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Draft Master Plan Concept Stage

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									                                              C O SS A C K
                                           C OC S S SA C KK
                                                 O S  A C

                                                      D+ S E R T + S E A • P A S T + F U T U R E
                                                           S R A S A • P S + F U UR
                                           D E S E R T D E S E E T + • EP A SAT T + F U T T U ER E

           Draft Master Plan
            Concept Stage

A joint project between the Department of Housing and Works,
   the Shire of Roebourne and the Heritage Council of WA

                     November 2006
Planning for coastal land is about balancing . . often competing needs and desires in a way
that takes into account the values of the coast. These values include its scenic, aesthetic
and ecological qualities, its recreational opportunities, and its social, indigenous, cultural and
economic importance.

State Coastal Planning Policy, June 2003

             Department of Housing and Works
             Government of Western Australia
                                                                                                                               C O S S A C K
                                                                                                 Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                  executive summary

A sustainable future for Cossack                                                Vision
The draft Master Plan for Cossack s beng developed n recognton of the      The Draft Master Plan wll:
need to fnd a sustanable future for the hstorc town of Cossack. Prmarly
                                                                                •       value add to exstng & funded nfrastructure
n government ownershp and wth no statutory structure to allow ether
prvate or government development, the town requres ongong government         •       recognse and renforce the unque hertage values
fundng to be mantaned at ts current mnmal level of actvty.
                                                                                •       provde for contnued successful adaptve reuse of hertage buldngs
The extensve communty consultaton undertaken so far has found that the               through new commercal opportuntes
communty s keen to see Cossack’s unque features retaned and to fnd
                                                                                •       ntroduce new resdental/tourst nodes to brng lfe to the town
a balance, consderng the need to preserve the past wthn a context of a
sustanable future. Overwhelmngly, stakeholders have ndcated that a ‘Do      •       provde new tourst accommodaton wth a pont of dfference
nothng’ approach s not an opton.
                                                                                •       am to transform a lablty nto an ongong self-funded asset

                                                                                The renvgorated Cossack wll:
                                                                                •       fulfl the communty’s expectatons for ths unque place
                                                                                •       be a centre for a vbrant and dverse cultural experence
                                                                                •       enhance opportuntes for
                                                                                        - ndgenous art
                                                                                        - employment and tranng
                                                                                        - regonal and nternatonal toursm

November 2006                                                                                                                                               
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
     executive summary

Draft Master Plan: Concept Stage
The Concept Plan ncludes proposals for:
•        A Hertage Precnct - to provde a mx of art/cultural/toursm/
         nterpretaton uses
•        A Commercal Zone - to renforce the Hertage Precnct
•        Resdental/Tourst Nodes - to house a lmted number of carefully
         placed lots
•        Tourst Node - to provde 100 bed tourst accommodaton,
         restaurant and guest servces wth room for expanson
•        Parkland - to protect and enhance Cossack’s unque values
•        Improved access and amentes
         - new parkng area for vstor and tourst buses
         - restrcted vehcular access to rver-front road
         - pedestran access paths renforcng the hstorc precnct
         - new entry road and parkng to tourst accommodaton
         - new boat ramp

                                                                            November 2006
                                                                                                       C O S S A C K
                                                                         Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                             executive summary

                                                                                 Residential/Tourist Nodes

                          Tourist Node


                Future Expansion
                        of Tourist
                 Accommodation                                           Pedestrian



                                         Visitor Access                                        Commercial Zone

                                                                                 Wharf      Heritage Precinct

                                                     atR            Restricted Vehicular
                                                  Bo                Access

                                                                                                                Cossack Draft Master Plan

November 2006                                                                                                                          
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage

v                                November 2006
                                                                                                  C O S S A C K
                                                                           Concept Stage Draft Master Plan

Executive Summary                                               Archaeological Record                             28
    A sustainable future for Cossack                   I             Holisitic Context
                                                                     Cultural Diversity
    Vision                                             I
                                                                     Zoning Plan
    Draft Master Plan                                  II
                                                                Environmental                                     33
Introduction                                           1             Native Remnant Vegetation
    Background                                         1             Significant Flora
    Cossack Project Control Group                      2             Significant Fauna
                                                                     Other Environmental Issues
    Project Team                                       2
                                                                     Cyclone Risk
Site & Context                                         3             Storm Surge Risk
    The Place                                          3        Services                                          38
         The Townsite                                                Existing Services
         Visual Qualities                                            Water
    How it Evolved                                     8             Sewerage Reticulation
         Natural Forces                                              Power
           Clmate                                              Site Conditions Summary                           38
           Landform & Sols
                                                            Consultation Outcomes                                 41
         Cultural History                                       Policy Framework                                  41
           Aborgnal Occupaton of the Cossack Area            Stakeholders                                      42
           Aborgnal Post Contact Hstory                           Communication Strategy
           The Establshment of the Port of Cossack             Consultation Events                               43
           Hstorcal Chronology                                     Participant Feedback
                                                                Community Views                                   44
Site Conditions                                        21
    Landscape                                          21   The Planning Context                                  45
    Built Form                                         22       Statutory Framework                               45
    Aboriginal Heritage                                28            Planning

November 2006                                                                                                          v
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage

          Environmental                               Rock Art Tours                                           59
          State Coastal Planning Policy               Archaeological Reconstructions                           59
          Aboriginal Heritage                         Cultural Tourism Archaeology–The Concept                 59
     Land Ownership                          46
                                                  Tourism Analysis                                             60
Demographic Patterns and Land Use            50       Regional Tourism Perceptions                             60
     Regional Growth Rates                   50       Iconic Holiday Experiences-Consumer
     Current Population                      51       Perceptions                                              61
          Age Distribution                            Iconic Holiday Experiences-Operator Perceptions          61
          Household Type/Family Type                  Icon Gaps in Australia’s North West                      62
          Marital Status                                   Overall Gaps – Consumer Perceptions
          Income                                           Specific Gaps in Experiences, Attractions and/or
          Employment Types                                 Destinations – Consumer Perceptions
          Location Mobility                                Karratha – Overall Product and Infrastructure Issues
          Proportion of Retirees                           Overall Gaps – Operator Perceptions
          Summary                                          North West – Overall Product and Infrastructure Issues
     Demographic Change                      54       Summary of Consumer/Operator Perceptions                 64
     Settlement Patterns                     55       Western Australia Visitor Trends                         64
     Property Market                         55       Australia’s North West Tourism Perspective               66
                                                      Pilbara Region Tourism Perspective                       66
Indigenous Employment and Training           56
                                                      Shire of Roebourne Tourism Perspective                   66
     Recent Research                         56       Shire of Roebourne Visitor Summary                       67
     Opportunities at Cossack                56       SWOT Analysis                                            69
Archaeological Opportunities                 57   Values                                                       70
     Experimental Archaeology                57       Visual Qualities                                         70
     Cossacks’ Chinese Market Gardens        57       Scientific Interest                                      70
     Cultural Tourist Based Archaeological   58       Historic Importance                                      71
     Excavations                             58       Community Appreciation                                   71

v                                                                                                 November 2006
                                                      C O S S A C K
                                        Concept Stage Draft Master Plan

Outcomes                           73
    Vision and Benefits            73
    Cossack Draft Master Plan      76
    Design Controls                78
    Tourist Potential at Cossack   78
    Service Improvements           82
    Next Steps                     83

November 2006                                                          v
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage

v                              November 2006
                                                                                                                           C O S S A C K
                                                                                                Concept Stage Draft Master Plan

In recognton of the need to dentfy a sustanable future for the hstorc    and telecommuncatons nto the centre of the town, however wthout an
town of Cossack, the State Government through the Department of Housng         endorsed Master Plan for the ste, ts future s uncertan.
and Works and the Hertage Councl of WA, together wth the Shre of
Roebourne has commssoned the preparaton of a Draft Master Plan. Ths         Palasss Archtects have lead a comprehensve project team of local and
Concept Stage outlnes the proposed future for Cossack.                         natonal experts to develop to nvestgate the land use, archaeologcal,
                                                                                envronmental, toursm and hertage and feasblty consderatons, as well
Cossack s located on the Plbarra Coast of Western Australa, 1480 kms         as the provson of essental servces and the storm surge mplcatons for
north of Perth. Establshed n 1863, at the mouth of the Hardng Rver          the future of the ste.
near Roebourne, Cossack was once a thrvng port servcng the pastoral
and pearlng ndustres of north-western Australa. By the 1870s, more than     The project team has been guded by the Cossack Project Control Group,
eghty pearl dvng boats were operatng out of the port. The townste was      comprsng representatves of the State Government agences and the Shre
offcally declared n 1872 and, such was ts commercal mportance that        of Roebourne. In addton, the vews of a wde range of people nterested
by 1887, a horse drawn tramway connected Cossack wth the townshp              n the future of Cossack have been sought n developng the Draft Master
of Roebourne. Substantal publc buldngs were constructed n the 1890s        Plan.
and today form the core of the hstorc town.                                   Once the vews of nterested people have been sought on ths concept plan,
Cossack declned n the early years of the twenteth century and by 1920        a Draft Master Plan wll be formalsed to provde an ntegrated framework
was no longer the major port of the regon. It was abandoned after World        that wll gude the future of Cossack.
War II followng unsuccessful attempts to resusctate the local pearlng
ndustry. The wharf and the remanng buldngs deterorated nto runs
untl new fundng n the later decades of the twenteth century permtted
restoraton of the hstorc buldngs to be undertaken. Today, these restored
buldngs house the Bhujee-Nhoor-Pu Indgenous Art studo and gallery,
a Museum and the Cossack Backpackers. They are also the locaton of
numerous communty events, ncludng the annual Cossack Art Award.
Cossack s entered n the State Regster of Hertage Places and at
present requres an annual njecton of Local and State Government
fundng to mantan the hstorc buldngs and access to the ste. Under
the current plannng scheme, there s no development potental n the
town. Recent fundng commtments have been made to brng water, power

November 2006                                                                                                                                            1
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage

Cossack Project Control Group                                              Shontay Cardew
                                                                           Keth Lethbrdge (Juluwarlu Meda)
Department of Housing & Works
Davd Taylor (pre-Sept 06)                                                 The Planning Group               Town Planning & Urban Design
Clare Muhlesen (post-Sept 06)                                             Andrew Howe
                                                                           Sam Lzz
Heritage Council of Western Australia
                                                                           Yates Heritage                   Archaeology
Ian Baxter
Stephen Carrck                                                            Dr Amanda Yates
                                                                           Jule Mackay
Shire of Roebourne
                                                                           Ray Bird & Associates            Tourism
Rob Vtenbergs
                                                                           Ray Brd
Brad Snell
                                                                           Matthew Brd
Allan Moles
Bob Sharkey
                                                                           EPCAD Pty Ltd                    Landscape
                                                                           Phlp Palmer
Tourism WA
                                                                           Syme Marmion & Co                Market Analysis
Km Rgby
                                                                           John Syme
Department of Planning & Infrastructure                                    Karen Hyde
                                                                           Steve Marmon
Henty Farrar
                                                                           Paul Cont (ContConsult)
                                                                           ATA Environmental                Environmental
Project Team
                                                                           Dr Paul van der Moezel
Palassis Architects              Architecture, Heritage & Masterplanning   Cass Gray
Kevn Palasss                                                             Dr Jessca Oates
Nerda Moredoundt
                                                                           Daniel de Gand Pty Ltd           Aboriginal Heritage
Chrstopher Paterson
                                                                           Danel de Gand
Jule de Jong
                                                                           Parsons Brinkerhoff              Civil Engineering
Helen Grzyb & Associates         Consultation & Communication
                                                                           John Brosnan
Helen Grzyb                                                                Tony Barton
Mary Power (Henderson Power and Assocates)                                Mke Sage (Sage Consultng Engneers)

2                                                                                                                                  November 2006
                                                                                                                                       C O S S A C K
                                                                                                           Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                                   site & context

The Place
Cossack s located on the Plbara coast of north-western Australa, on Butcher Inlet at the mouth of the Hardng Rver. It s 1480 klometres north of Perth and 56
klometres east of the regonal centre of Karratha. It s reached by a sngle, sealed road a short (15 klometre) drve from the town of Roebourne. Jarman Island,
wth ts dstnctve lghthouse and quarters, s located approxmately 1.5km northeast of the mouth of the Hardng Rver.
The overall landform of the Plbara coast s a low, flat plan broken by rocky hlls and ranges. The vegetaton s manly grass, spnfex and low shrub. Trees are
confned to the ephemeral watercourses, the sheltered parts of the hlls and ranges and where they have been cultvated n and around the townstes.
Vews across ths landscape are expansve and the overall vsual experence s one of wde, open spaces wth low, grassy plant cover. Wthn ths low, flat landscape,
the scattered hlls, trees, townstes and large ndustral structures are vsble over long dstances.
The man road from Roebourne to Cossack also leads to the towns of Wckham and Pont Sampson and the Cape Lambert ron ore loadng faclty. It passes the
large buldng mass of the regonal prson out of Roebourne and runnng alongsde t are above-ground water ppes, overhead power lnes and access tracks. After
the turn off from the Wckham road, the sealed surface becomes narrower and the road s bult up on a narrow embankment where t traverses extensve salt flats.
There are power lnes and tracks alongsde ths part of the road however no buldngs can be seen untl enterng the Cossack townste.
After traversng the flat, open salt flats the road runs hard up aganst the edge of Nanny Goat Hll, from whch pont a vew of the old Bond Store, wharf and nlet s
dramatcally revealed.
The ste of the former town s vsually and geographcally defned by Nanny Goat Hll, Ten Tsn Lookout and the undulatng hlly ground to the north-east and north-
west, and Butchers Inlet to the west and south west.

Map of the Central Pilbara Coast showing the location of Cossack and Jarman Island.

November 2006                                                                                                                                                        3
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

                                                                                                                 Settlers Beach

                                                                                                                         Reader Head

                                                                                   Mt Beach
                                                                                                                       European & Asan

                                                      Former Tram Lne
                                                                                                          Butcher Inlet
                                                               Ten Tsn
                                                                                            Hstorc Buldngs

                                             Nanny Goat Hll

                                         a ck
                                    Co                                                                                                     N
Aerial photograph of Cossack showing the main geographical and historic features

4                                                                                                                                         November 2006
                                                                                                                               C O S S A C K
                                                                                                  Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                             site & context

The Townsite
Cossack extends along a narrow pennsula of elevated, hlly land runnng
n a north-westerly drecton from Nanny Goat Hll to Reader Head. Ths
pennsula s manly comprsed of undulatng hlls of red rock, wth low-lyng
salt marsh to the north and the Hardng Rver (Butcher Inlet) to the south.
The landform between Nanny Goat Hll, Ten Tsn Lookout and the Inlet s
a level area of sltly sand upon whch many of the former town’s resdences
were located. Only the former Cossack School remans n ths area, although
there are some derelct wells and the stumps of Palm trees ndctng ts
former use. The remanng substantal stone buldngs, namely the former
Customs House & Bond Store, Telegraph & Post Offce, Courthouse and
Galbrath’s Store run nland from the landbacked wharf along Pearl Street
whch termnates at neck of a narrow valley through whch the tramway
lnkng Cossack wth Roebourne ran.
The former Polce Quarters, Lockup & Servce Buldngs are located
n Perseverance Street adjacent to the former Telegraph & Post Offce.
Perseverance Street wnds through the red rock hlls north-west of
the remanng buldngs, past Mt Beach to the European and Japanese
Cemeteres. From there the road leads to Reader Head Lookout at the
extreme north-west end of the pennsula. Another road forks off from t to      View of Cossack looking towards Pearl Street from Tien Tsin lookout
Settlers Beach on the north sde of Reader Head.
Apart from small, cultvated gardens assocated wth the former Bond
Store, Post Offce and Courthouse, the vegetaton of the area comprses
ntroduced grasses (manly Buffel Grass), natve herbs, shrubs and
scattered low Acaca trees. At the tme of nspecton (md March 2006) the
vegetaton appeared green and lush as a consequence of recent heavy
rans. However, for much of the year the vegetaton would be pale grey-
green and ard apart from the perennal dark green of the mangroves along
the rver edge
Gardens assocated wth the central buldngs are smple combnatons
of drought-tolerant shrubs and groundcovers. Small patches of lawn are
lmted to the space between the Bond Store and the Post Offce and are not
obvous from the street. Also vsually enclosed wthn ths courtyard space
there s a large Albzza tree wth dark green folage provdng welcome
shelter and contrast to the open, exposed spaces beyond.

                                                                                View of Cossack looking towards Nanny Goat Hill from Tien Tsin lookout

November 2006                                                                                                                                             5
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

A sngle, stunted “Boab” tree marks the locaton of a former house at the                              Mangroves flank the rver bank on both sdes of the wharf and extensvely
base of Ten Tsn Lookout. The top of ths hll s surmounted by a vsually                            cover the opposte bank.
promnent water tank.
                                                                                                       The European and Asan Cemeteres are located on sand dunes at the
The remans of Date Palms are located on the level area between Nanny                                  base of the rocky hlls north-west of the townste. The Cemeteres have
Goat Hll and Pearl Street. They appear to have been blown over or felled.                             smple, rough grass ground cover and are pognant n ther solaton from
Some of the old trunks are up to 3 metres n length.                                                   the rest of the town.
The wharf s a large platform retaned by handsome stone walls along the                               Reader Head Lookout affords panoramc vews n all drectons, ncludng
rver edge. The area on top of the wharf has a dlapdated shade structure,                            Jarman Island wth ts hstorc lghthouse and quarters.
barbeque, bns and seats wth an unreleved expanse of gravel and btumen
                                                                                                       Settlers Beach s a long sandy shore wth spnfex-covered dunes behnd
from the wharf to the Bond Store. There s a conspcuous, recent steel
                                                                                                       t. Further to the east behnd the dunes s a low-lyng, flat sandy area wthn
pontoon jetty on the east sde and a concrete boat ramp on the west sde
                                                                                                       whch a tall clump of Date Palms and well mark the locaton of the former
of the wharf.
                                                                                                       camel drvers’ camp.
       Former Tram line
                                                                                      r ee
                                                                          a  nc
    Tien Tsin                                                      erv




                                                                                                       View of Jarman Island from Reader Head lookout

                                                                             W     ha
                                       oa                                 ed
                                    kR                             ac
                              s   ac                        ndb
                         C os                            La
                                                                                  Butcher Inlet

Aerial view of Cossack townsite

6                                                                                                                                                                  November 2006
                                                                                                                                  C O S S A C K
                                                                                                    Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                                site & context

Visual Qualities
The exstng landscape settng of the Cossack townste s defned by the
central spne of red and dark brown rocky hlls, areas of flat, low lyng land,
salt marsh, the rver and nlet on ether sde of t and the few large remanng
buldngs and structures. The vegetaton that clothes the landform s
predomnantly pale-coloured grass and scattered low trees, and the dense
dark green mangroves along the rver edge. There are extensve vews
over the townste area and the surroundng landscape (ncludng the rver
and ocean) from even slghtly elevated postons. The exstng buldngs and
structures (the water tank, wharf and jetty) are sgnfcant vsual elements
wthn the landscape.
The vew along Pearl Street n both drectons s domnated by the buldng
masses, the south vew beng termnated by the wharf and to the north
by a low rdge. From the top of Ten Tsn Lookout there s a panoramc
360-degree vew ncludng the townste and nlet. The equvalent vew from
Reader Head Lookout extends to Cape Lambert and Roeburne.                          The approach to Cossack across the tidal flats (Nanny Goat Hill centre left and
                                                                                   Mt Beach centre right)
The only land approach to the ste s Cossack Road. The extent and
frequency of adjonng landuses and nfrastructure along ths road dmnsh
the sense of solaton of the place wthn ts broader landscape settng.
From hlltops and lookouts wthn Cossack, the ron ore loadng facltes of
Cape Lambert, and the queung shps offshore, are clearly vsble. However,
the ntal vew from the base of Nanny Goat Hll nto the townste area
towards the Bond Store and Post Offce buldngs occurs dramatcally and
the buldngs themselves are memorable for ther substance, archtectural
qualty and endurance n ths envronment. The uncluttered aspect along
Cossack Road from Nanny Goat Hll to Pearl Street greatly enhances the
vsual mpact of ths group of buldngs.
The undulatng landform from Pearl Street out to Reader Head create a
smaller-scaled, more ntmate landscape settng where vews are lmted
between the rdgelnes of the hlls.

