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Building Bridges

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Building Bridges Powered By Docstoc
					          Year 4                                                      Level 3 Outcomes

    Student Task

    There are many bridges built across the Brisbane River. Find out where these bridges are, what
    purposes they were built for and when they were built.

    Design a new bridge for Brisbane to service pedestrian traffic across the river between Southbank
    and the Mall.

    When designing your bridge consider structure, artistic quality and the needs of the area in terms
    of traffic, people, businesses…

    Unit Rationale
    Year 4 students are required as part of their school programs to study the community of their local
    area including groups within the community and needs associated with these groups. Bridges are
    often overlooked in a community as servicing needs, yet studies of the bridges in Brisbane will
    reveal the building of these structures based on community needs. Children will also gain an
    appreciation of the aesthetic appeal of many bridges and the association of well known bridges
    both in Australia and around the world with the cities where they have been built. In studying
    bridges, children will find that consideration has been given to climate, earth movements and
    landforms as well when constructing bridges. By studying the Brisbane River, children will
    become more familiar with their own community and gain an appreciation of bridge construction
    at the same time.

    Life-Long Learning

    This unit builds lifelong learner outcomes by:
   Encouraging children to gain in-depth knowledge of bridges and bridge construction and
    increasing their knowledge of their own area
   Developing skills of effective communication through spoken, visual and written means
   Encouraging children to become active investigators by visiting bridges along the Brisbane river
    and finding out when they were built and for what purpose
   Developing skills of critical thinking and decision making through participation in discussions and
    design processes
   Encouraging and developing skills as a reflective and self directed learner




                               Prepared by Denise Lota State School 2001
                     In conjunction with Rosemaree Gillespie EA Curriculum Bayside
Outcomes addressed in this unit

     SOSE: Level 3 Place and Space

     3.1 Students compare how diverse groups have used and managed natural resources
     along the Brisbane River
     3.2 Students create and undertake plans that aim to influence decisions about an
     element of a place such as a pedestrian walkbridge
     3.4 Students make and use maps to identify coastal and land features, countries and
     continents, and climatic zones
     3.5 Students describe the values underlying personal and other people’s actions
     regarding the local area
     3.7 Students describe how natural and built elements give character and importance to
     local and international places.



     SCIENCE: Level 2 & 3
     S.S. 3.3 Students make predictions about the immediate impact of some applications
     of science on their community and environment when building bridges.
     N.P.M. 2.3 Students explain why common materials are used in particular situations –
     materials used in bridges
     N.P.M. 3.1 Students examine and describe the smaller visible parts of common
     materials and relate these to the properties of the materials – bricks, cement, wood,
     metals
     N.P.M. 2.2 Students recognize ways in which changes in properties of construction
     materials occur including temperature changes.
     E.C. Students collect data and make and test inferences to describe the effects of
     forces on bridge construction and design



     HPE Level 3
     Health 3.3 Students recognize potentially hazardous situations relating to pedestrians
     in the city crossing the river. and demonstrate actions to respond to unsafe and
     emergency situations.



     Englis h Level 3
     Spoken Communication: news report, discussions
     Written Communication: information report on bridges across the Brisbane River
     Visual Communication: graph/ table of length of bridges across the river, timelines,
     drawings of bridge design

     Skills:
     Spoken: listening, responding to others, asking questions, repeating information,
     making predictions and suggestions, clarity of speech, sequencing of ideas,
     pronunciation


                         Prepared by Denise Lota State School 2001
               In conjunction with Rosemaree Gillespie EA Curriculum Bayside
Written: Generic structure of a report, paragraphing, spelling/ vocab, editing,
sentence structure

Visual: recording and reading data in tables and graphs, flowcharts and drawings with
labelling and captions



Mathematics Links :
   Estimating and measuring length in metres and kilometres
   Graphing results
   Identifying shapes incorporated into bridge design and consciously using 2D
     and3D shapes in their own designs
   Identifying symmetry used in bridge design and applying symmetry to their
     designs
   Recognizing and applying number concepts through dates, measurements …



