 mph Speed Limit". Environment News Service. January 27, 2009. http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/ jan2009/2009-01-27-093.asp. Retrieved on 2009-02-08. [9] http://www.ite.org/standards/ speed_zoning.pdf [10] 2006 Survey of free speed [11] "Road Signs". Government of Western Australia. Main Roads Western Australia. http://www2.mainroads.wa.gov.au/ Internet/Safety/road_environment/ roadsides/road_signs.asp. Retrieved on 2008-06-28. [12] National Audit Office Report (HC 15, 2004-05): Tackling congestion by making better use of England’s motorways and trunk roads (Full Report) [13] Schick, P. (2003) (PDF). Einfluss von Streckenbeeinflussungsanlage auf die Kapazität von Autobahnabschnitten sowie die Stabilität des Verkehrsflusses. http://elib.uni-stuttgart.de/opus/volltexte/ 2003/1468/pdf/ Dissertation_Schick.pdf#search=%22Irschenberg%2 Retrieved on 2006-08-25. [14] Kollektive Verkehrs beeinflussungsanlagen auf Bundesfern strassen Stand Maerz 2003 [15] "Managing Speed". Public Roads. www.tfhrc.gov. January/February 2003. http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/03jan/ 10.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-06. [16] §3 Straßenverkehrsordnung, Federal Ministry of Justice (Germany)

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Speed limit

[17] Isle of Man Guide - No All-Island Speed [30] PChome Online: Speeding for 1 km/h Limit fined 3000 TWD, the people heavily scold [18] Fatal Accidents Double on Montana’s the bandit government (in Chinese) Intersttes [31] ¤µ¤é·mÂA³ø [19] Speed limits to be introduced on NT [32] Association of Chief Police Officers: open roads Speed enforcement guidelines [20] "Traffic Safety - The German Experience [33] An independent review of Victoria’s after Reunification", accessed speed management program which has 2008-09-07 helped to cut road trauma as part of the [21] "AA History, The story of the AA since Arrive Alive! strategy 1905". http://www.theaa.com/aboutaa/ [34] Kloeden CN, McLean AJ & Glonek G history.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-26. (2002). CR 207: Reanalysis of Travelling ""A group of motoring enthusiasts met at Speed and the Risk of Crash Involvement the Trocadero restaurant in London’s in Adelaide South Australia (2002). West End on 29 June to form the Australian Transport Safety Bureau, Automobile Association (the AA) – a body Canberra. http://www.atsb.gov.au/ initially intended to help motorists avoid publications/2002/Speed_Risk_3.aspx. police speed traps."" Retrieved on 2006-12-18. [22] "Autobahn-Temporegelung". [35] CTV Toronto | CTV News, Shows and http://www.presse.adac.de/standpunkte/ Sports - Canadian Television Verkehr/ Autobahn_Temporegelung.asp?active1=tcm:11-18784-4. Retrieved on 2008-10-25. ""Der ADAC • Governments hält ein allgemeines Tempolimit auf • Transport, Local Government and the Autobahnen für nicht erforderlich... Ein Regions - Ninth Report A Zusammenhang zwischen generellem comprehensive UK report into the Tempolimit und dem Sicherheitsniveau effects of speeding. auf Autobahnen ist im internationalen • The Speeding Driver: Who, How and Vergleich nicht feststellbar. Die Zahl der Why? A major research report into the Getöteten auf Autobahnen pro 1 Mrd. psychology of the speeding driver. Fahrzeugkilometer liegt in Deutschland • Motorists’ and other groups bei 2,99 mit fallender Tendenz. • National Motorists Association A U.S. Zahlreiche Länder mit genereller organization arguing for 85th Geschwindigkeitsbeschränkung percentile limits. schneiden schlechter ab als Deutschland • Slower Speeds Initiative A UK road (z.B. Belgien, Österreich, Slowenien, safety organisation which campaigns Tschechien, USA)."" , Press Release, for lower speed limits. October 2007. • Higher/Flexible Speeds Initiative An [23] Study Shows That Motorists Drive at Austrian project that aim at more Reasonable Speeds, Speed Limits . Auto flexible speed limits and also higher and Road User speed limits for a better traffic control [24] SPEED2008.xls and safer driving. [25] "Highways Are Safe at Any Speed" by • Other links Eric Peters, Wall Street Journal • John F. Carr’s State Traffic and Speed [26] "Road Safety in France - abstract of the Laws 2005 report". National interministeriel • R.A. Krammes, K. Fitzpatrick, J.D. road safety Observatory. http://www.securiteroutiere.equipement.gouv.fr/ Blaschke, D.B. Fambro. Speed: Understanding Design, Operating, and infos-ref/observatoire/observatory.html. Posted Speed, Research Report 1465-1. [27] AASHTO Policy Resolution: The National Project No. 1465. Texas Transportation Statutory Speed Limit Institute, College Station, TX. March [28] Houston Chronicle, "It’s really true: 1996. Drivers going less than 10 mph (16km/h) • The United States’ Transportation over limit rarely ticketed", November 24, Research Board (TRB) National 2002). Cooperative Highway Research [29] Speed Timing Devices

External links

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Program (NCHRP): Report 504: Design Speed, Operating Speed, and Posted Speed Practices 2003. • C. Lave and P. Elias, "Did The 65 MPH speed Limit Save Lives?" Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1994. • Effects of Raising and Lowering Speed Limits on Selected Roadway Sections, United States Publication No. FHWARD-97-084, January 1997.

Speed limit
• Actual Speeds on the Roads Compared to the Posted Limits, Final Report 551, Arizona Dept of Transportation, October 2004. • Special Report 254: Managing Speed, Transportation Research Board, 1998. • The Flicker Fusion Factor Why we can’t drive safely at high speed • Speed control devices for vehicles Technology is being developed to assist (or in some cases, force) drivers keep to the speed limits.

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