                                                                                   Initial vew into the townsite on Cossack Road at Nanny Goat Hill

November 2006                                                                                                                                                        7
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

How it Evolved
The evolouton of a cultural landscape s a combnaton of natural and         and salt marshes, extendng between Nanny Goat Hll n the west and the
cultural forces. At Cossack these forces have shaped the place we see          undulatng hlls leadng up to Reader Head n the east. It s surrounded
today.                                                                         by alluval flats ncludng samphre flats and tdal creeks wth mangrove
                                                                               communtes and bays along the coast ncludng Settlers Beach.
Natural Forces                                                                 Hydrogeology

Climate                                                                        Groundwater s avalable manly from unconfned aqufers at shallow depth
                                                                               n the Quaternary sedments. The water s generally of good qualty and
The clmate of the Cossack area s charactersed as ard tropcal wth         n far supply wth qualty and supples tendng to be better towards the
summer ran. The temperature ranges from an average maxmum of                 hlls than on the coast. The depth to the water table on the alluval plan s
36.5ºC n the summer months to an average maxmum of 25.5ºC n the             commonly between 4 and 10 metres. Beng superfcal, these aqufers are
wnter months. The average mnmum temperature ranges from 25.4ºC n           dependant upon ranfall n the area and water levels wll fall n response
summer to 14.1ºC n the wnter months. Ranfall averages 295mm per year        to poor seasons or over pumpng. In perods of hgh ranfall such as n
wth the hghest ranfall between January and March.                           January-March 2006, the groundwater may be hgher than normal.
Landform & Soils                                                               In ard coastal envronments, where evaporaton far exceeds precptaton,
                                                                               extensve zones of hypersalnty are developed, mangroves are elmnated,
The Cossack area conssts of quaternary alluvum near the coast, Archaean
                                                                               burrowng benthos are also elmnated, and broad salt flats are formed.
grante further nland, and other Archaean rocks outcroppng n small hlls,
                                                                               However, n local zones, due to approprate conduts and small-scale
ranges and dykes.
                                                                               aqufers, there may be seepage of freshwater from the hnterland nto the
The area conssts of red sandy clay, hgh level sand plan wth some older     hgh-tdal envronments. Several seepage areas contanng freshwater were
flood deposts and claypans. The former Cossack settlement followed a          observed n close proxmty to the Cossack study area n March 2006. The
narrow spne or pennsula elevated above the surroundng mangroves             sand dunes frontng Settlers Beach contan ephemeral freshwater soaks.

Rocky outcrops                            Undulating hills                     Tidal creeks                               Samphire Flats

8                                                                                                                                          November 2006
                                                                                                                                 C O S S A C K
                                                                                                  Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                               site & context

Cultural History
Aboriginal Occupation of the Cossack area (BADJINURPHA)                         Tndale descrbed the Yaburara as beng a;
                                                                                   ’…small tribe, now extinct, with a separate dialect related to the Ngaluma. The
Cossack s located wthn the Ngaluma people’s country whch extend from
                                                                                   name usually means ‘northerners’. My informant half remembered another
the Matland Rver n the West, to the Peewah Rver n the East, and covers        name as Madoitja but suggested it be queried since he had not thought about
an area of approxmately 6,400 square klometres.                                  it for along time. In his youth the Yaburara had been reduced in number to a
The regon of the study area has been subject to some anthropologcal              small family (Tindale 1974:242).
research. However, early research has been farly lmted n scope and          Tndale beleved that the western slands of the archpelago belonged to the
duraton. In 1911, Radclffe–Brown conducted research n the Aborgnal         Mardhudunera; …
socal organsaton and the locaton of the Aborgnal groups n the Plbara.
He defned Ngaluma terrtory extendng from the Matland to the Sherlock           whose territory extended along the coast as far as Cape Preston and inland to
                                                                                   the Fortescue River (Ibid: 248).
Rvers and ncluded the Burrup Pennsula n Ngaluma terrtory. Areas
located further nland, such as the tablelands, he reported as beng the        Wth regard to the Ngaluma, Tndale places them as follows;
terrtory of the Injibandi. Radclffe-Brown further stated that the western
                                                                                   Port Walcott, Roebourne and vicinity; at Sherlock River; inland to the foot of the
neghbours of the Ngaluma were the Mardhudunera, and reported that                 uplands from 40 to 70 miles (65 to 110 km.); east to Depuch Island and Balla
the Kariera group was located north from the Ngaluma (1913).                       Balla; they visited islands off Nickol Bay but not those off Hampton Harbour
Radclffe-Brown’s research n the area s confrmed by other early                 which belonged to the Jaburara; west almost to Maitland River. Tindale further
                                                                                   indicates that Ngaluma country extended over 8,600 sq. km (Tindale 1974).
ethnographc sources such ‘Yabaroo’ (1889), Wthnell (1901), Bates (1905,
1913) and Hall (1971). These early sources provde a substantal amount of      Tndale n hs research had a concern wth establshng causal lnks
ethnographc nformaton such as; materal culture, subsstence technques      between soco-cultural factors, the envronment and the physcal need for
and customs and belefs of the Ngaluma people. In contrast however, lttle      subsstence. These consderatons result n a concern wth determnng
ethnographc nformaton exsts about the Yaburrara people.                     physographcal boundares between Aborgnal groups. However, such
                                                                                boundares deny the permeablty and communcaton between contguous
Subsequent research n the regon was conducted by Tndale and Brdsell
                                                                                groups, whch are partally separate but also partally overlappng. Hence
who both vsted the Plbara n 1953. They recorded detaled genealoges
                                                                                Tndale’s ‘model’ does not take nto account the moblty that exsts between
and oral hstory from Aborgnal people n Roebourne, Port Hedland,
                                                                                Aborgnal groups that results n the flexblty of ‘trbal boundares’ through
Yandeearra, and a number of other statons and Aborgnal communtes.
                                                                                factors such as, for example, marrage between contguous groups.
The ethnographc nformaton that Tndale collected on ths partcular
feldtrp was ncorporated n hs Aboriginal Tribes of Australia (Tndale       Pror to Tndale’s research n the area, Radclffe-Brown had already stated
1974) and hs descrptons of ‘trbal boundares’. Ths ntal nformaton     that there was evdence of ntermarrage between local descent groups
was expanded upon wth ethnographc nformaton Tndale collected on a          across and ‘trbal boundares’ that blurred the dstnctons between the
subsequent feldtrp n the Plbara n 1966.                                    groups as well as the boundares between them. The Aborgnal nformants
                                                                                that partcpated n the feld Assessment confrmed ths nformaton and
Tndale recorded nformaton pertanng to the Yaburara and the Ngaluma.
                                                                                stated that;’…Ngaluma and the Injibandi were all intermarried and still marry
However, he was uncertan about the poston of the ‘trbal boundares’
                                                                                each other’ (Trevor Solomon Pers. Comm.).
between the Ngaluma and the Yaburara and ndcated t wth a broken lne
(Veth et al 1993:34).

November 2006                                                                                                                                                      9
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Wth regard to the Kariera, the Ngaluma and the Injibandi trbal boundares,      Wthn the Ngaluma language group there were dfferent dalects. The
Radclffe-Brown was unable to determne to whch group some of the local          East Ngaluma, east of the Hardng Rver spoke a dfferent dalect than the
groups actually belonged. He stated n 1913;                                      Ngaluma who lved West of the Hardng Rver and both spoke a dfferent
                                                                                  dalect to the sea sde Ngaluma of the Burrup Pennsula and the Damper
     I was told more than once that [a particular clan] was half Ngaluma and
                                                                                  Archpelago who were known as the Jaburara, (pronounced Yabura).
     half Kariera and it was spoken of as a Kariera clan and sometimes as
     a Ngaluma….The fact is that one tribe is not clearly marked of from its      All these groups also shared cultural smlartes and belefs, whch focussed
     neighbours, but there area often near the border a number of locale          on land based rtuals such as the dalu (ncrease stes), as well as socal
     groups that occupy an indeterminate position (1913:160-161).                 organsaton such as matrlneal, exogamous ‘skn groups’. These types of
                                                                                  smlartes gave rse to lnks between the groups based on ntermarrage,
Local Organisation - the Pilbara region
                                                                                  knshp, as well as ceremonal tes, economc nterdependence and
(Local organsaton refers to the ways n whch Aborgnal ndvduals and        consequently also trade.
Aborgnal groups relate to land)
                                                                                  Land use was nfluenced by a number of factors, not the least beng the
Wth regard to the Plbara regon Radclffe-Brown was not able to obtan          avalablty of water. After good rans the trbal groups spread far and wde.
much ethnographc nformaton about the local organsaton of the                 As the seasonal water sources dmnshed, movement was restrcted to
Ngaluma and the Mardhudunera durng hs feldwork n 1911. However,               rvers and other permanent water holes.
he concluded that the local organsaton of these two groups was n all
                                                                                  However, there were also cultural dfferences between these groups. The
respects smlar to the local organsaton of the Kariera. Radclffe-Brown
                                                                                  most mportant cultural dfference was n the ntaton practces practced
ndcated that the Kariera was formerly composed of about twenty-fve local
                                                                                  by these groups. The coastal groups dd not crcumcse male youths, whle
descent groups that numbered about thrty members each. He ndcated
                                                                                  the Injibandi dd practce crcumcson. Aborgnal groups such as the
that these local descent groups were patrlneal and patrlocal. Radclffe-
                                                                                  Kurrama and the Pandjima that were located n the Hamersley Ranges
Brown further stated that each of the local descent groups occuped a
                                                                                  practsed both crcumcson and subncson. Culturally these groups were
terrtory that ncluded a number of totem stes called dalu. The members of
                                                                                  more closely lnked to ther eastern neghbours who belonged to what
each local descent group ‘owned’ the songs and the ceremones that were
                                                                                  Berndt termed the ‘Western Desert Cultural Bloc’ (1959).
assocated wth ‘ther’ dalu stes.
Radclffe-Brown ndcated that the basc unt n the local descent group
was the famly unt. Ths famly unt would travel, camp and hunt together.
However, Radclffe-Brown stated that he had no ndcaton that there were
ndvdual rghts to land. Instead he reported that the entre terrtory of the
local group, ncludng ts resources, belonged equally to all the members of
the local group.
Researchers have reported that the Yaburara, the Ngaluma, the
Mardudhunera, the Kariera and the Injibandi, spoke closely related

                                                                                  Cossack rock art (dolphins)               Cossack rock art (turtle)

10                                                                                                                                             November 2006
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Aboriginal Post Contact History                                                     Once aboard the pearlng boats, they may have been transported to pearlng
                                                                                    grounds hundreds of klometres away and abandoned there at the end of
After the settlement of the Swan Colony, explorers began to nvestgate
                                                                                    the pearlng season.
the Western Australan hnterland. Notable amongst these explorers was
Ernest Gles, who n 1876 travelled from Perth to Geraldton, then east to the       Wth the comng of Europeans, dseases such as measles and small
Ophthalma Range, whch he named before contnung to South Australa.              pox were also ntroduced n the regon whch clamed the lves of many
By md 1860s, potental pastoralsts travelled to the port of Cossack,              Aborgnal people. Aborgnal people were forced to work on Pastoral
near the town of Roebourne, wth the ntenton of settlng the hnterland.          leases n exchange for food and clothng. Ths gave the Aborgnals an
Pastoral actvtes were ntally amed at sheep farmng, whle at the same        opportunty to reman n touch wth ther tradtonal land and to protect ther
tme pearlng fleets began to explot offshore reefs.                               sacred places.
The frst settlers n the area employed the Ngaluma people as shepherds             In the 1880s gold was dscovered south of Whm Creek and was later
and labourers n exchange for tobacco, flour and goods. A shortage of               dscovered at Marble Bar, whch was declared a town ste n 1893. By
supples and a severe drought from 1864 - 1866 caused the settlers to rely          1920, Port Hedland had replaced Cossack as the major port for the regon.
heavly on fsh and game suppled to them by the Ngaluma Aborgnals.               The next major expanson n the area occurred n the 1960s when there
Wth the rapd development of the pastoral and pearlng ndustres n the           was rapd development assocated wth the mnng of ron ore ncludng the
1800s, the coastal trbes of the Plbara suffered dramatc nterference wth        buldng of towns such as Newman and Tom Prce.
ther tradtonal cultural lfe. The alenaton from ther land, foulng of water
                                                                                    Lttle s known about the overall mpact of these developments on the
holes by stock and desecraton of sacred sghts eventually led to volent
                                                                                    Aborgnal people of the regon. However, t seems that, consstent wth other
clashes wth settlers. The Aborgnal people fared worse n these clashes,
                                                                                    parts of Western Australa where rapd mnng and pastoral development
and at least three large scale massacres are known to have taken place.
                                                                                    occurred, Aborgnal people were attracted to the new statons and many
One such clash that became known as the Flying Foam Massacre, whch
                                                                                    settled there provdng much needed cheap labour to the pastoralsts who
reports the kllng of between 40 and 60 Aborgnals by colonsts n retalaton
                                                                                    suppled the Aborgnal people wth ratons.
for the spearng to death of a Polce Constable, hs Aborgnal Assstant and
two pearlers.                                                                       Ths exposure had a number of consequences upon the Aborgnal people
                                                                                    of the regon, the frst beng the spread of dseases aganst whch Aborgnal
After the early colonsts found pearl shell n the regon, the Damper
                                                                                    people had lttle mmunty. Secondly, there was the ncreased relance upon
Archpelago and Cossack became one of the largest pearlng centres n the
                                                                                    ratons, and the damaged ecology as a result of ntense sheep farmng had
world. Because the Colonal Government would not allow convcts to be
                                                                                    a negatve mpact upon tradtonal subsstence patterns.
shpped up North, the Aborgnals became the pearl shell gatherers n the
waters along the coast. After the depleton of the easly accessble pearl          By the 1920s Aborgnal people had become dependent frstly on ratons,
shells, Aborgnal men, women and chldren were used as forced labour to            and then wages. Palmer (1981) states that t was not untl the 1950s that
dve for shells from the pearlng boats n deeper waters. Aborgnals from          Aborgnal people moved from the Hamersley Plateau to towns such as
neghbourng groups were also recruted for the pearlng ndustry. By 1869          Onslow, Roebourne and Port Hedland. Ths nformaton s consstent
labour for the pearlng boats were scarce, pearlers and pearlers saled along       wth oral hstores recorded from the Aborgnal Consultants durng the
the coast as far South as the Ashburton Rver and North to the De Grey              ethnographc feld Survey.
Rver recrutng Aborgnes to work as dvers. In many cases f nducement
                                                                                    In the 1930s, Aborgnals from neghbourng groups were moved nto a
faled, the Aborgnals were kdnapped, chaned and marched to the coast.
                                                                                    Reserve n Roebourne. Injibandi, Banjima, Gurama and Marduthunia

November 2006                                                                                                                                                   11
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
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were all mxed together. In addton, other Aborgnal groups who moved to        The Establishment of the Port of Cossack
the coastal European settlements from nland regons further weakened the
                                                                                  Followng favourable reports arsng from Francs Gregory’s exploraton of
Ngaluma socal structure.
                                                                                  the area n 1861, Cossack was establshed n 1863 and was the frst port
It s dffcult to reconstruct the composton and the growth of the Aborgnal   n the north west of Australa. It provded a vtal pont of access for the
populaton n the Plbara regon. Prmarly ths s so because over the years     settlement and development of the Plbara regon untl the early twenteth
the concept of ‘regon’ has tended to desgnate an Aborgnal populaton          century.
of varyng degrees of nclusveness n the regon. The complexty of the
                                                                                  Cossack has had a varety of names. It was ntally called ‘Ten Tsn’ after
Aborgnal populaton n the Plbara regon s compounded by the dfferental
                                                                                  the shp that carred the area’s frst European setter, Walter Padbury, but
growth rate of each of the Aborgnal groups n the regon over tme. Ths
                                                                                  has also been known as ‘Port Walcott’ and ‘Butcher Inlet’. In December
has been partcularly the case snce pastoral and mnng development, and
                                                                                  1871, Governor Weld vsted the regon and named the town n honour of
the emergence of towns such as Port Hedland, Onslow, Roebourne, Tom
                                                                                  the shp he was travellng on, HMS Cossack.
Prce and Newman. Other socal factors relatng to orgn, socal class,
perspectve, famly and local loyaltes all add to the complexty of the          Cossack was the brthplace of Western Australa’s pearlng ndustry and
Aborgnal populaton n the regon.                                              was the home of the colony’s pearlng fleet untl the 1880s. The town was
                                                                                  an mportant contact pont between Europeans and the local Aborgnal
However, t s stll possble to consder the Aborgnal populaton of the
                                                                                  people, many of whom were nvolved n the pearlng ndustry ether through
Plbara regon as ‘unfed’ because of the hstory that s shared amongst
                                                                                  choce or coercon. The pearlng ndustry also attracted (or nvoluntarly
them and because of the socal nterconnectons and genealogcal tes that
                                                                                  nvolved) a consderable number of south-east Asans and by the late 1870s
exst amongst them. These mgrants, and ther kn, developed a group
                                                                                  had developed a dstnctvely Asan quarter known as ‘Chnatown’.
dentty and legtmate terrtoral afflatons through brthrght, marrage,
occupancy, and the adopton of rtual responsbltes assocated wth stes,     Followng the dscovery of gold n 1877, Cossack was an mportant stagng
whch has resulted n a ‘rght’ to speak for the regon.                          post for prospectors settng off to the Plbara goldfelds.
                                                                                  In the 1880s and 1890s, Cossack was a boomtown and home to people from
                                                                                  many natons. The man townshp extended along the bank of Butcher’s
                                                                                  Inlet from the cemetery to the base of Nanny Goat Hll. All early buldngs
                                                                                  were constructed of tmber wth ron roofs. The frst government buldngs
                                                                                  were also of ron and tmber, but were replaced by more mposng structures
                                                                                  bult soldly n stone to wthstand cyclones n the 1890s. Some constructons
                                                                                  also ncluded brcks brought to Cossack as ballast n the salng shps.
                                                                                  The populaton was subject to fluctuatons and durng the lay-season for the
                                                                                  pearlng ndustry; t would swell to over 1,000 people who used the town as
                                                                                  a base. Offcal populaton fgures show a peak of about 400 n 1894; by
                                                                                  1901 ths fgure had dropped to 164 permanent resdents.
                                                                                  Whle the growth of Cossack was spread over 40 years, ts declne was
                                                                                  much more rapd. By the turn of the century, the pearlng fleet had shfted

12                                                                                                                                           November 2006
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ts headquarters to Broome and mpetus from the goldfelds waned wth the
dscovery of gold n the Ashburton, Murchson and Eastern goldfelds. The
harbour, whch had never been sutable for large vessels and whose tdal
movements caused consderable delays n dockng and turnaround, began
to slt up and Port Hedland and then Pont Samson were the preferred ports
of call.
Cossack was forced to relnqush ts poston as the premer port of the
north and the townshp was dssolved n 1910. Attempts were subsequently
made to revve the town through the ntroducton of new ndustres. In 1913
a leprosarum was establshed on the pennsular opposte the town. A
turtle soup factory was establshed n the Bond Store n the 1920s. People
contnued to lve at Cossack untl after World War II. Local legend clams
that Mrs Muramat, the wdow of one of Cossack Cossack’s few Asan
storekeepers and pearlng masters, unsuccessfully tred to revve the
pearlng ndustry after World War II. However, by the early 1950s, the town
was completely abandoned.
Interest n the town re-emerged n the 1970s, when the Cossack Project
Commttee (later the Cossack Restoraton and Development Assocaton)
was formed wth the am of developng Cossack nto a major tourst
attracton. The State Government formed the Cossack Task Force n 1986
wth the objectve of redevelopng the town and conservng the exstng
buldngs. Several buldngs were restored n the 1970s and 1980s and a
number of archaeologcal surveys undertaken n the 1990s.
The Cossack Precnct was vested n the Hertage Councl of Western
Australa n 1991 and the followng year, Cossack Precnct and a number of
ndvdual stes were entered n the Regster of Hertage Places. The Shre
of Roebourne entered a Hertage Agreement wth the Hertage Councl and
took out a 21-year lease on the town n 1996.