Arts:




Technology:




                    Prepared by Denise Lota State School 2001
          In conjunction with Rosemaree Gillespie EA Curriculum Bayside
              Outcomes                        Developing towards                       Target Level                             Advanced
SOSE Knowledge:                        Uses class models for support to     Uses note-taking to identify the       Uses note-taking to identify the
P.S. 3.1, 3.2, 3.5, 3.7                record information. Occasionally     main ideas from information            main ideas from information
Children will gain a knowledge of      adds own notes.                      sources and records relevant facts.    sources and records relevant facts
the purposes for building bridges      Verbally the child demonstrates a    Follows the class model of             in detail. Suggests subheadings to
and the uses communities make of       basic understanding of the           subheadings… Participates in           organize information and
their natural resources                concepts                             class discussions by contributing      participates enthusiastically in
                                                                            relevant ideas.                        class discussions to provide
                                                                                                                   information
SOSE Knowledge:                        Needs support to identify map        Identifies bridges on the referdex     Independently locates and directs
P.S 3.4;                               references and features              or map references and can read         others to map references and land
Children will read maps of the                                              and discuss names, suburbs, land       features.
Brisbane River to identify bridges                                          features with some support
and coastal/ land features


Science Knowledge:                     Identifies less than 2 types of      Can accurately identify 2 or more      Can accurately identify 2 or more
N.P.M. 2.2, 2.3, 3.1                   bridge structures and with           bridge structures discussed in class   bridge structures discussed in class
Children will investigate the          prompting discusses materials        and list materials used in bridge      and list materials used in bridge
materials used in bridge               used and their properties            construction and their properties      construction and their properties.
construction, the features of                                                                                      Adds more knowledge of bridges
bridges and the structure of bridges                                                                               from sources beyond the
                                                                                                                   classroom

HPE Knowledge                          With prompting discusses safety of   Discusses safety of pedestrians in     Discusses safety of pedestrians and
Health 3.3                             pedestrians in traffic areas         traffic areas and suggests             suggests measures they have seen
Children identify safety features of                                        alternative measures                   that improve safety then uses
a pedestrian bridge                                                                                                knowledge to suggest further safety
                                                                                                                   plans




                                                     Prepared by Denise Lota State School 2001
                                           In conjunction with Rosemaree Gillespie EA Curriculum Bayside
Communication Skills:              With prompting, joins in class       Participates in group discussions    Enthusiastically shares ideas and
Speaking                           discussions. Questioning is          by asking relevant questions,        information with others. Listens
                                   limited- mainly responds to others   listening to others and responding   and responds to others ideas.
                                   questions with brief answers         to their ideas. Speaks clearly and   Directs conversations without
                                                                        thinks carefully about what they     dominating. Speaks clearly and
                                                                        want to say                          cohesively.

Writing: Information Report        Uses the class model for planning    Uses the class model for planning    Independently plans and
Planning the report                                                     and adds own information             sequences writing task

Paragraphing, main ideas, sub-     Uses class headings and notes        Collects information under class     Independently organizes notes
headings                           with brief information.              headings and uses suggested          under sub-headings with one main
                                   Paragraphs may contain more          subheadings. Paragraphs contain      idea in each paragraph and
                                   than one main idea.                  one main idea                        detailed information

Spelling/ Vocabulary               Uses simple vocabulary with more     Uses vocabulary suggested in         Uses vocabulary suggested in
                                   than 5 spelling errors occurring     class discussions with less than 4   class as well as own extended
                                   on the class list words              spelling errors from class list in   vocabulary. Less than 2 spelling
                                                                        final drafts                         errors occurring on class list

Punctuation/ editing/ sentences    Needs support to edit punctuation    Uses correct punctuation from        Uses correct punctuation from
                                   and sentences. Most sentences are    class modelling with less than 4     class modelling with less than 2
                                   simple with few cohesive joins.      errors. Sentences contain both       errors. Sentences contain a fluent
                                                                        simple sentences and some            mix of simple and complex
                                                                        cohesive joins.                      sentences.