                                                                              Cossack, c. 1895

November 2006                                                                                                           13
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
 site & context

Historical Chronology                                                                             Government Resdent Sholl provded lst of artcles for the
                                                                                                  permanent establshment at Port Walcott n September, ncludng
Drawn from the Hertage Councl of Western Australa’s Assessment Documentaton (P3239).          artcles necessary for runnng a government store.
                                                                                           1868   Complants from settlers that the money beng spent on
1861       Expedton to area led by Francs Gregory.                                             constructng a brck government offce buldng at Roebourne
                                                                                                  would be better spent buldng a road across the marsh and a
1863       Gregory’s reports of good pastures and fresh water at the Hardng                      shed and jetty at Port Walcott.
           Rver aroused the nterest of pastoralsts and Walter Padbury’s
           stock arrved at Butcher’s Inlet n Aprl.                                             Many small boats off the Port Walcott coast were dvng for pearl
                                                                                                  shell usng Aborgnal labour. The Government Resdent reported
1864       Wthnell famly arrved at Roebourne n Aprl.                                         that Aborgnal chldren were abducted for pearlng.
1865       Government Resdent Scholl arrved.                                             1869   A man ded whle walkng to Port Walcott n January and was
1866       Townshp of Roebourne declared and marked out.                                         bured there (may be frst nternment n Cemetery).
           Roebuck Bay Company moved from Roebourne to Port Walcott                               Harper and Grant completed a jetty and derrck n February. The
           (prevously called Ten Tsn and later Cossack) n November under                      jetty was used to load wool from nearby statons, as well as pearl
           the drecton of manager, Shakespeare Hall (one of Gregory’s                           shell.
           1861 exploraton party).                                                               More reports of Aborgnals beng carred off by pearlers, ncludng
1867       Two polcemen dspatched to Port Walcott wth the dutes of                            women. By early 1869, there were 14 small vessels pearlng
           storemen and teamsters, rather than polcng.                                          n the area, wth an average crew of three Europeans and sx
           New Perseverance beached at Port Walcott n January 1867 and
           subsequently used as quarters by the water polce. The hulk may                        Port Walcott was damaged by a cyclone.
           also have been used as a government store to hold goods before                         Order sent to lay out 31 town lots.
           they were freghted to Roebourne.
                                                                                           1870   Fve town lots, ncludng Lot 123, sold as a subdvson of
           Pearlng at Port Walcott commenced wth Mr Tays usng Aborgnals                      Roebourne (called Butcher Inlet) to Knght and Shenton who bult
           to pck up pearl shell on the beaches. They gathered 12 tons of                        a store. The store was of weatherboard mahogany (most lkely
           shells, sx of whch was lost along wth the Emma and all hands                        jarrah), wth a shngled roof and verandah.
           en route to Fremantle n March.
                                                                                                  Lots 127 and 128 were purchased by R L Sholl (the Government
           A 12-metre lugger was bult at Andover Staton and wheeled                             Resdent). Hotels were later bult on lots 119 (Best) and 120
           to Port Walcott for pearlng. Pearl fshers were successful and                        (Pearse).
           soon three shps were engaged n pearlng, wth another shppng
           pearls to Fremantle.                                                                   In August, the Sydney Mornng Herald reported that Knght and
                                                                                                  Shenton’s house/store and the hulk of the New Perseverance
           Mother of pearl shell was n hgh demand for ts many decoratve                       served all town purposes and that there were a number of
           and functonal uses at the tme. The demand mostly came from                           temporary pearler huts. A hotel and store were about to be bult.
           overseas markets where the shell was used as a decoratve nlay
           n furnture and cathedral altars and canopes, for handles for                        Causeway bult across the marsh to Roebourne.
           cutlery, mancure sets, paper knves, revolvers and daggers, for
           cgarette boxes, ashtrays and other decoratve ornaments and to                 1871   Nchol Bay Dstrct gazetted.
           manufacture buttons. The shell was plentful off the northwest                         Women prohbted from employment on pearlng boats under the
           Australan coast and along the Torres Strat, but colletng t was                     Pearl Shell Fsheres Act.
           dangerous for the dvers and labour was n short supply.

14                                                                                                                                                 November 2006
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Cossack, c1895 (lookng northeast from Ten Tsn lookout)

 Cossack, c1895 (lookng southeast from Ten Tsn lookout)

November 2006                                                                                 15
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
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        Port Walcott Polce Force conssted of two mounted constables.                  F McRae and Co purchased Knght and Shenton’s store and
                                                                                        opened a branch of ther Perth busness.
        D Chapman appled for a lquor lcence for hs four-roomed house
        (two large publc areas and two bedrooms) n March. By May, hs                 A cyclone n March flooded and unroofed Mr Howlett’s store (pne
        house had been extended wth the addton of a thrd bedroom.                   tmber wth ron sdes and roof). The McRae & Co Store also lost
                                                                                        ts roof and Steward’s Hotel was twsted and unroofed. The lght
        Frst meetng of the North Dstrct Roads Board held n March.                  tmber and thatch houses of msters Chapman, Best and Phllmore
        Governor Weld vsted Port Walcott n December and hs papers                   were destroyed. The jetty was also damaged and followng the
        descrbe the port as consstng of one or two dwellngs or stores,              cyclone, the heght of the Government Resdency was reduced
        75 Europeans, 350 Aborgnals and a few Malays workng n the                   from 12 ft to 7 ft and the roof ptch lowered. The houses rebult
        pearlng ndustry n 30 small craft of 10 to 25 tons.                           after the cyclone were also lower and more strongly framed.
        The name of Cossack adopted n honour of Weld’s shp, HMS                       Mr Wrghton bult a boat of ten to 12 tons at the port. Malays
        Cossack.                                                                        brought to jon the pearlng workforce of Howlett, Cadell and
                                                                                        others. Mr Howlett’s Malays lved on shore n a wooden buldng
        Labour from Southeast Asa was recruted to supplement (and
        largely replace) the Aborgnal labour force workng n the pearlng            Townste of Cossack gazetted on 4 June 1872.
        ndustry. Malays were frst ntroduced, followed by Flpno and                Thrty-nne European men as resdents of Cossack sgned
        Japanese dvers. Many were ‘purchased’ n the labour/slave                      a memoral for a post offce dated 11 October 1872. Cossack
        markets.                                                                        was now the centre for supples, layng up and reparng shps
1872    A further nne town lots sold [122 – Mles; 118 – E Best; 130 –                 and home to the pearlers when they were n port. Mr Wyan was
        Wllams; 109 – R L Sholl; 116 – R N Sholl; 117 – I Best; 129                   apponted the frst post master, tdewater clerk and customs
        – Englsh; 111 – E Chapman].                                                    offcer on 25 October and occuped a small room attached to the
                                                                                        Bond Store. The Bond Store was also used as a Court House.
        H P Lofte surveyed Cossack. Three buldngs are shown fantly
        on the survey drawng: a store on Lot 123 and two buldngs on           1873   Copper and lead mnes opened n the dstrct.
        Lot 122.                                                                        Begnnng of government efforts to control the pearlng ndustry
        Spencer and Barnett won the tender for constructng a Bonded                    and the revenue t generated. An export duty of £3/ton was placed
        Store (bondng warehouse) wth a freplace n the caretaker’s                   on mother of pearl and a boat lcence of £2 ntroduced to cover
        room.                                                                           the costs of the nspector.
        31 shps and 52 dnghes collectng pearl shell.                         1874   Four town lots sold (142, 143, 144 & 145) and placed n the name
                                                                                        of Shakespeare Hall’s small chldren. However, the Hall famly
       A lcence for the ‘Whte Horse Hotel’ was granted to Davd Stewart               dd not ever lve on these lots; ther famly home was stuated
        n February. By ths tme, Stewart had bult a sx room (three sttng          on Lot 116, whch was orgnally bought by R N Sholl n 1872.
        rooms and three bedrooms) weatherboard house wth an ron                       The Hall home began as a two-roomed house wth a detached
        roof, detached ktchen and stockyard. The lcence was granted                   ktchen c. 1874 and was enlarged wth the addton of another
        condtonal on Stewart enlargng the stockyard to accommodate                   two rooms separated from the orgnal by a breezeway by 1886.
        12 bullocks and buldng a room for drunks.                                     Shakespeare Hall ran a store n Cossack from c. 1874 to c. 1888
        D Chapman’s request for a lquor lcence for the ‘Governor Weld                 (there s no evdence of where store was located).
        Hotel’ was granted n March, on the condton that he bult two          1875   Eleven town lots sold [113 & 101 – C Tuckey; 103 – W Paterson;
        addtonal rooms for the publc, a substantal stockyard and a                  132 & 115 – A Rchardson; 104 & 110 – F McRae; 105 – R Eaton;
        room for drunks.                                                                108 – W Ellery; 112 – I Bryan; 134 – S Whte Burns].
       The Roebourne Road Board repared the road to the port.                          By ths tme, there were 989 Malays and 493 Aborgnals

16                                                                                                                                      November 2006
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       employed on 57 vessels lcensed at Cossack. Wth vessels from
       other ports, t has been estmated that there were as many as
       1,800 Malays and 228 Europeans workng n the ndustry. An
       nspecton of 36 vessels n 1875 found many sck Malays and
       several deaths amongst the Malay populaton. No deaths were
       reported amongst the European and Aborgnal fshers.
       The hgh number of Asans n the ndustry, as well as a number
       of Chnese who had been brought to the North West as
       domestc servants, led to the establshment of an Asan quarter
       or ‘Chnatown’ n Cossack. It comprsed two Chnese stores, a
       Chnese bakery, one Japanese store and a Turksh bath, as well
       as many resdences.
       Second jetty under constructon n October.
1877   Quarantne reserve establshed on lots 134 and 135.
       The frst drect shpment of wool from statons n the dstrct was
       made to London n October. Cossack was now operatng as an
       ndependent port, markng the growng ndependence of the North
       West as a separate regon, conductng ts own trade ndependent
       of Perth and Fremantle. .
1881   Steam shppng servce establshed at Cossack.                        Hall’s House, (undated)
       Census fgures show a populaton of 229 (double that of
       Roebourne). There was one Asan to every sx Europeans lsted
       as lvng n Cossack.
       Town damaged by cyclone. Every pearlng vessel foundered or
       was thrown on the beach; 12 luggers were lost.
1883   Post offce (government offces) constructed comprsng post
       offce n the upper eastern rooms, chemst shop n the upper
       western room and customs house and bond store downstars.
1885   Fleet of 44 vessels operatng out of Cossack, of whch nne used
       dvng dress comprsng canvass sut and brass helmet (hard hat
       Steamer servce extended to Beagle Bay.
       Broome named and surveyed.
       A Select Commttee headed by Matland Brown was establshed
       to consder the closure of certan pearlng banks for conservaton.   Cossack, 1884-1889
       The Commttee recommended that several banks be closed,
       ncludng those closest to Cossack, whch were fast depletng.

November 2006                                                                                                           17
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
    site & context

1886      From ths tme, the majorty of the pearlng fleet relocated to              The North-West Mercantle store was also used as Mnng
          Broome, although Cossack remaned a pearlng port.                           Regstrar’s offce from ths tme.
          Government accepted a tender from W Atkns to buld a 24-nch                Aborgnal labour used by householders.
          gauge tramway between Roebourne and Cossack.
                                                                               1896    Stone school house constructed by W Sharp.
1887      Muncpaltes of Cossack and Roebourne proclamed.
                                                                                       Stone polce barracks and lockup bult by S Stansmore.
          Jmmy Wthnell found gold on Mallna Staton.
                                                                                       Tender for constructon of explosves magazne let to A Thompson.
          By ths tme, there were only about 100 Aborgnals employed                 Constructon was completed n January 1897.
          dvng for pearls and the majorty of boats were no longer locally
          owned.                                                               1898    Cyclone severely damaged the jetty and the majorty of the
                                                                                       buldngs n Cossack. The Court House was the only buldng to
`         Fve Chnese stores n Cossack and Roebourne.                                survve mostly ntact.
          Cossack damaged by cyclone. Twenty-two pearlng vessels and          1901    Populaton of Cossack comprsed 69 Australans, 19 Europeans,
          140 lves lost.                                                              sx Amercans, one Canadan, 68 Asans (majorty Japanese) and
                                                                                       two Afrcans.
          Publc buldngs n Cossack were the stone post offce and customs
          house, the Mnng Regstrar’s Offce (later the Mercantle Store),           Aubrey Hall was the agent for the Adelade Steam Shppng
          the North-West Company store, a tmber church and two tmber                 Company, South Brtsh Insurance Company and the Balla Balla
          hotels.                                                                      Copper Mnes Company, as well as general shppng customs
                                                                                       and forwardng agent for all statons wthn a 100-mle radus of
          The horse drawn tramway across the tdal flats between                       Cossack.
          Roebourne and Cossack was completed under the drecton of
          resdent engneer, Wllam Lambden Owen.                                     New jetty bult at Port Samson.
1888      Lghthouse on Jarman Island completed.                               1910    Pont Samson lnked to Roebourne and Cossack by tramway.
                                                                                       Tram barn, turntable and crane were relocated from Cossack to
          Plbara Goldfeld proclamed.                                                Port Samson. The Department of Harbour and Lght took over
          Galbrath’s Store constructed.                                               responsblty for the tramway from the Ralways Department.
1894      Aubrey Hall commenced shppng agent’s busness.                             Muncpalty of Cossack dssolved.
          Thrteen pearlng vessels lost n cyclone and remander severely     1913    Leprosarum (lazarette) establshed on the bank of the Hardng
          damaged.                                                                     Rver, opposte the townshp.
          Populaton of Cossack comprsed 126 Europeans and 266                1920s   Bref resurgence of Cossack followng cyclone damage to the
          ‘Asatcs’.                                                                  Pont Samson jetty.
1895      Stone Court House constructed by S Stansmore.                        1930    By ths tme, the two hotels were amalgamated nto one, nvolvng
                                                                                       some buldng alteratons. The staff comprsed the lcensee, hs
          Post & Telegraph Offce completed. Bake house on the same ste               wfe and a cook.
          constructed around ths tme.
                                                                                       Resdents n Cossack were Harry Edney and hs wfe lvng near
          Customs house and Bond Store completed by S Stansmore.                       Nanny Goat Hll, Edney famly lvng nearer the school house,
          Seawall and new tramlne bult as the customs house was                      Earnest Hall n the Hall house, Jm Ramsey lvng near Lookout
          constructed on the ste of the orgnal tramlne staton.                    Hll and Laure Bruce lvng n the Post Offce. A Greek famly lved

18                                                                                                                                       November 2006
                                                                                                               C O S S A C K
                                                                                          Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                         site & context

        n the Court House and Japanese famles lved n Martn’s House,
        the mercantle store manager’s house, and the Customs House
        and Bond Store. A Japanese famly lved n the only house left
        n Chnatown. It s not known how long they remaned. However,
        Japanese persons across the State were nterned durng World
        War Two, so t s lkely that they dd not reman n Cossack through
        to the end of the war years.
1931    Leprosarum closed and patents transferred to Darwn.
1933    John Hamley’s Australan Cannng Company set up a sea foods
        processng and cannng factory n the Bond Store. The company
        found markets n England for turtle soup and ol extracted from
        turtles, sharks and dugongs. Hamley also produced hgh qualty
        shark leather through another company, Marne Industres Ltd.
        The projects faled n 1936.
1950s   Town of Cossack abandoned. Most of the lots reverted to the
        Crown n 1953.
1976    Cossack Management Commttee (later renamed the Cossack
        Restoraton and Development Assocaton; CRDA) formed
        by resdents n the Shre of Roebourne concerned wth the
        deteroraton of buldngs at Cossack. CRDA subsequently held          Cossack, 1895 (lookng south from Reader Head)
        the lease of all buldngs at Cossack and had the responsblty
        for mantenance and restoraton of the precnct. The remanng
        lots were ether owned by a small number of ndvduals or were
        unoccuped crown land.
1977    Town of Cossack classfed by the Natonal Trust.
1970s   Restoraton works to Polce Quarters Court House. Polce
        Quarters subsequently used as the Caretaker’s Resdence. Court
        House subsequently used as a museum wth support from the
        WA Museum and the Shre of Roebourne.
1981/84 Restoraton works to Custom’s House & Bond Store and
        Galbrath’s Store. Customs House & Bond Store subsequently
        used for concerts, receptons, dances and art exhbtons.
1986    Mnster for Plannng, Bob Pearce, vsted Cossack and
        subsequently establshed the Cossack Task Force, whch
        was chared by local MLA Pam Buchanan and comprsed
        representatves from several government departments, the Shre
        of Roebourne and CRDA.
        Polce Quarters unsafe for use as a resdence/art studo due to        Cossack, 1890s (lookng northeast from Nanny Goat Hll)

November 2006                                                                                                                            19
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

       termte damage.                                                             Natve Ttle Clams regstered by the Wong-goo-t-oo and
                                                                                   Ngaluma/Injband people, wth clam boundares extendng over
1988   Cossack Bcentennal Project funded under the State Bcentennal            the townste.
       Program completed n June. The $150,000 project nvolved
       substantal stablzaton work on the Post & Telegraph Offce, as           Restoraton works to the School House, funded by the Hertage
       well as conservaton work on the Polce Barracks, Mercantle                Councl of Western Australa and the Shre of Roebourne.
       Store and Court House. Vstor and barbeque facltes were also
       provded.                                                            2001   Cossack Hstorc Town entered nto the Regster of the Natonal
                                                                                   Estate as a regstered place.
       Openng of the Emma Wthnell Hertage Tral as a means of
       explanng the hstory and hertage of Cossack to vstors.                 Sustanable Management Study of Cossack completed at
                                                                                   the request of the Cossack Steerng Commttee, wth the am
       Archaeologcal survey of the Asan Quarter of Cossack dentfed            of makng recommendatons for the establshment of a self-
       elements of archaeologcal sgnfcance and made management                 sustanng management operaton at Cossack, based on
       recommendatons.                                                            toursm development and the potental for an ncreased resdent
1989   Westrak took over management of Cossack followng the
       dsbandng of the Cossack Restoraton and Development                2002   Tralswest grant of $50,000 enabled the establshment of a
       Assocaton n December 1988.                                               hertage tral through the town.
       Archaeologcal survey of Cossack between Pearl Street and            2003   Regonal Infrastructure Fundng Program grant of $1,300,000
       Nanny Goat Hll dentfed elements of archaeologcal sgnfcance          awarded to assst wth the development of Cossack to enable
       and made management recommendatons.                                        essental servces and provde addtonal nfrastructure, ncludng
                                                                                   upgradng water, electrcty and sewerage facltes.
1991   Cossack vested n the newly establshed Hertage Councl of
       Western Australa.                                                          Interm report by Unversty of Western Australa dentfes the
                                                                                   place as an archaeologcal ste of natonal sgnfcance.
1992   Cossack Precnct and a number of ndvdual elements of the
       precnct entered n the State Regster of Hertage Places.           2006   Cossack Townste Precnct entered n the State Regster of the
                                                                                   Hertage Places on a permanent bass.
1996   Conservaton Polcy prepared by the Hertage Councl of Western
       Australa, ncludng recommendatons for works and desgn
       gudelnes for new development.
       Shre of Roebourne entered nto a 21-year lease agreement
       wth the Department of Land Admnstraton (dated 1 July 1996)
       and a Hertage Agreement wth the Hertage Councl of Western
       Australa (dated 27 May 1996).
       Shre of Roebourne enters Cossack n ts Muncpal Inventory of
       Hertage Places.
2000   Cossack Steerng Commttee and Interm Management Commttee
       formed, wth representatves from the Hertage Councl of Western
       Australa, the Shre of Roebourne, the Plbara Development
       Commsson, the Department of Land Admnstraton, the Western
       Australan Toursm Commsson, LandCorp and the Natonal Trust
       of Australa (WA).

20                                                                                                                                  November 2006
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                                                                                                                                              site & context

Site Conditions

Cossack s now defned more by ts landscape elements than ts bult form.
The remanng hstorc buldngs are large and mpressve at close range
and at the same tme, “lost” wthn the broad, open landscape settng. Ths
sense of solaton of the hstorc buldngs contrbutes a sense of drama and
pognancy to ther survval. It s a crucal element n the attracton of the
place to vstors and has the potental to enhance the nterpretaton of the
hstory of Cossack as a poneerng outpost.
The prncpal landscape elements are the landform and geology, vegetaton
and vews.
The former settlement followed a narrow spne or pennsula of ground
elevated above the surroundng mangrove swamp and salt marshes,
extendng between Nanny Goat Hll n the west and the undulatng hlls
leadng up to Reader Head n the east. The exposed red rock of whch
the hlls are composed contrasts strongly wth the grey-green folage of         Cossack looking southeast from Tien Tsin lookout
grasses, shrubs and small trees that cover the lower ground around ther
base. The dark green of mangroves along the edge of the nlet provdes
another strong vsual contrast. The area of flat ground between Nanny
Goat Hll and Pearl Street s featureless (n a landscape sense) apart from
the School House buldng. The dramatc revelaton of vews to the hstorc
buldngs from the base of Nanny Goat Hll s due largely to the absence of
foreground and mddle ground features. New constructon wthn ths area
has the potental to dmnsh the drama of ths mportant vew and wll be
obvous from all vewponts from Nanny Goat Hll to Pearl Street, ncludng
from the nlet.
The undulatng hlls east to Reader Head provde a more enclosed landscape
character. It would be possble for approprately sted and desgned buldngs
to be located n ths area comparatvely nconspcuously.

                                                                                 Cossack looking southeast along Perserverence Street towards the historic buildings

November 2006                                                                                                                                                  21
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

Built Form
Cossack was establshed n 1863 and soon became the focal pont for the
pearlng ndustry, whch commenced n 1866. By the 1870s more than 80
boats were based at Cossack and the town’s populaton exceeded 400
people. By 1887 a horse-drawn tramway connected the port of Cossack
wth the town of Roebourne. Many of the dvers who worked wthn the
Cossack pearlng ndustry were from overseas from countres such as
Japan, Malaysa, Chna and Tmor.
The town thrved for approxmately 40 years due to the pearlng and pastoral
ndustry however by 1910 the port was unusable due to the sltng up of
the Hardng Rver mouth. Furthermore, Broome had establshed tself as
the State’s premer locaton for pearlng hence the fleet of Cossack moved
north to take advantage of the more lucratve pearlng felds.
Cossack declned n the early years of the twenteth century and by 1920
was no longer the major port of the regon. It was abandoned after World
War II followng unsuccessful attempts to resusctate the local pearlng
ndustry. For decades the hertage buldngs deterorated nto runs untl
new fundng permtted restoraton works to be undertaken. Today, the
buldngs and structures that reman extant nclude:
     •   Galbrath’s Store (1888)
     •   Polce Quarters, Lockup and Servce buldngs (1890)
     •   Post and Telegraph Offce (1894)
     •   Custom House and Bond Store (1895)
     •   Courthouse (1895)
     •   North West Mercantle Store run (1895)
     •   School (1896/7)
     •   Landbacked Wharf
     •   Tramway (path only)
     •   Cossack Cemetery
     •   Reader Head Lookout

22                                                                             November 2006
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                                                                                                         Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                  site & context

                    Former Tram line


                                                                                            e                             Police Quarters & Lockup

                        Galbraith’s Store

                                                                                                                            Post & Telegraph Office



                                                    k   Ro
                                                                                                                        Custom House & Bond Store

                                                                                            Mercantile Store (ruin)

Historic buildings in Cossack

       November 2006                                                                                                                             23
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

Galbraith’s Store (1888)                                                             Post & Telegraph Office and Bakehouse (1894/95)
Galbrath’s Store s located at the northern extremty of Pearl Street. The          The Post and Telegraph Offce has frable lmestone (local shell lmestone)
buldng has bluestone random rubble walls wth rendered quonng at door            walls, wth ballast brck quonng to corners and wndow openng. Curved
and wndow openngs, wth a custom orb zncalume roof.                               stone walls are located on ether sde of steps leadng up to the ground
                                                                                     floor entrance. Only the man walls were standng before substantal
It was the frst buldng n Cossack to be constructed of local bluestone
                                                                                     reconstructon n the 1980s.
(ronstone) rock. Earler stone buldngs were constructed of sandstone
from the sea front. The buldng was conserved n 1984 when the roof was             The place vsually lnks the Bond Store complex wth the man ntersecton
reconstructed and some jonery replaced. It s utlsed as an art studo and          of town and ts presence makes a strong contrbuton to the ntegrty of the
gallery by the Bhujee-Nhoor-Pu Art Group.                                            streetscape. It s the only two storey buldng n Cossack and although
                                                                                     modest n plan, ts heght mbues t wth a commandng presence, whch
Through ts ntegrty of fabrc and consstency of materals wth other
                                                                                     vsually consoldates the town’s man ntersecton.
buldngs n the town, Galbrath’s Store contrbutes to the townscape, and
acts as a vsual stop to the end of the hstorc central core.                       The Bakehouse s a small stone structure set back from the central
                                                                                     ntersecton of Pearl and Preserverance Streets. It has smlar constructon
Police Quarters, Lockup & Service Buildings (1890)                                   materals to the Post and Telegraph Offce. Works n the early 1990s
The Polce Quarters occupes a corner ste at the Cossack’s central                  nvolved the repar of walls and the replacement of wndows and roof.
ntersecton, but s not as promnent as the Court House due to ts setback
                                                                                     Customs House and Bond Store (1895)
from the street. The buldng s constructed of coursed random rubble
bluestone, wth rendered quonng at door and wndow openngs.                       Desgned by George Temple-Poole, the Chef Archtect of the Publc Works
                                                                                     Department, and constructed n 1895, the buldng was a centre of actvty
The Polce Quarters makes a contrbuton to the streetscape n a more
                                                                                     durng Cossack’s early years, beng the Government store for mported
restraned manner than the other publc buldngs. Ths subdued presence
                                                                                     foodstuffs, alcohol and equpment. It was also the storage faclty for wool
reflects the status of the polce functon n the publc admnstraton as
                                                                                     and pearl shell exported from the area. By the md-1920s, Cossack had
subservent to the Court House, whch was a focus of law and order for the
                                                                                     ceased to be an mportant government centre and n 1927, the buldng
town and regon. It s currently used as accommodaton for backpackers.
                                                                                     became a café called ‘The Strand’. The buldng was used as a turtle soup
The Lockup s located at the rear of the lot. The buldng s utltaran n style   factory durng the Depresson and after that venture’s falure, the buldng
and ts structural fabrc demonstrates ts functon as a place of detenton          was used as a muntons store and then a holday house.
and punshment. It has coursed bluestone walls wth rendered quonng to
                                                                                     The Customs House and Bond Store have coursed random rubble
corners, wth orgnal lme mortar ponted over wth cement render (1989).
                                                                                     bluestone walls, wth rendered quonng at door and wndow openngs. The
The roof and some wndows were replaced n the late 1980s.
                                                                                     walls sweep n curves round the corner of Pearl Street and The Strand,
The Lockup makes a contrbuton to the townscape through ts form and                creatng a dstnctve bult form. The Bond Store s also dstngushed by
constructon.                                                                        the large sem-crcular openngs to both ends and the Customs House s
                                                                                     dstngushed by ts arched colonnade.
A Cookhouse and tolets comprse the servce buldngs. The Cookhouse s
located behnd the Polce Quarters and s constructed of coursed bluestone           The Customs House and Bond Store s the largest complex n Cossack.
walls n lme mortar, ponted wth cement mortar. The buldng has rendered          It s sted on a hgh profle corner at the begnnng of the Pearl Street axs
quonng at corners and around doors, wth brackets for cyclone shutters.

24                                                                                                                                              November 2006
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                                                                                                   Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                             site & context

and vsually commands the southern end of the hstorc town centre. It           Through ts ntegrty of fabrc and consstency of materals wth other
makes a substantal contrbuton to the townscape. Its proxmty to the          buldngs n the town, the place makes a substantal contrbuton to the
wharf renforces the port functon of the buldng and town and ts strength     townscape. Together wth the Customs House and Bond Store, t defnes
of desgn gves the mpresson of permanence and strength. The Bond              the southernmost commencement of the town core.
Store s the locaton of communty events, ncludng the annual Cossack
                                                                                 As the only stablzed run n Cossack, the place has the potental to nterpret
Art Awards.
                                                                                 the town’s constructon technology. The buldng also contans a cellar
Court House (1895)                                                               whch could be nterpreted.

Desgned by George Temple-Poole, the buldng was ntally planned as           School (1896/97)
a ‘T’ shaped buldng but the plans were revsed n 1895. The buldng           The sngle storey stone buldng was constructed n 1896/97 to replace an
was conserved n 1979 and subsequently used as a museum and vstor              earler buldng destroyed by cyclone n 18994. The buldng s constructed
nformaton centre.                                                              of local bluestone walls wth lme mortar and quonng to corners.
Constructed of bluestone random ashlar wth rendered quonng at the             The School s the only extant buldng remote from the town core. It s stuated
corners and rendered wndow reveals, the Court House has an mposng             on Perseverance Street, adjacent to the tramway algnment. Extensve
colonnaded verandah on all sdes supported by large masonry pers. The           conservaton works n 2000 effectvely reconstructed the buldng.
metal roof rses n stages to a clerestory, addng heght to the sngle storey
buldng.                                                                        Landbacked Wharf
The Court House s the second largest buldng n the town and ts style and     The Wharf was the centre of Cossack’s port functons and conssts of a
materals demonstrates an ntenton of grandeur and prestge, befttng an       stone and concrete wharf (orgnally wth a tmber deck) coverng the ste
mportant admnstratve buldng of law and order for the town and regon.      of two former tmber ple jettes. The wharf has a concrete face wall, wth
                                                                                 stone ptch end walls.
Stuated on the town’s central ntersecton, the Court House, whch currently
houses the Cossack Museum, makes a substantal contrbuton to the               The extenson of the Wharf structure to the Sea Wall s a strong vsual
streetscape and provdes a vsual lnk between Galbrath’s Store and the         element and t s from the Wharf that vstors can apprecate the sea level
remander of the hstorc core.                                                  estuarne context of the town and gan extensve panoramc vews across
                                                                                 Butcher Inlet and up to the mouth of the Hardng Rver and out to Jarman
North West Mercantile Store (1895)                                               Island. The more recent boat ramp provdes vstors wth an apprecaton of
Located on the southwest corner of The Strand and Pearl Street, opposte         the hgh tdal movements of the port. The Wharf contnues to be used for
the Customs House and Bond Store, the buldng was stablsed as a run          recreatonal actvtes.
n the late 1980s.                                                               The remans of Silver Star n the rver south of the Wharf and adjacent to
Ths s the ste of some of the frst buldngs n Cossack and has a long        the Sea Wall provdes evdence of the dffcultes shps encountered n the
hstory of commercal use. The present buldng was constructed n 1895          area.
as the Mnng Regstrar’s Offce. In 1907, the lot was purchased by Jro
Muramats, who operated the place as a store untl World War II, when t
was abandoned.

November 2006                                                                                                                                                 25
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

The 2’ gauge horse drawn tramway was completed n 1887. Rollng stock
mported from England conssted of sx passenger coaches (each drawn by
one horse) and 12 goods trucks drawn n rakes (rows) by two horses. Two
trams left from both Roebourne and Cossack Townste daly, wth a goods
truck n between. The trams left both towns at the same tme and met at the
double lne secton sx mles out, where drvers and horses were changed.
The trp took about one hour and ffteen mnutes. The Harbour and Lght
Department took over responsblty for the tramway from the Ralways
Department. The tramway was extended to Pont Samson n 1910 and the
car barn was removed to Pont Samson c. 1911. The turntable and crane
were also relocated to Pont Samson about ths tme.
Only the path of the tramway remans extant.

Wth ts separate European and Asan sectons, Cossack Cemetery s a
pognant remnder of the tragedes and hardshps of early fronter lfe.

Reader’s Head Lookout
The ste of the frst port warnng lght before the lghthouse was bult on
Jarman Island n 1888.

26                                                                            November 2006
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                                                                                         Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                 site & context

                                                                                                 Reader Head

                                                                                       Butcher Inlet

                                                       Tien Tsin

                                     Goat Hill

                Heritage Curtilage           Important View Corridor
                Old Tramway                      Historic Building and Cemetary Zone
                                                                                                       Plan showing Landscape & Built Form Attributes

November 2006                                                                                                                                     27
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

Aboriginal Heritage                                                              physcal remans. There are two man characterstcs of the archaeologcal
                                                                                 record of the Cossack Pennsula whch gves t ts sgnfcance – ts holstc
Ngaluma Aborgnal Hertage consultants ndcated that the Cossack               context and ts cultural dversty - and these characterstcs defne the
(BADJINURPHA) area does not contan any areas of specfc mythologcal           conceptual framework.
sgnfcance, however Cossack s part of the cultural geography of the
regon and s part of what s commonly referred to a ‘run’ by Aborgnal         Holistic Context
people. In ths sense, Cossack s sgnfcant to the Ngaluma people because
                                                                                 The once bustlng settlement of Cossack was abandoned by ts human
t s a pont of reference for huntng, gatherng, fshng and meetng n the
                                                                                 nhabtants n the md 20th century, leavng n ther wake the skeleton of an
                                                                                 entre town. Although the once magnfcent buldngs fell nto runs, and the
Aborgnal stes are protected and managed under the provsons of the           town was looted for ts possble treasures, the orgnal footprnts reman
Aboriginal Heritage Act. As such, the Aborgnal hertage of Cossack             relatvely ntact. Most settlements tend to rebuld on the orgnal ground,
wll need to be managed as a separate entty to the European and Asa            oblteratng the evdence of the orgnal occupaton, however ths was not
hertage. Any areas that contan Aborgnal stes, both archaeologcal and       the case at Cossack.
ethnographcal wll requre an Applcaton under Secton 18 of the Aborgnal
Hertage Act to request ‘consent to use land affected by an Aborgnal ste.’    Cultural Diversity
                                                                                 Cossack s unque n that the populaton densty of the Asan sector of the
Archaeological Record                                                            communty almost rvalled that of the whte Australan communty, and
                                                                                 as a result, the old townscape and the hstory reflects ts cultural dualty.
The rch archaeologcal record of the Cossack Pennsula spans across many        Overlayng ths dualty s the less vsble but long and constant usage of the
tme phases, landscapes and cultural groups – begnnng n the Ice Age and       area by the Coastal Plbara Aborgnal trbal groups.
encompassng Aborgnal prehstory, Brtsh poneer settlement and Asan
mmgraton and adaptaton to the Plbara’s harsh coastal envronment.           Zoning Plan
There has been a number of archaeologcal studes conducted at Cossack           A zonng plan has been developed from the conceptual framework that
over the years, but owng to the segmented nature of hertage management         presents the data by ts chronologcal, geographc and ethnc characterstcs.
n Western Australa, whch are dvded nto ‘hstorcal’, ‘Aborgnal’ and      There are three prmary zones:
‘martme’, these assessments have tended to be pecemeal. A large               Aborgnal                Long Term
percentage of the Cossack Pennsula has been surveyed, photographed
and mapped, and varous artefact collectons have been compled, but n          European Settlement       Medum Term
order to systematcally assess and nterpret ths mass of accumulated data,      Asan Immgraton         Short Term
the evdence should be vewed from a partcular theoretcal perspectve
wthn a conceptual framework. In short, we need to gve meanng and             Each of these prmary zones contan archaeologcal remans of dstnct
sgnfcance to the many accumulated fnds.                                      cultures, n partcular envronments durng partcular phases n the past.
                                                                                 The three prmary zones are then subdvded nto sub zones based on
In order to dentfy, nterpret and assess the sgnfcance of partcular        archaeologcal typology such as bural stes, rock art and camp stes for the
archaeologcal stes and features wthn the context of a large archaeologcal   Aborgnal zone, exploraton stes, martme stes and domestc stes for the
resource such as Cossack, the followng conceptual framework provdes            European zone, and market gardens, Afghan camps and Chna Town stes
the categorsaton and quantfcaton that allows us to fully understand the     for the Asan Zone.

28                                                                                                                                          November 2006
                                                                                        C O S S A C K
                                                              Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                     site & context

                                                                      Reader Head

                                                            Butcher Inlet

                                                Tien Tsin

                               Goat Hill

            Aboriginal Sites   European Sites

            Asian Sites        Chinatown                                            Plan showing Archaeological Attributes

November 2006                                                                                                          29
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

 Aboriginal Zone
       c. Plestocene years before present to current
       Prehstorc Phase        Ice Age – Holocene-contact
       Contact Phase            1860s – 1890s
       Settlement Phase         1890s – 1940s
       Abandonment Phase        1940s – current
 Geographic Landform Unit
       Headland                 Readers Head
       Fore Dunes               Settlers Beach
       Tdal Flat Dunes         Behnd Tank Hll
 Sub Zones
       Burals                  Cossack Skull
       Rock Art                 Readers Head Petroglyphs
       Camp Stes               Settlers Beach camp
       Shell Mddens            Settlers Beach camp
       Ethnographc stes       None recorded
       Contact stes
       Recent stes             Fshng spots used by local Aborgnal
 Major Research Themes
       Early human evoluton and peoplng of the earth, Prehstorc
       colonsaton of Australa, World prehstorc rock art, Tradtonal
       Aborgnal occupaton of the Plbara – chronology and demography,
       Aborgnal contact, Aborgnal labour, Recent patterns of Aborgnal
       land use

30                                                                            November 2006
                                                                C O S S A C K
                                   Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                              site & context

                European Settlement
                      1860s to current
                      Exploraton Phase
                      Settlement Phase
                      Declne Phase
                      Abandonment Phase
                Geographic Landform Unit
                      Rverne fore dune
                      Coastal plan frontng the mouth of the Hardng Rver
                      Brtsh poneers
                      Italan mgrants
                Sub Zones
                      Exploraton stes
                      Martme stes
                      Commercal and Publc buldngs & Town precnct
                      Early resdental dwellngs
                      Later resdental dwellngs
                      Transport & communcaton stes
                      Industral stes
                      Recent stes
                Major Research Themes
                      Exploraton of the northern parts of Western Australa, Intal settlement
                      of the northern colony, Pearlng ndustry, Martme trade,
                      Ard zone and cyclone coastal archtecture
                      Boom-bust economes

November 2006                                                                                  31
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

 Asian Immigration
       Settlement Phase
       Abandonment Phase
 Geographic Landform Unit
       Fore Dunes              Mouth of Hardng Rver
       Volcanc Rock           Base of Mt Beach
       Tdal Flats             Base of Mt Beach
       Chnese                 Market gardeners, shepherds and cooks
       Japanese                Pearlers, shop owners
       Malay                   Pearlng crew
       Tmorese                Pearlng crew
       Afghan                  Cameleers
 Sub Zones
       Market gardens
       Afghan camps
       Chna Town
       Asan cemetery and possble lonely graves (near man cemetery)
       Asan busnesses        Muramats Shops
 Major Research Themes
       Multculturalsm and acculturaton, Mgrant labour, Ard zone
       agrculture and water harvestng, Martme trade and movement of
       people n the 1890s

32                                                                        November 2006
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                                                                                                 Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                          site & context

Native Remnant Vegetation
The Cossack area contans a dverse range of landforms and vegetaton           However, based on the vegetaton types and assocated fauna habtat
representatve of the Plbara coastlne, ncludng mangroves, Spnfex          found on the study area, t s possble that the Northern Quoll, Plbara Olve
hlls, Acacia shrubland, samphre tdal flats and vews to off-shore slands,   Python, Water Rat and a number of lsted mgratory speces are resdent or
nlets, beaches and the ocean. Vews of these landforms are possble from       vst the study area.
strategc vantage ponts, partcularly the Ten Tsn Lookout and Mt Beach.
The mangrove vegetaton type occurrng wthn the Cossack study area
s regarded as mportant and consdered to be of hgh conservaton value
accordng to the EPA Gudance Statement No. 1 Guidance Statement for
Protection of Tropical Arid Zone Mangroves along the Pilbara Coastline
(EPA, 2002). Therefore, the mangal communtes wthn the study area
should be retaned and protected.

Significant Flora
A search of the CALM Declared Rare and Prorty Flora database was
undertaken as part of the nvestgaton of the study area. None of the
speces lsted as sgnfcant by CALM were recorded durng the survey,
however two of the CALM lsted flora potentally occurrng n the vcnty
of the study area would not have been dentfable durng the survey, f
present. Ths s due to the napproprate tmng of the survey whch dd not
allow for the dentfcaton of the ephemeral speces.
A survey n August (the flowerng perod for the two Prorty speces) s
requred however, the two CALM lsted Prorty flora speces are unlkely to
affect the future development of the area f found n future surveys.

Significant Fauna
A number of Specally Protected (Threatened) or Prorty Speces were
predcted to be present wthn the project area. A Level 1 reconnassance
survey of the project area recorded the presence of the Green Turtle, whch
s lsted as Vulnerable under the EPBC Act 1999. No drect evdence of any
other conservaton sgnfcant fauna was found.