Visual Communication:              Needs support to read and draw       Uses information from class          Adds to class information to create
Reads and records information in   tables and graphs                    investigations to read and draw      and read graphs and tables
tables, graphs and timelines                                            graphs and tables



                                               Prepared by Denise Lota State School 2001
                                     In conjunction with Rosemaree Gillespie EA Curriculum Bayside
Science – Doing                       Follows Class instructions and       Follows class instructions to           Independently completes activities
E.C. 3.1, N.P.M 2.2, 3.1              needs support to make                complete the activities. Makes          and makes interesting observations.
The child completes experiments       observations and draw                simple observations.                    Uses questioning to draw out
on structural design and strength     conclusions                          Mainly trial and error approach         information and uses this
and draws conclusions from their                                           to design.                              information to form conclusions.
observations                                                               With prompting draws
                                                                           conclusions from observations

SOSE and Technology – doing           With support, discusses ideas and    Discusses in a group the design         Uses knowledge gained from
P.S. 3.7                              information then draws a simple      information then draws a 2D plan        research and investigation to discuss
Children create a design for a        2D design                            to communicate their own ideas          a design. Creates and draws a
pedestrian bridge and record their                                                                                 detailed 2D design
design as a drawing
Science S.S. 3.1                      With support, follows the class      Following the class model, makes        Independently makes a list of
Children record the materials they    model, makes a brief list of         a list of materials to be used in the   materials to be used in the design
would use and justify why they        materials to be used in the design   design and explains why these           and explains why these materials
have chosen these                                                          materials have been chosen              have been chosen

Children prepare an artistic view     With support, follows class model    Follows class model to produce          Independently creates an aerial view
of their bridge – aerial view, side   to produce an aerial view of their   an aerial view of their design          using their own ideas
view,                                 design

Presentation and evaluation of        With prompting talks briefly about Talks briefly about their design          Confidently talks about the features
designs                               their design and shows diagrams    and shows diagrams and                    of their design with detailed
                                      and drawings to explain features   drawings to explain features              information and reasoning.




                                                   Prepared by Denise Lota State School 2001
                                         In conjunction with Rosemaree Gillespie EA Curriculum Bayside
Sequence Of Activities
                             Learning Activities                                           Resources                        Assessment
Orientation:
       Introduce the task by relating a personal experience of walking across
   the bridge from the Cultural Centre to Queen Street Mall. Tell the children
   about the experience of walking on the same bridge as the traffic and
   discuss children’s experiences of pedestrian bridges.
       Brainstorm children’s knowledge of bridges across the Brisbane River
   and whether they are for people or cars or heavy transport. Make a list in
   pairs, then share the information to make a whole class list.
       Brainstorm children’s knowledge of bridges around the world and use        Resource books, colour
   colour photographs from books, calendars, posters etc to view these            photographs, calendar
   bridges.                                                                       pictures…
       Set the task of researching and designing a new bridge for pedestrians
   to crosss the river from Southbank or the cultural centre to the City Mall.
       Establish group and roles as well as expectations.
       Discuss as a whole class the plan for completing this task – guide the     Group chart
   children to suggest investigating the topic, sharing information, planning a   Action Plan – displayed in
   design and writing a report ….                                                 class
       Set time lines


Enhancing Phase:                                                                                                   SOSE Knowledge
       Begin investigating bridges already constructed over the Brisbane          Photocopy maps                   Map reading
   River. Use referdex and maps to identify the bridges and their names.                                           Discussion
       Use research to find information about these bridges – when they were      Research sources – books,        Note-taking
   built, how much they cost, how long or wide they are.                          local library information,       Collating information under
       Make a timeline using the information about when the bridges were          historian, council information   subheadings
   constructed                                                                                                     Timelines