                                                                                                       Cockatoos at Cossack

November 2006                                                                                                                                              33
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

Other Environmental Issues                                                          Settlers Beach – The natural envronment at Settlers Beach wll experence
                                                                                    ncreased pressures as a result of more vstors to the area. The sand dunes
Weeds – The ntroducton of weed speces nto the Cossack area could
                                                                                    facng the beach contan hertage stes and some ephemeral freshwater
potentally smother natve speces and compete vgorously for space, water
                                                                                    soaks of envronmental value.
and nutrents, as well as adversely affectng the bologcal ntegrty of natural
communtes by alterng vegetaton. Weed speces may be ntroduced                  Butchers Inlet - The natural envronment at Butcher Inlet (ncludng the
through plantngs of non-natve speces assocated wth development, such           mangrove communtes) wll experence ncreased pressures as a result of
as gardens and landscapng.                                                         more vstors and boat traffc to the area.
Feral Anmals – An ncrease n feral anmal numbers, ncludng feral cats,
domestc dogs, house mce and black rats may occur as a result of an
ncrease n human habtaton. Domestc pets such as cats and dogs may
also pose a threat to natve mammals, reptles and brds, ncludng many of
the waterbrds.
Groundwater – Any possble sources of contamnaton of groundwater
should be consdered pror to development. Potental contamnants may
nclude sewerage, fuel, fertlsers. A land capablty assessment s requred
to determne the most approprate effluent dsposal system to prevent
groundwater contamnaton from sewerage. The groundwater has hertage
and envronmental values, therefore t s preferable to develop away from
known groundwater areas. However, development n areas s possble wth
the use of approprate effluent management systems. In addton, further
studes are requred to determne the avalablty of groundwater to be
utlsed for rrgaton and potable water.                                                                 Closed heath of mangroves

Access Roads – Increased vehcular access to exstng and new roads may
have a potentally deleterous mpact upon habtats wthn the project area,
especally around the mangrove and tdal flat communtes. Alteraton of
the nundaton regme, through bundng, causeways, roads and changes n
dranage rates can debltate mangroves, and alter the salnty structure of
the system leadng to further deblty or mortalty. Dust from access roads
can also have an adverse mpact on vegetaton by smotherng the plant and
eventually resultng n ts death. There s also ncreased potental for the
spread of weeds and feral fauna along any new access roads constructed.
Any road upgrades wll need to consder the tdal regme and prevent any
further mpacts on the mangrove communtes.

                                                                                                           Sandplain habitat with closed grassland

34                                                                                                                                              November 2006
                                                                                                           C O S S A C K
                                                                                  Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                        site & context

                                                                                          Reader Head

                                                                                Butcher Inlet

                                             Tien Tsin

                            Goat Hill

                Mangroves      Groundwater               Steep Gradient/Rocky

                                                                                                  Plan showing Environmental Attributes

November 2006                                                                                                                             35
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

Cyclone Risk
The area of coastlne n whch Cossack s stuated s hghly susceptble to                  Between 1872 and 1898 fve recorded cyclonc events mpacted on Cossack
cyclone actvty, whch manly occurs between the months of November to                      and Jarman Island, destroyng the Pearlng Fleet and town buldngs and
Aprl.                                                                                       causng devastatng loss of lves. Followng each of these cyclones the
                                                                                             town would reconstruct tself.
The ntact hstorcal buldngs at Cossack have wthstood many severe
storms over ther lfe and ther reslence s due to the materals used n ther            The regular occurrence of cyclones has contnued over the last one hundred
constructon, desgn of the dwellng and constructon methods.                               years, the most recent beng two cyclones n 2006, Clare and Glenda,
                                                                                             resultng n waves washng over Jarman Island and water rushng up to the
Storm Surge Risk                                                                             Cossack Bond Store and past the Old School.
Cossack s hghly susceptble to ‘storm surge rsk’ n the event of a 1 n                   Should development be undertaken n Cossack, measures should be taken
100 storm. The land s relatvely low lyng wth excepton of the three-rock                 to ensure that rsk from storm surge s mnmsed. The mplementaton
outcrops/dune system. The townste runs adjacent to the northern bank                        of approprate setbacks (above 8m AHD) for development wll assst n
of the Hardng Rver, whch contans remnants of past vegetaton such as                     protectng the townste from tdal encroachment durng storm events.
mangroves. Due to the loss of large areas of the mangroves, the townste
s relatvely open to the nfluence of tdal wave acton.
Mappng of hgh water marks n recent past storm events ndcates that
storm surge has reached 7.8mAHD.

View of Settlers Beach during Cyclone Clare (March      View of the School during Cyclone Clare (March      View of the Bond Store and Wharf during Cyclone Clare (March
2006)                                                   2006)                                               2006)

36                                                                                                                                                     November 2006
                                                                                               C O S S A C K
                                                                   Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                            site & context

                                                                           Reader Head

                                                                 Butcher Inlet

                                                     Tien Tsin

                                         Goat Hill

                Area of land above the

                                                                       Plan showing Storm Surge Flood Risk and Access Attributes

November 2006                                                                                                                37
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context


Existing Services
The exstng supply s a 50mm MDPE temporary supply that s placed on the ground surface wth no protecton. The ppe s subject
to degradaton from UV and vandalsm. As the ppe s not secured t wll also exacerbate ssues wth water hammer. It s a mnmal
supply to meet exstng needs only and does not meet any Water Corporaton standards and wll need to be replaced. The exstng
concrete post stressed storage tank has a capacty of approxmately 70kL and wll be nadequate for future development. Supply
from the tank s partly above ground and s a mx of galvansed steel and MDPE.
Sewerage reticulation
The exstng dsposal system uses septc tanks and leach drans. Those closer to the nlet may be prone to ground water ngress
whch may reduce ther effectveness.
The current supply s a 33kV sngle phase overhead lne for a dstance of approxmately 5.2km from the Pont Sampson supply
man. The town s then suppled from two pole-mounted transformers through underground cable. Revew of the exstng system          Temporary Water Supply
ndcates that the supply man and underground cable wll requre upgrade to meet any further development.

Site Conditions Summary
The exstng ste condtons were overlad on the ste plan to show the
constrants and opportuntes for the future development of Cossack.
Whle development opportuntes are lmted by the storm surge rsk,
envronmental consderatons, hertage and archaeologcal consderatons,
t s these very constrants that provde the unque opportuntes for new
development and a sustanable future for Cossack.
These physcal and cultural attrbutes whch are shown mapped on the
aeral plan of Cossack have nformed the development of the Master Plan.
                                                                                                Water Tank on Tien Tsin Lookout      Overhead Power Lines

38                                                                                                                                            November 2006
                                                                  C O S S A C K
                                         Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                site & context

                Area of land above the

                                             Plan showing overlay of Cultural and Physical Attributes

November 2006                                                                                     39
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
 site & context

View of Mt Beach from Reader Head                        View of the Lazaret Leprosarium (across the Harding River) from Tien Tsin

View of the towmsite from the hills above the tramline   View of the cemetery

40                                                                                                                     November 2006
                                                                                                                C O S S A C K
                                                                                              Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                     site & context

Consultation Outcomes

Policy Framework
Arrangements for the project consultatons were consstent wth the polcy
framework of the Western Australan government, as well as the OECD
framework for ctzen engagement.
The consultatons were planned to allow ctzens to nform the masterplan
development and were desgned consderng local and specalsed
knowledge about nterest groups n relaton to the project.
The project stakeholder lst was developed from a branstormng exercse
and eventually totalled 366 ndvduals and groups n the north west of the
state and n Perth.
More nformal communty meetngs were arranged at Roebourne and
Cossack to provde opportuntes for local communty members to
contrbute ther vews. These were supported by local ndgenous people.
Complementng these occasons, structured focus groups were held n
Karratha and n Perth for a dverse range of people to contrbute ther
Wrtten notes from the meetngs and the focus groups were compled and
made avalable on the DHW webste. Addtonally, we engaged Juluwarlu
Aborgnal Corporaton’s televson unt (and tranees) to comple a vsual
record of the meetngs at Roebourne, Cossack and the stakeholder
                                                                              Cossack Bond Store (9 May 2006)
workshop on the 9 May at the Bond Store, Cossack.
The team whch worked on ths project was Helen Grzyb, Shontay Cardew
and Mary Power

                                                                              Cossack Bond Store (9 May 2006)

November 2006                                                                                                                    41
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

The Stakeholder lst was developmental n constructon and ncluded local
ndvduals and organsatons at Cossack and surroundng areas, local,
state and federal government bodes, as well as nterested professonals
and government offcers based n Perth. Cossack landowners were also
ncluded n the stakeholder lst, and whle these detals changed due to
changng land ownershp, efforts were made to ensure that ongong contact
wth stakeholders reflected these changes. People workng and lvng at
Cossack were ncluded n the lst, whch at ths stage totals 366 ndvduals
and groups.

Communication strategy                                                          Cossack (3 April 2006)

A comprehensve communcaton strategy was developed whch bult on
local knowledge from the team and wth the assstance from staff at the
Shre of Roebourne. The strategy ncluded:
     •   Drect mal/emal to dentfed stakeholders
     •   Posters n the local communty at Karratha, Cossack and Roebourne
         and surroundng areas
     •   Materal n the Shre of Roebourne drect and electronc newsletter
     •   Informaton about the project on the webstes of the Department
         of Housng and Works, the Shre of Roebourne, and the Hertage
         Councl of WA as well as the Consultng Ctzens ste.                 Cossack (3 April 2006)
     •   Press advertsements n the West Australan and the Plbara News
     •   Informal networkng n the local communty by our Karratha-based
         team member
     •   Informaton dssemnaton from the offce of the local Member of
     •   Phone/fax/mal contacts to send n nformaton/comment

The local prnt (Plbara News) and rado (ABC Northwest) press pcked up
the project and provded wrtten as well as rado ntervew opportuntes
whch helped broaden communcaton mpact durng the project.                   Cossack (3 April 2006)

42                                                                                                       November 2006
                                                                                                                      C O S S A C K
                                                                                             Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                   site & context

Consultation Events
There were nne consultaton events:
    •    Communty meetng – Roebourne Hall – 19 March
    •    Bond Store, Cossack - Sausage szzle 10.30-12.30pm 3 Aprl, and
         a stakeholders workshop on 9 May
    •    Welcome Lotteres House, Karratha
         - Hstory and envronment - 2-4.30pm, 3 Aprl
         - Toursm at Cossack 7- 9pm, 3 Aprl
         - Cossack for busnesses and famles 9.30 -11.30am 4 Aprl
    •    Conference Room, Alexander Lbrary, Perth
         - Land use at Cossack 9.30-11.30am 10 Aprl
         - Hstory, archaeology and the envronment 2-4.30pm 10 Aprl
         - Toursm at Cossack 5.30 – 7.30pm 10 Aprl
                                                                           Karratha (3 April 2006)

                                                                           At the Karratha and Perth events, a short vdeo was shown about Cossack
                                                                           whch was kndly made avalable by Juluwarlu Aborgnal Corporaton meda
                                                                           students. Also avalable for vewng at the meetngs n Karratha and Perth
                                                                           were maps of the Cossack land regon as well as photos of the damage
                                                                           caused recently at Cossack by Cyclone Glenda.
                                                                           Most of the consultancy team attended at least one of the sessons.

                                                                           Participant feedback
                                                                           Feedback from event partcpants was that they found the team nterested n
                                                                           lstenng (as compared to tellng people what was gong to happen) and n
                                                                           hearng partcpant vews, and that the process was a vald one n showng
                                                                           respect for ndvdual vews and establshng a process whch promoted
                                                                           thoughtful reflectons for Cossack’s future.
                                                                           366 ndvduals and groups contrbuted to meetngs, focus groups or made
                                                                           submssons from across Australa, and as far away as London.
Karratha (3 April 2006)

November 2006                                                                                                                                      43
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
    site & context

Community Views
The dentfed stakeholders actvely dstrbuted nformaton about the project         an opportunty for the land, for local people, and for the hstory and
and as a result of ths and the DHW webste, whch was updated to reflect              archaeology for the ste.
the project’s consultaton phase, vews were provded to the project from          •   Local people
across Australa and from as far away as London.
                                                                                       The ste s popular wth local people who use the boat ramp to access
Prevous resdents and descendants of former resdents and workers at                  martme actvtes. Local ndgenous people use the ste for fshng and
Cossack showed strong nterest n the project and provded a wealth of                 other martme purposes. Ths access needs to be contnued. The art
nformaton to support the hstorcal frame for the masterplan.                        and cultural actvtes currently n use could be expanded, for example
The wrtten and verbal contrbutons receved from nterested stakeholders             the Justce programs provde tranng at Cossack.
durng ths frst phase of the project have been analysed and emergng             •   Land use
themes dentfed.
                                                                                       Landowners took a keen nterest n the consultatons. Land-use s seen
•      Archaeology                                                                     as a careful balance between retanng the exstng values at Cossack,
       There s a substantal amount of archaeologcal materal at the ste            whle ensurng that the long awated ncrease n power, water and
       whch requres careful management, and also offers opportuntes for            related technology s provded to the ste. There was a general sense
       cultural toursm actvtes.                                                    that ant development at Cossack wll be dfferent to the development
                                                                                       style at Pont Samson.
•      Hstory
                                                                                   •   Envronmental
       There have been sequental users of Cossack who have provded a
       layered hstory to the ste – ndgenous, Asan, European. There s a           The ste has envronmental values smlar to many other stes along the
       rch source of hstorcal nformaton held at the Shre of Roebourne,           Plbara coast. However t s unque due to ts vehcular access. Future
       by famles connected wth Cossack, and wth local people. The                  use wll need to ensure that exstng values, partcularly the marne
       Morsecodans Fraternty of Western Australa are an example of a                envronment and the ground water, are retaned. Mangroves are seen
       group wshng to contrbute ther unque expertse to developng cultural       as mportant to sustanable marne anmals and, whle also a breedng
       toursm at Cossack.                                                             ground for the local sandfles, should be retaned and managed.

•      Toursm                                                                     •   Buldngs

       The ste offers a unque opportunty to enhance regonal toursm                The hertage buldngs at Cossack should be mantaned – perhaps
       nfrastructure. Current demands on accommodaton and nfrastructure             through a levy on commercal actvtes at the ste. The buldngs would
       by the boomng resource ndustry wll put pressure on any new toursm           be enhanced by approprate use.
       faclty. New developments need to ensure that exstng busnesses          •   Communty
       wll be enhanced, not exposed to ncreased competton. Indgenous
       people were postve about beng able to contrbute to mproved                 The local communty s keen to see that Cossack’s unque features are
       economc development at Cossack through provson of traneeshps               retaned.
       and cultural toursm. Toursm, partcularly eco toursm, wll provde           ‘Do nothng’ s not an opton.

44                                                                                                                                           November 2006
                                                                                                                            C O S S A C K
                                                                                                Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                         site & context

The Planning Context                                                                   features,
                                                                                  . Ownershp, ttle descrpton, area, encumbrances and any legal
Statutory Framework
                                                                                  v. Exstng and proposed servces ncludng water, sewerage, energy,
                                                                                      communcatons, dranage and catchment consderatons,
                                                                                  v.   Exstng places and features of hertage and/or cultural sgnfcance,
The Cossack Townste falls under the Shre of Roebourne Town Plannng                  ncludng natural landscapes, flora and fauna n addton to bult
Scheme No.8 (the Scheme). Under the Scheme, a porton of the townste                  structures and other modfed envronments,
s zoned for ‘Urban Development’ and ‘Toursm’ purposes. Local Reserve            v. Locaton and densty of housng areas, ncludng lot and dwellng
- ‘Conservaton Recreaton and Natural Landscapes’, affects the majorty of           yeld, estmated populaton outcomes, net resdental densty and
the townste. Under the Scheme the whole of the area s dentfed as beng           detaled subdvson standards relatng to solar access, effcent use
subject to ‘Storm Surge Rsk Specal Control Area’.                                   of water resources, desgn features and densty ratonale,
                                                                                  v. Road layout and traffc assessment, communal and ncdental
‘Urban Development’ s defned under the Scheme as:                                    parkng areas, pedestran/cycle network/underpasses,
development which is undertaken by multiple land owners of lots in an             v. Publc open space and recreaton provson and relatonshp to
area set aside for the range of uses associated with urban areas such as                natural features,
residential, commercial, community, roads and open spaces.                        x. Comprehensve dranage systems fort stormwater runoff and
Under Part 5 of the Scheme the followng objectves are outlned for                  natural dranage lnes,
Cossack:                                                                          x.   Commercal and communty centres and facltes ncludng
    a. Preserve the hertage values of Cossack.
                                                                                  x. Lot layout, major buldngs and landscapng proposals,
    b. Develop the Cossack Town Centre nto a “lvng” town offerng an
       alternatve resdental settng based on ts coastal and hstorcal        x. The method of carryng out the development ncludng the projected
       values.                                                                         tmes of completon or each stage,
    c.    Develop Settlers Beach nto a tourst and recreatonal node.            x. Other nformaton as may be requred by the Councl.
Part 6.4 of the Scheme outlnes the requrements for the subdvson or       The Councl s to request the Western Australan Plannng Commsson
development of land wthn the ‘Urban Development ‘ zone. Before any          (WAPC) to adopt the Development Plan as the bass for approval of
subdvson or development s undertaken n the ‘Urban Development’           subdvson applcatons wthn the area covered by the plan. Should Councl
zone, a Development Plan s requred to be submtted to Councl for ts       see ft, advertsng of the Development Plan may be advertsed to the publc
consderaton.                                                                for comment. The advertsng perod shall be of no less than 14 days as
                                                                              requred under Part 4.3 of the Scheme.
The Development Plan s to outlne:
                                                                              Part 6.9 of the Scheme consders hertage matters that may affect a subject
    .    Landform, topography, landscape, vegetaton and sols of the
          area,                                                               ste. The purpose and ntent of Part 6.9 s to ensure the conservaton of
                                                                              any place, buldng, object or structure of hertage value s acknowledged
    .   Locaton, exstng roads, land uses and surroundng land uses and   and protected. Where a Development Plan s to be prepared, Councl shall

November 2006                                                                                                                                             45
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

requre the hertage values and character of the subject area to be placed        Heritage
n the ‘Inventory of Hertage Places and Buldngs’ as requred under Part
                                                                                  The Cossack Townste s entered n the State Regster of Hertage Places
6.9.7 and 6.9.8 of the Scheme.
                                                                                  under the Heritage of Western Australia Act 1990.
Under Part 7.5, the followng s applcable wth regards to Storm Surge Rsk
                                                                                  The objectves of the Hertage of Western Australa Act 1990 are as
     .    When consderng applcatons for plannng approval, Councl shall
           have regard to nformaton about the land prone to 1 n 100 year           •   To dentfy, conserve and where approprate enhance those places
           storm surge events and may permt, wth or wthout condtons, or              wthn Western Australa whch are of sgnfcance to the cultural
           refuse proposals at t’s dscreton.                                           hertage;

     .   When consderng applcatons for plannng approval, Councl               •   In relaton to any area, to facltate development that s n harmony
           shall consult the relevant agences regardng the most up-to-date              wth the cultural hertage values of that area; and
           nformaton avalable about potental storm surge events that may          •   To promote publc awareness as to the cultural hertage, generally.
           affect the proposals subject to applcaton.
                                                                                  Under the Heritage of Western Australia Act 1990, Local and State
     . Development wthn the Resdental, Commerce or health, welfare
          and Communty categores n the zonng table s not permtted wthn    Government Agences are requred to seek the advce of the Hertage
          an area known to be subject to 1 n 100 year storm surge events.        Councl f development of a place that s entered n the Regster s beng
          Councl may approve other redevelopment categores subject to           consdered. Work may not proceed before advce has been receved and
          consderng:                                                            the work must comply wth the advce.
                   v.   The senstvty of the proposal to rsk;
                   v.    Protecton measures to be constructed; and               Environmental
                   v.   Socal and cultural values.                              Envronmental protecton n Western Australa s supported by legslaton
Under Part 7.6, the followng requrements and gudelnes are applcable to       and government polcy. Key legslaton ncludes the Environmental
the Cossack Hstorcal Town:                                                      Protection Act 1986. The Envronmental Protecton Authorty expects land
                                                                                  managers, decson-makng authortes and consultants to developers
      •    All applcatons for plannng approval, wthn the boundares of the   wll take responsblty n the frst nstance for pursung envronmentally
           Cossack Hertage precnct regstered under Part 5 of the Hertage
           Act of Western Australa 1990, shall be referred to the Hertage       sustanable development.
           Councl of Western Australa.                                          The Environmental Guidance for Planning and Development (Draft, 2005)
      •    In consderng applcatons for planng approval wthn the Cossack    dentfes a broad range of ssues to consder ncludng envronmental
           Hstorcal Town, the Councl shall have regard for the:                plannng bophyscal factors, polluton management and socal surroundngs
                    .    Cossack Hstorcal Town Polcy,                        such as cultural hertage and vsual qualtes. It states that:
                    .   Cossack Desgn Gudelnes, and                            There is an expectation that the protection of landscape qualities and
                    v.    Cossack Development Plan.                                 features will be considered during land use planning processes. To do
                                                                                     this it is necessary . . .to identify the key values and issues related to
      •    All development wthn the Cossack Hstorcal Townste shall be           landscapes and landforms.
           connected to three-phase-power, scheme water and effluent

46                                                                                                                                           November 2006
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                                                                                                   Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                            site & context

State Coastal Planning Policy                                                     oysters, sea turtle, dugong, goanna, emu, bush turkey, echdna, porcupne,
                                                                                  wtchetty grub, swan), lmted n the case of water fauna to coastal waters
The State Coastal Plannng Polcy was prepared under Secton 5AA of the
                                                                                  landward of the low water mark and nland water courses; (g) A rght to
Town Planning and Development Act 1928 and gazetted n 2003.
                                                                                  forage for and take flora (ncludng tmber logs, branches, bark and leaves,
It recognses that the Western Australa coast s one of the State’s greatest     gum, wax, Aborgnal tobacco, frut, peas, pods, melons, bush cucumber,
assets n terms of ts envronmental, economc, socal and cultural resources.    seeds, nuts, grasses, potatoes, wld onon and honey); (h) A rght to take
It states that                                                                    black, yellow, whte and red ochre; () A rght to take water for drnkng and
                                                                                  domestc use; (j) A rght to cook on the land ncludng lght a fre for ths
   Planning for coastal land is about balancing . . often competing needs
                                                                                  purpose, lmted to the proxmty of rver courses; (k) A rght to protect and
   and desires in a way that takes into account the values of the coast.
                                                                                  care for stes and objects of sgnfcance n the Ngarluma Natve Ttle Area
   These values include its scenic, aesthetic and ecological qualities,
                                                                                  (ncludng a rght to mpart tradtonal knowledge concernng the area, whle
   its recreational opportunities, and its social, indigenous, cultural and
                                                                                  on the area, and otherwse, to succeedng generatons and others so as to
   economic importance.
                                                                                  perpetuate the benefts of the area and warn aganst behavour whch may
Ths polcy also ncludes restrctons on development n cyclone prone            result n harm, but not ncludng a rght to control access or use of the land
areas.                                                                            by others).

Aboriginal Heritage                                                               On the 2nd May 2005, Justce Ncholson determned that the Natve Ttle
                                                                                  rghts and nterests of the Ngaluma people are to be held by a Prescrbed
Registered Sites                                                                  Body Corporate (PBC). The determnaton reflects a seres of decsons
A Ste Regster search was conducted of the Department of Indgenous              handed down by Justce Ncholson n July 2003, December 2003, July 2004,
Affars Hertage and Culture Dvson database n order to dentfy prevously    October 2004 and March 2005. The regstered Natve Ttle Body Corporate
regstered Aborgnal stes wthn the regon of the Project Areas. Ths Ste     of the Ngaluma People s the Ngarluma Aboriginal Corporation.
Regster search ndcated that there were 8 prevously regstered stes
wthn a regon that ncludes the proposed Project Areas.
Native Title
The Ngaluma People hold non-exclusive natve ttle rghts and nterests
n relaton to the Ngaluma Natve Ttle Area. These rghts comprse: (a)
A rght to access (ncludng to enter, travel over and reman); (b) A rght to
engage n rtual and ceremony (ncludng to carry out and partcpate n rtual
practces); (c) A rght to camp and buld shelters (ncludng boughsheds,
mas and humpes), lmted to the proxmty of rver courses wthn the
Ngaluma Natve Ttle Area, and to lve there temporarly as part of campng
or for the purpose of buldng a shelter; (d) A rght to fsh from the waters,
lmted to the coastal areas landward of the low water mark, and nland
water courses; (e) A rght to collect and forage for bush medcne; (f) A
rght to hunt and forage for and take fauna (ncludng fsh, shell fsh, crab,

November 2006                                                                                                                                                47
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

Land Ownership
The current land ownershp pattern at Cossack comprses prmarly Vacant
Crown Land wth smaller portons of Leased (to Shre of Roebourne),
Reserve and Prvate Land owners.
The followng table ndcates the percentages of the varous land tenures.

               Vacant                                        Prvate Land
                               Reserve        Leased
               Crown Land                                    Owners

 Number of
               235             49             18             22
 % of Total
               72.5%           15%            5.6%           6.8%

Sale of Private Land (2000- 2005)
From 2000 to 2004, ten prvate lots changed hands for prces rangng from
$4,000 to $57,000 a lot.
In 2005, three lots changed hands n August ($195,000), September
($225,000) and October ($150,000). The lot sold n August 2005, had
prevously changed hands for $10,000 n 2000.
Ths ndcates that land speculaton was partcularly actve durng the later
months of 2005, despte the fact that none of the lots could be developed
for housng or any other purpose.

48                                                                              November 2006
                                                              C O S S A C K
                                  Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                            site & context

                Plan showing the current land ownership pattern at Cossack (2006)

November 2006                                                                           49
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

Demographic Patterns and Land Use
                                                                                                            Shire of Roebourne Persons
Regional Growth Rates
Snce 1981 the populaton of the Shre of Roebourne has fluctuated
between 14,000 and 16,000 people. There has not been an hstorc long
term growth trend, rather a fluctuaton around an average of around 15,000         14000
people. Wth the current resources boom, the populaton has ncreased              12000
over the past few years and s currently growng qute rapdly.
DPI (WA Tomorrow) s projectng a populaton ncrease to 20,000 by 2021.            8000
Ths s almost entrely dependent on the contnuaton of a strong demand for
resources, but wll be underpnned to the extent that downstream processng         6000
projects are establshed. Despte many plans, these have proved to be very          4000
dffcult to establsh – there s currently only one such project (the Burrup       2000
ammona plant).
The regon has had consstently hgh economc actvty, ncludng NW Shelf                    1976      1981       1986       1991       1996     2001   2004
related and mnng constructon actvty, for the past 30 years. Whle new
constructon actvty and long term projects are planned and underway n         Source DPI
the regon there s no guarantee ths wll result n substantal and long term
populaton growth.                                                                             Shire of Roebourne Persons and Projected Persons

Therefore, whle the short and medum term populaton trend for the Shre s
for growth, towns wth an economy narrowly based on mnng and resources
operatons (as are the towns of Karratha, Damper and Wckham) are
vulnerable to perods of low growth or declnng populatons when resources       20000
demand declnes.
These fluctuatons n populaton growth are reflected n housng demand.          15000
Currently the demand for accommodaton s hgh.


                                                                                           1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2004 2006 2011 2016 2021

                                                                                 Source DPI and WA Tomorrow (WAPC)

50                                                                                                                                                 November 2006
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                                                                                                              Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                                                site & context

Current Population                                                                    Household Type / Family Type
Age Distribution                                                                      Ths s reflected n the household types, wth a hgh proporton of couple
                                                                                      famles wth chldren. There s also a lower than average proporton of
Compared wth the State average, the Shre of Roebourne has a hgh                    sngle person households, probably reflectng the low proporton of people
proporton of people n the 30 – 44 age group and chldren under 14, wth a           n older age groups.
very low proporton of people over 60.
                                                                                                                              Household Types

                    Age Profile - Roebourne Shire (2001)                                50%
  35%                                                                                   35%
  25%                                                                                   20%
  20%                                                                                   10%
  15%                                                                                    0%
                                                                                              Couple famly   Couple famly    One parent   Other famly   Lone person     Group
  10%                                                                                          w chldren      w/o chldren      famly                    households    households

                                                                                                                          Roebourne Shre   Western Australa
                                                                                      Source: ABS Census 2001
         0 to 14    15 to 29        30 to 44       45 to 59          60 to 74   75+

                               Roebourne Shre   Western Australa

Source: ABS Census 2001

November 2006                                                                                                                                                                         51
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

Marital Status
                                                                                               Roebourne Individual Income Vs WA Individual Income
There s a slghtly hgher proporton of males that have never marred than
average, ndcatng that lone person households are more lkely to be           25%

consst of younger sngle males than average.

                 Marital Status - Proportion of Total Population
  15%                                                                                 Negatve/Nl   $1-$199      $200-$399    $400-$599    $600-$799     $800-$999     $1,000-   $1,500 or
                                                                                         ncome                                                                         $1,499      more

                                                                                                                        Roebourne (S)      Western Australa
                                                                               Source: ABS Census 2001
                      Marred                                  Never Marred

                  Male Roebourne    Male WA    Female Roebourne    Female WA

                                                                                                               Roebourne Localities Individual Income

Source: ABS Census 2001                                                         45%

Income                                                                          30%
Indvdual ncomes are hgh, wth a much hgher proporton than average         20%
earnng more than $1,000 per week.                                              15%
The dstrbuton of ths ncome s uneven around the Shre, wth a very
hgh proporton of low ncome ndvduals n the town of Roebourne (more
than 65% less than $400 per week), wth hgh proportons of hgh ncomes              Negatve/Nl   $1-$199      $200-$399    $400-$599   $600-$799    $800-$999       $1,000-   $1,500 or
n Damper, Karratha, Wckham and Pont Samson.                                         ncome                                                                          $1,499      more

                                                                                         Pont Samson (L)       Wckham       Roebourne (L)     Damper      Karratha    Western Australa

                                                                               Source: ABS Census 2001

52                                                                                                                                                                      November 2006
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                                                                                                                                                          Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                                                                                         site & context

Employment Types                                                                                                                        Location Mobility
The economc actvty n the regon supports hgh proportons of                                                                        Except for those n the town Roebourne, the populaton s moble.
tradespersons and producton and transport workers, wth lower than State                                                               Approxmately two-thrds of people n the Shre were lvng n a dfferent
average proportons of managers and admnstrators and professonals.                                                                   locaton 5 years prevous to the 2001 Census.

                                          Occupations Roebourne Vs WA                                                                                                Same Address 5 Yrs Ago

 25%                                                                                                                                      60%

 20%                                                                                                                                      50%


        Managers & Professionals     Associate Tradespersons & Advanced Intermed Clerical, Intermediate Elementary Labourers &            0%
       Administrators              Professionals Related Wrkrs Clerical & Sales & Service Production & Clerical,Sales & Related Wrkrs
                                                               Service Wrkrs  Wrkrs      Transport Wrkrs Service Wrkrs                          Wckham   Karratha     Pont      Roebourne    Damper   Western     Roebourne
                                                                                                                                                                     Samson (L)     Shre                Australa    (Town)
                                                Roebourne (S)         Western Australa

Source: ABS Census 2001                                                                                                                 Source: ABS Census 2001

November 2006                                                                                                                                                                                                                    53
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

                                                                                  Demographic Change
Proportion of Retirees                                                            WA Tomorrow projectons for the Shre show ncreases n older age groups,
Not only does the Shre have a low proporton of people over 55, a lower          wth some ncrease n over 55 year age groups.
than average proporton are not n the labour force (NILF), resultng n a very
low number of retrees lvng n the Shre. The pattern for people workng on                   WA Tommorrow Population Projections Roebourne Shire
major mnng projects has been not to retre n the Plbara, but elsewhere
and, anecdotally, t s only now that a number of people wth long term            5000
regonal connectons (e.g. long term small busness people) are choosng           4500
to reman n the regon as they retre.                                            3500
                              Not n labour     Total Persons     % NILF by        2500
  Western Australia           force (NILF)      by Age            Age              2000
 Persons: 55-64 yrs           75,903            167,027           45.4%            1500
 Persons:65 & over            171,401           204,676           83.7%            1000
 Total Persons 55        &
 Over                         247,304           371,703           66.5%                     0 to 14   15 to 24   25 to 24     35 to 44    45 to 54      55 to 64   65 to 74    75 plus
Source: ABS Census 2001
                                                                                                                            2006   2011   2016       2021
                             Not n labour     Total Persons     % NILF by
  Roebourne Shire            force (NILF)      by Age            Age              Source: WAPC WA Tomorrow 2005
 Persons: 55-64 yrs          494               1,115             44.3%
 Persons:65 & over           554               717               77.3%
 Total Persons 55        &
 Over                        1,048             1,832             57.2%                                                Population By Locality
Source: ABS Census 2001
The Shre of Roebourne, compared wth the average for Western Australa,
has                                                                                10,000

     •   A low proporton of people over 60;                                        8,000

     •   A hgh proporton of famles wth chldren;                               6,000

     •   Generally hgh ndvdual ncomes (except for the town of                  4,000
     •   A low proporton of retrees
     •   A transtory populaton                                                                Census 1991           Census 1996            Census 2001             Projected 2006
     •   Hgh proportons of tradespersons and producton and transport
                                                                                                 Karratha   Damper    Roebourne    Wckham      Pont Samson       Balance of Shre

54                                                                                                                                                                 November 2006
                                                                                                                              C O S S A C K
                                                                                                Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                            site & context

Settlement Patterns                                                           Property Market
Populaton changes over tme n four man localtes are shown n the table   The property market s charactersed by current hgh demand for
and graph below:                                                              accommodaton, partcularly rental accommodaton n Karratha, largely
                                                                              resultng from the resources boom. General advertsed prces for Karratha
 LOCATION          Census        Census         Census          Projected
                                                                2006          Houses:           $500,000 – 700,000
                   1991          1996           2001
                                                                              Vlla unts:      $350,000 – 400,000
 Karratha          11,325        10,057         10,776          12,756
 Damper           1,810         1,424          1,490           1,580         Apartments:       from $150,000
 Roebourne         1,213         954            946             970           Newly released vacant land s sold quckly. There s a wde varety n vacant
 Wckham           1,973         1,649          1,731           1,775         land prces. LandCorp developments are pegged at $160,000 to $200,000
 Pont Samson      180           256            312             360           per lot, although the ‘natural’ market prce s probably a lttle hgher than that.
 Balance     of    790           610            716             735           One block on the beachfront at Pont Samson has sold for approxmately
 Shre                                                                        $500,000, although that s an unusual ste and not representatve of the
 Shire Total       17,291        14,954         15,974          18,176        general market. Nevertheless, t does ndcate a small market for very well
Source: Shre of Roebourne                                                    located property.

Ths shows the contnung promnence of Karratha as the major settlement.
The supply of prvately owned vacant land wthn each of the settlements
s lmted and much of the land surroundng them s crown land or pastoral
lease. The State government thus s the man nfluence n the release of
new land and the locaton of any populaton growth.
The prmary economc base of each the settlements s stll evdent:
    •   Karratha        Government admnstraton and servce centre
    •   Damper         Accommodaton for mnng operatons
    •   Wckham         Accommodaton for mnng operatons
    •   Roebourne       Indgenous communty
    •   Pont Samson Fshng, toursm and retrement accommodaton
Any new settlement at Cossack must have ts own economc base, or
reason for exstence.

November 2006                                                                                                                                                 55
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

Indigenous Employment and Training
Recent Research
Partcpaton n the Plbara economy by Indgenous people s an mportant         sector (ncludng Aborgnal enterprses) wll account for at least half of all
ssue, wth the Indgenous populaton rsng, along wth expectatons about       Aborgnal people n manstream work by 2011.
the role that Indgenous people wll play n the manstream economy.
In 2004-2005, Plbara Iron commssoned the Centre for Aborgnal                 Opportunities
Economc Polcy Research (CAEPR) at the Australan Natonal Unversty,
to nvestgate the socal and economc landscape of the Plbara regon,           Cossack presents an opportunty for ndgenous partcpaton n employment
partcularly n relaton to Aborgnal people, and the mpact of the Plbara      and tranng. Its locaton n close proxmty to Roebourne, whch has a large
mnng boom. The research provdes a baselne aganst whch the future            ndgenous populaton makes t an deal ste for ndgenous partcpaton.
outcomes from agreements and regonal ntatves mght be gauged. The            The potental cultural, art and toursm enterprses can buld on exstng
research combnes, for the frst tme, statstcal nformaton wth qualtatve   opportuntes.
nsghts from Aborgnal people lvng n the Plbara.
The research shows that Aborgnal people n the Plbara reman severely
dsadvantaged, wth reduced lfe expectancy, hgh unemployment, low
educaton levels, poor housng standards and dsproportonate crme rates
and predcted populaton ncrease. Despte past, present and planned
economc development, the Plbara has a serous problem - around 15
per cent of ts resdent adult populaton, representng the majorty of ts
Aborgnal populaton, remans heavly relant on government payments for
ncome, detached from the labour market and ll-equpped to partcpate n
The Aborgnal populaton s projected to rse to 8,515 by 2016, sgnallng a
30 per cent ncrease over 15 years. On current ndcatons, ths means that
the Aborgnal populaton wll represent 18 per cent of the Plbara total by
2016. A large proporton of the Aborgnal communty wll be aged between
5 and 14.
In 2001, only 30 per cent of Aborgnal adults were employed n non-
Communty Development Employment Project (manstream) jobs, wth 12
per cent n CDEP schemes. Anywhere between sx and 18 per cent were
unemployed, whle 50 per cent were not n the labour force. Plbara Iron
alone accounts drectly for around 18 per cent of Aborgnal manstream
jobs, ndrectly ths could be approachng 25 per cent. The Plbara resources
                                                                                  Bhujee-Nhoor-Pu Art Studio and Gallery at Cossack

56                                                                                                                                            November 2006
                                                                                                                               C O S S A C K
                                                                                                 Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                            site & context

Archaeological Opportunities                                                    Ths ste covers a large area along the tdal flats extendng approxmately
                                                                                200m east-west and 250m north-south. The most promnent features of
Owng to the dversty and abundance of the archaeologcal materal on the      ths market garden are a seres of sx below ground stone and cement pts.
Cossack Pennsula there are a number of research opportuntes that can         These pts range n sze from 2.2 x 2m to 3.8 x 2.5m wth a depth rangng
further our knowledge of Cossacks’ past as well as testng theoretcal and      between 85cm-1m, and were constructed from local stones and volcanc
methodologcal approaches. There s a dearth of robust archaeologcal           rock from the adjacent Mt. Beach and rendered wth lme mortar. Some of
theory and method n Australan hstorcal archaeology, so further research     the stone pts had metal ppes extendng from them nto what would have
and expermentaton n ths area would prove extremely valuable.                been the felds. These feld areas had been retaned wth corrugated ron
                                                                                sheetng, some of whch have remaned n stu. Water soaks and slabs
Experimental Archaeology                                                        were assocated wth some of the pts, suggestng the water was pulled or
                                                                                pumped from the soaks and stored n the pts.
There s a good opportunty to undertake expermental archaeology n
                                                                                The surfcal dstrbuton of archaeologcal features of ths ste have been
Cossack. Expermental Archaeology s a recognsed approach that has
                                                                                mapped n detal, and a number of functonal hypothess have been
great value n helpng archaeologsts to understand and nterpret the
                                                                                forwarded, so there s suffcent documentaton to plan a reconstructve
archaeologcal evdence.
                                                                                experment. It s recommended that the experment be prmarly amed
The Dctonary of terms and technques n archaeology1 descrbes                at reconstructon of the ste as a workng market garden n the followng
expermental archaeology as,                                                    stages:
           attempts at the reconstruction of past                                   •   Archaeologcal excavatons to reveal the subterranean pts and the
           processes, the testing of hypothesis about                                   soak wells to ther orgnal levels.
           the way in which man dealt with the problems
                                                                                    •   Archaeologcal probng to reveal the full extent of the rrgaton and
           of subsistence and technology. The term is
                                                                                        ppng system.
           normally used only for those experiments
           which deal with material culture, such as                                •   Reconstructon of the retanng walls of the feld wth corrugated
           industry, the building of structures, mining and                             ron sheetng.
           crop processing.
                                                                                    •   Clear the felds of wld grass cover and treat and fertlze the sols n
                                                                                        the same manner as the Asan Market gardeners would have. (Ths
Cossacks’ Chinese Market Gardens                                                        may be a bt senstve by today’s standards, because the Asans
                                                                                        would have used human and grey waste).
The Chnese market garden located on the tdal flats at Cossack,
offers enough archaeologcal and oral hstorcal evdence to attempt an             •   Test a varety of crude pumpng and rrgaton systems to extract
expermental reconstructon. Ths experment would not only yeld valuable              water from the soaks and water the felds. It would be nterestng to
nformaton for archaeologcal research but also provde key nformaton for            know whether the Asans found a way to obtan suffcent amounts of
wder research nterest such as, cultvaton, water harvestng, and ard zone           fresh water, or they mantaned salne tolerant plants. It s estmated
management.                                                                             that the subterranean stone pts and the metallc contaners could
                                                                                        hold approxmately 35,000 ltres of water.
1     Chapman, S 1980 A Dctonary of Terms and Technques n Archaeology.
      Phadon Press: Oxford

November 2006                                                                                                                                                 57
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

     •   Plant the speces noted as beng used by the oral hstorcal            Owng to the consderable dune movement along rver fore dune at
         nformants. The speces known to have been grown by the Chnese         Cossack, partly caused by cyclonc actvty, one may postulate that a
         n the Plbara are carrots, pumpkns, cabbage beans, Chnese            large porton of the early Asan hertage les beneath the sands. The type
         cabbage, cucumber, pumpkns, tomatoes, turnps and beetroot.2           of artefactual materal present n the Chnatown area comprses runs of
                                                                                 domestc structures, ceramcs, bottles, ammunton, jewellery, domestc
The man Chnese market opposte Chnatown would also be an excellent
                                                                                 and ndustral mplements, agrcultural archtecture and wells.
ste for archaeologcal expermentaton. Ths ste complex covers a 100m
x100m flat area, surrounded by hlls leadng to Mt. Beach. The garden has        Prevous archaeologcal research on the Asan quarter of Cossack,
been terraced by a dry stonewall, that was constructed from stone quarred       conducted by J. McIlroy, located a number of structural features. These
from Mt. Beach and the nearby hlls. The retaned area contans a number         ncluded walls and stone scatters, nterpreted as remans of varous small
of archaeologcal features assocated wth gardenng and water harvestng.       domestc buldngs constructed from the local stone, brck or beach rock.
The crop areas wthn the enclosure are located n the northern part of the      The foundatons of a number of buldngs reman ntact, such as the runs
complex near the hlls, and have been retaned by partally bured corrugated    of the Muramats dwellng, home of the well-known Japanese merchant
ron sheetng. Water channels have been constructed on the hll to channel       famly. Corrugated ron sheetng was used extensvely n the constructon
water runoff down the hll nto catchment bowls constructed nto the retaner    of the shanty type dwellngs, lnngs of wells and as fences. Ths materal
wall at the base of the Hll. These are clear examples of harvestng water       s qute durable, and the hstorc town s consequently lttered wth ths
from the hlls nto the crop area.                                               ron sheetng. Also lttered throughout the area n and around Chnatown
                                                                                 are numerous bottle and ceramc shard mddens, characterzed by the
Ths complex also has a subterranean pt lned wth lme mortar wth a
                                                                                 presence of Chnese hgh fred ceramc materal, partcularly the dstnct
ppe extendng to a cement slab, possbly the base of a Tank stand. It s
                                                                                 green Celadon ware and blue and whte ware see followng Photo.
suggested that the tank harvested the ranfall that was then pped to the
water storage pt n order to water the nearby crop areas.
As wth the market garden on the tdal flats, the surfcal dstrbuton of
archaeologcal features of ths ste have been mapped n detal, and a number
of functonal hypothess forwarded, so there s suffcent documentaton to
plan a reconstructve experment. It s recommended that the experment be
prmarly amed at reconstructon of the ste as a workng market garden n
a smlar way to the market garden n the tdal flats.