                                                  Prepared by Denise Lota State School 2001
                                        In conjunction with Rosemaree Gillespie EA Curriculum Bayside
    Plan and make a visual display of photos and information abo ut the      Photo display in class      Visual Communication
city bridges                                                                                             Graphs and tables
    Record the lengths of each bridge and conduct an experiment to           Table of data
actually measure out these distances and compare them. Graph the results.    Class graph
    Return to the city maps and colour areas according to usage –                                        Map reading
residential, industrial, commercial. Highlight main highways or freeways.    Photocopy maps
Discuss and predict the relationship of bridges to the needs of the
community.
    Complete a Thinking Caps activity on bridges – especially the bridges
over the Brisbane River.                                                     Thinking Caps               Critical thinking skills
    Make a list of city bridges and make a table to show the main reasons
for the bridge – people, bikes, cars, trucks, trains…
    Consider and discuss environmental concerns when building bridges –      Class display
what parts of the environment might be affected, how can we protect the                                  Note-taking
environment.
    Relate to the Bribie Island Bridge to join mainland to island and
consider the proposal to build a bridge across to Stradbroke Island.
    Investigate different environmental concerns that relate to weather,
landforms, earthquakes etc. Discuss bridges around the world and there       Pictures, photos, books –   Notetaking
special features to meet the environment – such as the Golden Gate Bridge    world bridges
in San Fransisco.
    Make a visual display of famous bridges around the world and map         World maps                  Map reading
where they come from.                                                                                    Written Communication – see
    Write an information report about bridges                                                            assessment matrix
    Begin to use this information to consider the specific task of a
pedestrian bridge across the Brisbane River. – Brainstorm and list the                                   Speaking
safety reasons for such a bridge.
    Plan and design an advertisement for the Courier Mail asking for
applicants to submit a design for this bridge and list the requirements of
council – size, location, artistic appeal, usage…


                                              Prepared by Denise Lota State School 2001
                                    In conjunction with Rosemaree Gillespie EA Curriculum Bayside
       Use the visual display of bridges around the world and across the
   Brisbane River to stimulate a class discussion on artist appeal. Discuss
   features that attract attention and look appealing – compare to those that
   don’ t appeal. Conduct a class survey to identify the most popular and
   least popular. Discuss why people feel that way and draw conclusions
   about the style or styles of bridges that might suit our task.
        Make a list of materials used to build bridges. Conduct experiments to     Wood, cement, samples of        Science Knowledge
   determine the properties of these materials and suggest reasons why these       metals, cardboard, plaster,     Observation
   materials would be used rather than different metals or combinations of                                         Drawing conclusions
   materials.                                                                                                      Discussions
        Conduct experiments to determine the strongest structures of bridges       Paper, P.I activities           Investigating
   using common structures. Set a task to use straws to build three different      Straws, sticky tape             Predicting
   types of bridges and see which can hold the greatest weight. Investigate
   your own structures and compare the results.
        Observe bridges across the Brisbane River and world wide to identify       Art activities – symmetry and   Application of maths concepts
   shapes used in the design and symmetry incorporated into the design.            shapes, tessellations,



Synthesizing Phase:
        Draw a plan for a pedestrian bridge based on the information gained so     Design booklets – prepare in    Technology Design – see
   far. Include artist appeal, structure, shapes and symmetry.                     advance with pages to           assessment matrix
        Present the design as a 2D drawing with labels to identify features.       complete on design, reasons,
        Plan and draw an aerial view or model of the bridge as seen from the       materials, aerial view etc.
   news helicopter.
        Make a list of materials that would suit the construction of your bridge
   and include an explanation of why these were chosen.
        Present your plan to the class along with the drawings and aerial view
   or model as though you were presenting it to council.



                                                   Prepared by Denise Lota State School 2001
                                         In conjunction with Rosemaree Gillespie EA Curriculum Bayside
Invite the local councillor along to view your completed designs.




                                          Prepared by Denise Lota State School 2001
                                In conjunction with Rosemaree Gillespie EA Curriculum Bayside

				
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