Cultural Tourist Based Archaeological Excavations
The area of Chnatown and the adjacent Muramats shop and house would
be a good area for toursm based archaeologcal excavatons. The early           Artefactual materal erodng from an unstable dune at Cossack Chnatown, 1993.
Asan mgrants to the North West of Australa lved n shanty type settlements
on the frnges of the town centres. These settlements comprsed a varety        Ths type of ste complex provdes a unque and nterestng ste complex n
of domestc and communal structures ncludng humpes, stores, laundres,        an easly accessble pcturesque locaton. The area of Chnatown s located
bathhouses and relgous structures.                                             just east of the Cossack Hstorc precnct area on the Hardng Rver fore
                                                                                 dune. It s walkng dstance from the Cossack back packers and shop.
	       			Oral	history	of	Jack	Stove	1996,	See	Chapter	4	and	Appendix	4

58                                                                                                                                            November 2006
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Rock Art Tours                                                                   Ths stuaton s very costly to Local, State and Federal Governments as
                                                                                 well as development proponents; and the unfortunate consequence s that
There are a number of rock art areas on the Cossack Pennsula, the most          only mnmal research s conducted. Moreover, the publc, who ultmately
sgnfcant beng Readers Head. These areas have only been prelmnarly         foot the bll, are excluded from a process whch should be of great socal
surveyed and t s predcted that the rock art s more extensve than            nterest.
prevously noted. The Cossack rock art may have some afflaton to the
world Hertage Lsted Burrup Pennsula Rock Art.                                 By nvtng the publc to pay a fee to drectly partcpate n partcular projects,
                                                                                 a great deal more scentfc research can be undertaken. A number of places
Aborgnal Rock art are popular tourst destnatons, and Reader Head s         of Cultural Hertage Sgnfcance are currently threatened by forces of nature
located n an easly accessble pcturesque locaton.                            and urban expanson, yet no agency has the funds to conduct more than
The possblty of conductng rock art tours n Cossack should be coordnated    rudmentary assessments.
and run by the local Aborgnal Communty.                                       These ventures would need to be drected by fully qualfed Archaeologsts
                                                                                 who have extensve experence n Archaeologcal consultaton. The
Archaeological Reconstructions                                                   support staff can nclude traned educators, research assstants and feld
                                                                                 techncans. In the case of Aborgnal stes, the local Aborgnal Communty
There s enough archaeologcal, archval and photographc and oral               representatves should have nvolvement.
hstorcal evdence to undertake an nterpretatve reconstructon n part of a
                                                                                 Under the drecton of these traned professonals fee payng members
number of buldngs wthn the European sector.
                                                                                 of the publc wll assst n the undertakng of archaeologcal survey and
Archaeologcal Reconstructons are seen as part of the expermental              excavaton projects. Ths publc assstance comprses hands on feld work
archaeologcal sphere. There have been a number of experments conducted         such as supervsed survey and excavaton work. All detaled recordng wll
over the years such as rebuldng and salng boats, rebuldng huts and         be undertaken by traned staff to ensure that absolute scentfc control s
dwellngs, cookng and processng foods and agrcultural technques. There       mantaned. The publc may also partcpate n archval research and the
has been a successful reconstructon of an ron-age town n Buster Hll,         complaton of oral hstores.
Hampshre England, based on the excavated ground.

Cultural Tourism Archaeology - The Concept
Cultural Toursm Archaeology ams to foster publc partcpaton n the
conservaton and research of places of cultural hertage sgnfcance.
Ths type of approach promotes a form of cultural toursm whch helps to
create a more self suffcent hertage ndustry, for essental research and
fundng s rased through publc partcpaton n Archaeologcal surveys and
Currently, all archaeologcal research s conducted exclusvely by
professonal consultants, or academc wth lttle or no publc partcpaton.

November 2006                                                                                                                                                    59
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
site & context

Tourism Analysis                                                             The data and nformaton collected formed the bass for the development
                                                                             of Australa’s North West Destnaton Development Strategy “An Acton
In 2004 Toursm Western Australa (TWA) ntroduced a range of changes        Plan Approach” 2001-2014. The TWA Strategc Plan (2003-2008) earler
to the structure of regonal toursm reducng the 11 regonal toursm        dentfed the need to develop and promote toursm around key ‘conc’
assocatons to fve –                                                       experences.

     •	   Australa’s North West                                             Therefore the 2004 research was desgned to help wth the dentfcaton of
                                                                             ‘conc’ experences and the product and nfrastructure gaps whch surround
     •	   Australa’s Coral Coast                                            these experences.
     •	   Experence Perth
     •	   Australa’s Golden Outback
     •	   Australa’s South West
Australa’s North West combnes both the Plbara and Kmberley regons
and ncludes eght local government authortes.
The Central Plbara Coast combnes Karratha, Damper, Damper
Archpelago, Roebourne, Pont Samson, Wckham and Cossack.
Descrbed as where the Outback meets the Islands, the Central Plbara
Coast provdes vstors wth mmense opportuntes to experence nature
at ts best, both on the water around the Damper Archpelago and Pont
Samson or further nland through the Ranges and the mystcal oass of
Mllstream – Chchester Natonal Park.
The Pont Samson Pennsula wth ts prstne beaches, beautful coral
grounds and abundant fsh attracts large numbers of fshng and dvng
enthusasts. Hstorc buldngs and hertage trals through Cossack and
Roebourne provde vstors wth a genune and colourful nsght nto the
hardshps and successes of the frst settlers on the Plbara coast.

Regional Tourism Perceptions
In 2004 Toursm Western Australa (TWA) conducted qualtatve research
to dentfy product and nfrastructure gaps n Australa’s North West. The
research ncluded ntervews wth leadng toursm ndustry operators and
experenced WA ntrastate, nterstate and nternatonal travellers.

                                                                                                                     Exploring the Pilbara Coast

60                                                                                                                                      November 2006
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                                                                                                        Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                            site & context

Iconic Holiday Experiences – Consumer Perceptions                                    Iconic Holiday Experiences – Operator Perceptions
The prmary strengths and motvators for why toursts vst Australa’s North        Specfc destnatons and conc experences n Australa’s North West
West centre on the followng core perceptons:                                       were hghly mentoned and often top of mnd for operators. The key areas
                                                                                     mentoned as possble ‘conc’ experences ncluded:
    •	   Rugged outback – adventure, hard to get to, wde open spaces.
                                                                                          •	   Broome
    •	   Scenery – beautful natural attractons (eg gorges, beaches, natural
         formatons).                                                                     •	   Mtchell Falls
    •	   Isolaton/untouched – lack of people, n the mddle of the outback,              •	   Kununurra
         locatons few people have ever been to.
                                                                                          •	   Bungle Bungles
    •	   Relaxaton – atmosphere whch helps people unwnd yet stll
                                                                                          •	   Gbb Rver Road
         delvers actvtes and entertanment.
                                                                                          •	   Newman
                                                                                          •	   Rudall Rver Natonal Park
In partcular both ntrastate and overseas toursts felt that the North West’s
most ‘conc’ experences were:                                                           •	   Karjn Natonal Park
    •	   Rugged outback experence.                                                       •	   Onslow’s Archpelago
    •	   Comfortable scenery experence.                                             The North West adventure experence was perceved to be one of the
                                                                                     most recognsed and unque ‘conc’ experences for Western Australa.
Key destnatons dscussed n the regon ncluded:
                                                                                     The adventure experence encapsulates 4WD adventure, unsealed roads,
    •	   Broome                                                                      rugged outback, remoteness and hdden nature (lke gorges).
    •	   Karjn Natonal Park
    •	   Kununurra
    •	   Bungle Bungles
    •	   Gbb Rver Road

                                                                                 Snorkelling at Ningaloo Reef                   Karijini National Park

November 2006                                                                                                                                             61
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
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Icon Gaps in Australia’s North West                                                       •	   Atmosphere n the North West s generally postve. Gaps related
                                                                                               to certan locatons whch have ndgenous ssues, the worst
Whlst paragraphs 1.3 onwards refer to consumer and operator perceptons                       examples beng Halls Creek and Ftzroy Crossng. These ssues
regardng the entre North West regon, there are many aspects extremely                       present a poor mage for ndgenous toursm product as well as
relevant and approprate to the Central Plbara regon, n partcular the Pont                deter consumers from certan locatons.
Samson Pennsula whch ncludes the hstorc town of Cossack.
                                                                                          •	   Accommodation n the North West tends to be approprate n most
Overall Gaps – Consumer Perceptions                                                            areas – gaps were present n and around Karjn Natonal Park and
     •	   Consumer comments suggest that product and infrastructure                            the Bungle Bungles.
          n the North West s currently approprate. However, the regon             Some consumers felt the North West should be kept natural therefore
          does tend to prce a majorty of consumers out of the market (and           accommodaton should reflect low mpact optons (eg campng, eco lodges
          partcular the famly market).                                              and safar style establshments) or be lmted to restrct numbers.
     •	   Overall, access was of hgh concern for consumers and was                   Specific Gaps in Experiences, Attractions and or Destinations –
          thought to be poor. Consumers perceved the regon to have                  Consumer Perceptions
          vast dstances, hgh costs and a broad range of attractons and
          typcally dd not assocate the area wth a short holday (other than       Rugged Outback Experience
          Broome).                                                                    The North West s effectvely delverng ths experence due to the vast
     •	   Although expense s not a typcal development aspect, t was the            outback, lmted access combned wth beautful natural attractons.
          second hghest area of negatve comment n the North West and s            Generally lttle product and nfrastructure s desred by consumers
          a major barrer for travel. Ths related to everythng from flght costs,   nterested n ths experence and n fact, the sense of achevement felt after
          food, accommodaton, petrol, hrng a car, rght down to expensve          arrvng at a destnaton that was dffcult to get to s a key component of the
          road house ce.                                                             experence.

     •	   Overall the amenities avalable n the North West, such as rest             Comfortable Scenery Experience
          stops, petrol statons, barbeques and vstor centres, were thought         The North West generally provdes approprate product and nfrastructure for
          to be approprate. Gaps related to vstor nformaton n marketng         ths experence n the key areas of Broome and Kununurra. Karjn Natonal
          materals. Also a need to provde more accurate accommodaton               Park also has the potental to attract ths market but would requre some
          nformaton, have webste lnks, provde better dstance nformaton        development work to mprove access, amentes and accommodaton. The
          to towns and attractons, predcted travel tme on rough roads and          followng perceptons were noted n respect to the Central Plbara area:
          nformaton about road condtons.
                                                                                      Karratha was not perceved to be a popular tourst destnaton, but was
     •	   The North West has an abundance of good natural attractions,                consdered sutable as a stopover. Most perceved t essentally as an
          some consumers dd not realse how much there s to do and could            ndustral town wth approprate basc product and nfrastructure due to the
          have spent much longer at a number of attractons, suggestng a lack        emphass on the local mnng populaton. It was felt to have good roads,
          of good vstor nformaton. Regon wde product and nfrastructure         suffcent shops and whlst not exactly a thrvng tourst town, was felt to be
          gaps related to the lack of actvtes n between towns also the lack       better than Port Hedland.
          of Aborgnal nformaton and toursm experences.

62                                                                                                                                                 November 2006
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                                                                                                                              site & context

Karratha – Overall Product and Infrastructure Issues
 Access            Accommodaton         Attractons     Actvtes     Amentes     Atmosphere     Overall
 Satsfactory      Satsfactory          Very Poor       Very Poor      Good          Poor           Poor

The town was not felt to have many attractons nearby (most
beng sgnfcant dstances) but was noted by one to have a
good coastlne.
Accommodaton comments were mxed, wth postves receved
for the nternatonal standard hotel (better than expected, nce
bar, good menu, good servce) compared to negatves for some
of the budget optons (eg “horrble”, unclean, caravan parks
caterng for resdents not toursts).
Other comments ncluded lack of sgnage regardng crocodle
safe areas and lack of access for those wthout cars.
    •	   The Burrup Peninsula was seen to have great opportunty n terms
         of havng old Aborgnal art n a natural envronment, but access
         ssues/rough roads and few amentes.
Overall Gaps – Operator Perceptions                                                          Burrup Peninsula
Promnent product and nfrastructure gaps that related to the whole regon
ncluded lack of accommodation (safar tents, real 3-4 star propertes and
md range accommodaton), airline access (nfrastructure/support and
flght costs) and poor amenities/infrastructure.
North West – Overall Product and Infrastructure Issues
 Access             Accommodaton         Attractons        Actvtes          Amentes     Overall
 Poor               Poor                  Good               Satsfactory        Very Poor     Poor

    •	   Overall operators thought ths regon had lmted accommodaton.
    •	   Access was felt to be a man concern for the North West wth more
         sgnfcant cost/dstance barrers than other regons. Air access
         was the man concern partcularly prohbtve flght costs and lttle
         arlne nfrastructure throughout the regon.

November 2006                                                                                                                             63
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     •	   Other access ssues related to vstors not understandng dstance,     Tourism Trends - General Visitor Trends
          remoteness and area closures therefore not leavng enough tme
          to travel the area properly. Some operators felt that vstor numbers   The global arlne travel ndustry has taken an unprecedented “hammerng”
          should be montored and restrcted to control damage to the             over the past 5 years. Health epdemcs such as SARS (Severe Acute
          authentcty of the experence.                                         Respratory Syndrome), the Iraq War, the terrorst attacks upon Bal and
                                                                                  the USA, and the collapse of Ansett Arlnes have generated a number of
     •	   Amenities n the North West were perceved to be very poor, due         mportant ssues for the Australan toursm ndustry and have had a potental
          to poor mantenance of facltes (tolets) and the need for constant   to sgnfcantly mpact regonal vstor based destnatons and commercal
          annual cleanng due to the clmate and wet season.                      operatons.
     •	   Generally attractions n the area are good whle slghtly fewer         In partcular, over the past two years securty has been the prme concern
          activities are avalable. Indvdual operators mentoned ssues         for ar travellers and ths has been reflected n ‘safer’ destnatons achevng
          regardng aborgnal product relablty (concerned for the future      ncreased vstaton at the expense of those perceved less safe.
          relablty of the products), cheaper cruse optons and a need for
          more short tours.                                                       Specfcally, Domestc vstor nghts to the Central Plbara regon (Shre of
                                                                                  Roebourne) n 2004/2005 totalled some 822,000 compared to 183,200
                                                                                  Internatonal vstor nghts. Clearly, Australan Domestc toursm s, and
Summary of Consumer/Operator Perceptions                                          wll reman, the most mportant sector of the Plbara toursm ndustry. On
As ndcated earler, the perceptons regardng con gaps referred to the         a natonal level, ths sector already accounts for nearly three quarters of
North West regon as a whole, and whlst the Central Plbara Coast rates          all vstor nghts and vstor expendture however s seldom n the lmelght
hardly a menton, there are aspects that are consdered relevant to the           due to the nternatonal vstor’s much publcsed hgher average daly
scope of ths report. These nclude:                                              expendture level.

     •	   Acknowledgement that area has a “good” coastlne                        Recent global events have refocused marketng efforts back on to Domestc
                                                                                  travel and the results of these programs have been felt to the beneft of
     •	   Lack of awareness by consumers of toursm appeal                        regonal Australa destnatons.
     •	   Need for addtonal accommodaton (partcularly low mpact              More recent toursm trends focus upon the ncreasng prce of petrol and the
          optons)                                                                negatve mpacts that ths wll create for self drve travellers n partcular the
     •	   Opportunty to cater for famly market                                  retree or grey nomad markets. Anecdotal evdence suggests that hgher
                                                                                  fuel prces generally dscourages long range self drve travel and shorter,
     •	   Recognton of ndgenous toursm potental                             “closer to home” destnatons are typcally preferred.
                                                                                  The net effect of these mpacts for destnatons such as the Central Plbara
                                                                                  are dffcult to estmate. What s certan however s that regonal toursm
                                                                                  destnatons operate n an ndustry that s affected by a range of mpacts
                                                                                  the most of whch are beyond the control of local nfluences. Developng
                                                                                  and mantanng an effectve toursm profle over the long term s a key
                                                                                  ngredent to counter these mpacts as s the development of unque ponts
                                                                                  of dfferences from competng destnatons.

     Fishing at Cossack
64                                                                                                                                               November 2006
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                                                                                                             Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                                       site & context

Western Australia Visitor Trends
In the year 2005, the state of Western Australa receved a total of just over 6.6 mllon vstors comprsng 6.0 mllon overnght domestc vstors and some 635,200
nternatonal vstors. The combned vstor expendture of overnght vstors to Western Australa was $4.0 bllon (source: Toursm Research Australa).
Of the total number of domestc vstors to Western Australa, 5.5 mllon vstors (85%) were from people resdng n WA and another 1.0 mllon (15%) were people
from other Australan states or terrtores.
As can be seen on the followng graph Domestc vstaton to Western Australa has remaned around the 4 year average of 6.4 mllon per annum.

Although not recevng any major growth ncreases snce 2003 the domestc vstor stll remans the major contrbutor to the WA toursm ndustry generatng some
$3 bllon n the 12 months endng March 2005.
Whle n WA, nternatonal vstors stayed for a total of 14.5 mllon nghts, whch was hgher than the 12.8 mllon nghts recorded n 2003. On average, an nternatonal
vstor to Western Australa spent around $77 per day durng ther stay.
In total, nternatonal vstors to WA spent a total of $1.120 bllon and ths amount was 14% hgher than the $0.985 bllon spent n 2003. The Unted Kngdom remans
the state’s largest nternatonal market wth 152,000 vstors n 2004 and a strong average annual growth rate of 7.4% over the last 10 years.

November 2006                                                                                                                                                           65
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage
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Australia’s North West Tourism Perspective                                                nterstate vstors.

The followng are hghlghts of the vstor data 2004-2005 (two year average)        •	   Domestc vstors stayed 2,032,000 nghts n the Plbara regon. On
–                                                                                         average they stayed 6.5 nghts.

Domestic                                                                             •	   A hgh 53% of domestc vstors travelled to the Plbara regon for
                                                                                          busness purposes, 28% for holday/lesure purposes, and 11% for
     •	   515,000 domestc vstors stayed overnght n Australa’s North                 VFR (vstng frends and relatves).
          West for a total of 4,207,000 nghts (8.2 nghts on average).
     •	   69% of total vstors were ntrastate vstors, the remanng 22%
          were nterstate.                                                           •	   28,500 nternatonal vstors stayed overnght n the Plbara regon
                                                                                          accountng for 8% of total vstors to the regon.
     •	   There were 293,000 domestc daytrps to Australa’s North West.
                                                                                     •	   Internatonal vstors stayed 356,300 nghts n the Plbara regon.
     •	   45% of domestc vstors travelled to the regon for busness                   On average they stayed 12.5 nghts.
     •	   39% of domestc vstors stayed n hotel, motel, resort style              •	   71% of nternatonal vstors travelled to the Plbara regon for
          accommodaton                                                                   holday/lesure purposes.
52,400 nternatonal vstors stayed overnght n Australa’s North West for a   Shire of Roebourne Tourism Perspective
total of 805,000 nghts (15.4 nghts on average).                                Hghlghts for 2004 and 2005 (two year average)
79% of nternatonal vstors travelled to the regon for holday/lesure        Domestc
                                                                                     •	   131,000 domestc vstors stayed overnght n the Shre of Roebourne
46% of nternatonal vstors used caravan/campng accommodaton n the                   accountng for 94% of total vstors to the Shre.
                                                                                     •	   70% of these domestc vstors were ntrastate vstors, 24% were
                                                                                          nterstate vstors.
                                                                                     •	   Domestc vstors stayed 822,000 nghts n the Shre of Roebourne.
Pilbara Region Tourism Perspective                                                        On average they stayed 6.3 nghts.
Hghlghts for 2004 and 2005 (two year average) –                                    •	   44% of domestc vstors travelled to the Shre of Roebourne for
Domestic                                                                                  busness purposes.

     •	   310,500 domestc vstors stayed overnght n the Plbara regon       Internatonal
          accountng for 91% of total vstors to the regon.                        •	   9,000 nternatonal vstors stayed overnght n the Shre of
     •	   75% of these domestc vstors were ntrastate vstors, 16% were               Roebourne accountng for 6% of total vstors to the regon.
                                                                                     •	   Internatonal vstors stayed 182,200 nghts n the Shre of

66                                                                                                                                          November 2006
                                                                                                                         C O S S A C K
                                                                                                           Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                site & context

         Roebourne. On average they stayed a very hgh 20.4 nghts.
    •	   44% of nternatonal vstors travelled to the Shre of Roebourne for holday/lesure purposes.

Shire of Roebourne Visitor Summary
The followng table provdes a summary of vstor actvty receved for the regon wthn the Shre of Roebourne
boundares over the past four year perod and s sourced from Toursm Research Australa.
 Overnght vstors       Annual    average    Annual    Average      Annual    Average      Annual    Average
                          2001 & 2002          2002 & 2003            2003 & 2004            2004 & 2005
 Domestc Vstors        135,500              113,500                134,500                131,000
 Internatonal            7,200                8,300                  9,400                  9,000
 Total      Overnght     142,700              121,800                143,900                140,000
 Overnght      vstor   Annual    average    Annual    Average      Annual    Average      Annual    Average
 nghts                   2001 & 2002          2002 & 2003            2003 & 2004            2004 & 2005
 Domestc nghts          598,000              432,000                791,000                822,000
 Internatonal nghts     48,000               32,900                 116,300                183,200
 Total nghts             646,000              464,900                907,300                1,005,200

As can be seen from the above table although total vstor numbers have remaned relatvely
stable around the 140,000pa level, vstor nghts have ncreased sgnfcantly from 646,000 n
2001/2002 to some 1,005,200 n year 2004/2005 (a large 55% ncrease over ths tmeframe).
Currently, due to the resources boom, the pendulum has swung back n provdng ncreased
vstor arrvals and vstor nghts, however the ncreases n fuel prces have the effect of
dscouragng Australans undertakng large dstance self drve travel wthn Australa.
Domestc vstors manly utlsed hotel/motel style accommodation (26%) or stayed at the
home of frend/relatve (17%) wth caravan park or commercal campng facltes caterng
for around 10%. Internatonal vstors utlsed caravan parks (29%) followed by hotel/motel
The prncpal leisure activities were “socal and other” for the domestc vstor (53%)
followed by “actve outdoor and sport” (24%), and “outdoor and nature” (21%). The man
actvty for the nternatonal market was also “socal and other” (89%) followed by “outdoor
and nature” (76%). Unlke the domestc vstor “local attractons/tourst actvtes” and the

November 2006                                                                                                                               67
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“arts and hertage” rated very hghly wth the overseas vstor.                 of ar travel. They also seek acton – surfng, swmmng and nght-tme
                                                                                 entertanment are hgh on ther wsh lst.
Research data for transport use may not be an accurate
                                                                                 Generation Y – for the dgtal generaton, web browsng, on-lne chat,
reflecton on the mode utlsed as respondents may have                          bloggng, pods and SMS are smply part of lfe. More restless than prevous
reported usng several means of transport on a vst to the                      generatons they are more lkely to postpone ther educaton or career and
regon. Ar transport represented 44% for domestc vstors and                  travel abroad seekng lfe experences. They are more lkely to earn lower
an ncreased 52% for nternatonal. For the domestc vstor                     wages and therefore more lkely to stay n a youth hostel, backpackers or
prvate/rented vehcle (42%) wth nternatonal (31%).                           campste and opt for bus coach or tran travel.
                                                                                 (Extracts from artcle n “Qantas – the Australan Way” magazne March
Analyss of vstor age groups reflects the trends n respect to                 2006 – words by Rob Woodburn).
market segments –
                                                                                 In the perod 2003 & 2004 (2 year average) the largest domestc travel
     •	   Senors (grey nomads) – born before 1945                               group was Generaton X (49%) followed by the Baby Boomers (35%) whlst
     •	   Baby boomers – born 1945 – 1964                                        nternatonal vstors were prncpally Baby Boomers (51%) then Generaton
                                                                                 X (37%). (Due to varatons n age scales ndcated n the research data, t
     •	   Generaton X – born 1965 – 1977                                        s consdered that a far percentage of Baby Boomer vstor numbers would
     •	   Generaton Y – born after 1977                                         nclude the senor segment).

Seniors – many members of the generaton are now retrees on pensons            Thus t s concluded that both domestc and nternatonal lesure vstors to
or superannuaton and therefore careful wth money. Ther travel plannng        the Shre of Roebourne regon wll –
tends to nvolve lots of word-of-mouth recommendatons. Those over 60 are            •	   Travel n ther own or rented vehcle;
much more lkely than other generatons to travel by caravan or campervan.
They favour cultural experences, beng 20% more lkely to vst museums,            •	   Seek cultural and hertage experences;
art galleres and hstorc places.                                                   •	   Utlse hotel/motel accommodaton or caravan/campng ground.
Baby Boomers – a generaton that s aspratonal n travel, often wth funds
to match. Baby boomers seek journeys beyond the ordnary. They strve
for personal gratfcaton and see travel as educaton, ndulgng partcular
passons or fulfllng lfelong dreams. Cashed-up they are prme drvers of
cultural toursm, but at the same tme are more lkely than other generatons
to take a holday purely for rest and relaxaton. Bushwalks, wldlfe and
the beach all feature promnently n ther travel plans. They are also more
prone to use the nternet for research and bookngs and wll lkely travel by
car or 4WD.
Generation X – has the money and wants to spend t. Although they wll
rough t occasonally, they do lke ther comforts, favourng B&B’s or stayng
wth frends and relatves. They lean towards beach holdays and are more
lkely to want to head overseas, whch means they are bg consumers

68                                                                                                                                          November 2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     C O S S A C K
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 site & context

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           TIMOR SEA                      SWOT Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Strengths                                       Weaknesses

       WESTERN AUSTRALIA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Wyndham
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Unque hertage locaton.                       Lack of and mnmal nterpretaton of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           exstng basc toursm nfrastructure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Exquste hstorc buldngs
                                0                   100               200                 300            400                500 km                                                                                                                                                                         Authentc ndgenous art                        No qualty vstor accommodaton

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Derby                 Le
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Stopover between Broome and                     Lack of basc town servces

                                                                                                                                                                         BROOME                                  GREAT

                                                                                                                                                                                                         Fitzroy Crossing                          Halls Creek
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DUN C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Exmouth                                         Lack of sutable tourst/local beach

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            N OR T H E R

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Insect nfestaton
                            INDIAN                               OCEAN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Tourst seasonalty mpacts

                                                                                                    PORT HEDLAND
                                               Cossack                  Dampier                   Wickham                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lack of consumer awareness

                                                    Barrow                                       Roebourne


                                                                                                                                 Marble Bar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Opportunities                                   Threats


                                         Onslow                                                                                                                                           Telfer

                       North West Cape


Ningaloo                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   On a destnaton level, added toursm           On a localsed level, compettve toursm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           nfrastructure and servces wll ncrease       products at Pont Samson

  Reef                                           ES
                                                      T                                                     Tom Price
                                                                                                                                        Karajini National Park



                Coral Bay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the overall vstor awareness

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Fuel prces
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Create unque toursm precnct                  Overseas destnatons
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Station                                      Lnk n tourst crcut – Nngaloo, Karjn,


    Cape Inscription
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Cossack, part of Warlu Way

             Monkey Mia
                                            W EST


                                                                                                                                               Wiluna                                                                                                                                                      Develop        low        mpact     tourst








                                                                                                                  Mt Magnet

                             Northampton                                                    Yalgoo
                                                                       Mullewa                                                                                                             Laverton
  INDIAN                                                        Mingenew
                                                                                 Morawa                          Paynes Find





                                          Jurien Bay

                                                                             Moora                                                                                            KALGOORLIE - BOULDER

                                                                                                                                                      Y         C                                     TRANS - AUSTRALIAN                                       RAILWAY

                                                          Lancelin                                                                      EASTERN

                        N                                                                                                   GREAT


             W                 E                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Eucla

                                                                PERTH                                                                                                                                                                               HWY

                                                                                                                                                                                   Norseman              EYRE


                                                      MANDURAH                             Y
                                                                                                                                                                    R A NCE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           G R E AT             AU S T R A L I A N            BIGHT
                                                           BUNBURY                       COLLIE



                                                 BUSSELTON                                              Kojonup                      HW

                                                                                                                                                            ESPERANCE                                                                   SOUTHERN

                                       Margaret River                                                                                Jerramungup



                                                 Cape Leeuwin                               H                            CO

                                                                                                     SOUTH                                                                                                                                       OCEAN

Map of Western Australia showing the potential tourist circuit of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Historic Buildings at Cossack                        Cossack Museum in the Old Courthouse
Ningaloo Reef, Karijini National Park and historic Cossack.

November 2006                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     69
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage

Cossack s a unque place wthn the north west of Australa. It has rare
vsual qualtes, nternatonal scentfc nterest, hstorc mportance and
s apprecated by both the local and broader communty of Western
The followng values have been dentfed wthn the course of ths study.

Visual Qualities
The landscape settng of the Cossack, defned by the central spne of red
and dark brown rocky hlls, areas of flat, low lyng land, salt marsh, the rver
                                                                                   Cossack Landscape
and dstnctve estuarne mangroves, along wth the hstorc buldngs and
structures, combne to provde a rare vsual envronment.
The unque stone buldngs, desgned durng George Temple Poole’s term
as Chef Archtect of the Publc Works Department, and concentrated along
Pearl Street, the hstorc commercal and admnstratve centre of Cossack,
form a precnct of buldngs of consderable aesthetc and hstorc nterest.

Scientific Interest
Cossack s a natonally sgnfcant archaeologcal ste that has the potental
to contrbute to a wder cultural understandng of the cultural hertage of the
State through use as a research ste.
                                                                                   Cossack Historic Buildings
Cossack provdes evdence of human adaptaton to Plbara’s clmate and
envronment, whch was characterzed by scarcty, clmatc extremes and
the hazards of cyclones and tdal surges. The remnants of the ard market
gardens and water harvestng ntroduced by Asan mgrants are extremely
rare. The stone buldngs of the 1890s were desgned to wthstand cyclones
and many of the early buldngs were anchored to the ground by chans and
represent a techncal accomplshment for the perod.

                                                                                   Cossack Rock Art (Dolphins)

70                                                                                                               November 2006
                                                                             C O S S A C K
                                                 Concept Stage Draft Master Plan

                                Historic Importance
                                Establshed n 1863, Cossack was the frst port n the north west of
                                Australa and provdes substantal evdence of the development of a fronter
                                settlement. The port town provded a vtal pont of access for the settlement
                                and development of the Plbara regon, and llustrates an mportant phase
                                n the development of Western Australa.
                                As Western Australa’s frst pearlng port and precursor to the more wdely
                                known Broome, Cossack was an mportant contact pont between Europeans
                                and Aborgnal and South-East Asan people, who were heavly nvolved n
                                the pearlng ndustry from the 1860s to the 1880s ether through choce
                                or coercon. The port was also an mportant stagng post durng the gold
Ruins of a pioneer settlement
                                rushes of the 1880s.
                                Cossack s assocated wth a number of people nvolved n the colonal
                                and post-colonal development of the Plbara regon, ncludng explorer F T
                                Gregory, the Padbury, Wellard, Broadhurst, Wthnell and Sholl famles, and
                                Cossack denttes such as the Hall and Muramat famles.

                                Community Appreciation
                                Cossack s valued by the Western Australan communty as a fronter
                                settlement assocated wth the early development of the Plbara regon and
                                the establshment of a pearlng ndustry, whch provdes evdence of an early
                                multcultural socety and the accommodaton of the cultural dversty.
Unique architecture
                                Cossack s valued by the communty on the central Plbara coast as a popular
                                recreatonal and tourst destnaton that contrbutes to the communty’s
                                sense of place.

Fishing at Cossack

November 2006                                                                                             71
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage

72                                November 2006
                                                                                                                            C O S S A C K
                                                                                                Concept Stage Draft Master Plan

Vision and Benefits
The Draft Master Plan s beng developed n recognton of the need to fnd     This Draft Master Plan: Concept Stage includes proposals for:
a sustanable future for Cossack. Ths Concept Plan provdes a balanced         •      A Hertage Precnct - to provde a mx of art/cultural/toursm/
outcome that protects and enhances the unque values of Cossack.                       nterpretaton uses
                                                                                •      A Commercal Zone - to renforce the Hertage Precnct

The Draft Master Plan will:                                                     •      Resdental/Tourst Nodes - to house a lmted number of carefully
                                                                                       placed lots
•       value add to exstng & funded nfrastructure
                                                                                •      Tourst Node - to provde 100 bed tourst accommodaton,
•       recognse and renforce the unque hertage values                             restaurant and guest servces wth room for expanson
•       provde for contnued successful adaptve reuse of hertage buldngs   •      Parkland - to protect and enhance Cossack’s unque values
        through new commercal opportuntes
                                                                                •      Improved access and amentes
•       ntroduce new resdental/tourst nodes to brng lfe to the town
                                                                                       - new parkng area for vstor and tourst buses
•       provde new tourst accommodaton wth a pont of dfference
                                                                                       - restrcted vehcular access to rver-front road
•       am to transform a lablty nto an ongong self-funded asset
                                                                                       - pedestran access paths renforcng the hstorc precnct
                                                                                       - new entry road and parkng to tourst accommodaton
The reinvigorated Cossack will:
                                                                                       - new boat ramp
•       fulfl the communty’s expectatons for ths unque place
•       be a centre for a vbrant and dverse cultural experence
•       enhance opportuntes for
        - ndgenous art
        - employment and tranng
        - regonal and nternatonal toursm

November 2006                                                                                                                                            73
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage

Steps to a sustainable future


                                                                                                               New Visitor

                                                                                                    Upgraded Visitor
                                                                                                    Access Road
                                                                                                                                                  Commercial Zone
         Funded Infrastructure

                                                               Heritage Precinct                                                     Wharf     Heritage Precinct

                                             Existing access                                                                    Restricted Vehicular
                                             roads                                                                              Access

                                                                                                        Upgraded Road

                                                                                                            New Boat Ramp

The Draft Master Plan will:                                                        2. Recognise & Reinforce Unique Heritage Values
                                                                                    •   Provde for new commercal opportuntes to renforce adaptve
1. Value Add to Funded Infrastructure                                                   re-use of the hertage buldngs
     •     Funded power, water & telecommuncatons to                              •   Improved access and amentes
           hstorc town centre
                                                                                        - new parkng area for vstor and tourst buses
     •     Exstng access roads and wharf
                                                                                        - restrcted vehcular access to rver-front road
     •     Exstng hstorc buldngs
                                                                                        - pedestran access paths renforcng the hstorc precnct
                                                                                        - new entry road and parkng to tourst accommodaton
                                                                                        - new boat ramp
74                                                                                                                                                     November 2006
                                                                                                                                        C O S S A C K
                                                                                                         Concept Stage Draft Master Plan

                                                    Residential/Tourist                                                                   Residential/Tourist
                                                    Nodes                                                                                 Nodes

                                                                                                  Tourist Node

                                                                                      Future Expansion                                  Pedestrian
                                                                                      of Tourist                                        Access
                                                                    Residential/                                                                            Residential/
                                                                    Tourist Nodes                                                                           Tourist Nodes
                                         Parking                                                             Visitor Access
                Visitor Access                                 Commercial Zone                                                                        Commercial Zone
                                                   Wharf                                                                                 Wharf
                                                            Heritage Precinct                                                                        Heritage Precinct

                                             Restricted Vehicular                                                                 Restricted Vehicular
                                             Access                                                                               Access

                    Upgraded Road                                                                         Upgraded Road

                         New Boat Ramp                                                                       New Boat Ramp

3. Introduce new residential/tourist nodes                                          4. Provide tourist accommodation with a point of difference
                                                                                      •   New 100 bed tourst accommodaton clustered around ‘oass’
  •   New resdental/ tourst nodes wth lots carefully located to
                                                                                          courtyards wth vews to town and ocean
      mnmse mpact on unque values
                                                                                      •   New access road and parkng for tourst accommmodaton
  •   Value add through desgn controls

November 2006                                                                                                                                                               75
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage

                                                                                                                           Cossack Draft Master Plan:
                                                                               Residential/Tourist Nodes                   Concept Stage
                                                                                                                           •   A Hertage Precnct - to provde
                                                                                                                               a mx of art/cultural/toursm/
                                                                                                                               nterpretaton uses

                       Tourist Node                                                                                        •   A Commercal Zone - to
                                                                                                                               renforce the Hertage Precnct

                                                                                                                           •   Resdental/Tourst Nodes - to
                                                                            Parkland                                           house a lmted number of
                                                                                                                               carefully placed lots
      Future Expansion
              of Tourist                                                                                                   •   Tourst Node - to provde 100
       Accommodation                                                  Pedestrian                                               bed tourst accommodaton,
                                                                       Access                                                  restaurant and guest servces
                                         Parking                                                                               wth room for expanson

                                                                                                     Residential/Tourist   •   Parkland - to protect and
                                                                                                     Nodes                     enhance Cossack’s unque

                                                                                                                           •   Improved access and amentes
                                      Visitor Access                                       Commercial Zone                     - new parkng area for vstor
                                                                                                                                 and tourst buses
                                                                                                                               - restrcted vehcular access to
                                                                              Wharf     Heritage Precinct                        rver-front road
                                                                                                                               - pedestran access paths
                                                                                                                                 renforcng the hstorc precnct
                                                                                                                               - new entry road and parkng to
                                                        p                                                                        tourst accommodaton
                                                  atR            Restricted Vehicular
                                               Bo                Access                                                        - new boat ramp

Cossack Draft Master Plan

76                                                                                                                                             November 2006
                                                                                                                                 C O S S A C K
                                                                                                    Concept Stage Draft Master Plan

Heritage Precinct                                                                 Tourist Node
The Hertage Precnct contans the predomnant collecton of hertage             A major commercal short stay accommodaton faclty at Cossack wll
buldngs along Pearl Street, ncludng:                                          generate a favourable vstor envronment that wll assst other local toursm
                                                                                  ndustry operators and asprants to develop smaller, potentally successful
    •   Galbrath’s Store (1888)
                                                                                  flow-on toursm and hosptalty based ventures to the beneft of both
    •   Polce Quarters, Lockup and Servce buldngs (1890)                      resdents and vstors. The major focus of the accommodaton faclty would
                                                                                  be the development of a 4 star style complex offerng between 80 and 100
    •   Post and Telegraph Offce (1894)
                                                                                  rooms, restaurant, pool and resort style facltes.
    •   Custom House and Bond Store (1895)
    •   Courthouse (1895)                                                         Parkland
    •   North West Mercantle Store run (1895)                                   The Cossack Parkland wll be establshed to protect and enhance Cossack’s
    •   Landbacked Wharf                                                          unque values. Ths parkland comprses areas of natural, hstorc and
                                                                                  scentfc nterest that wll protect a rch cultural and envronmental amenty
These buldngs wll contnue to be used and adapted for a range of uses          for the communty and for future generatons.
ncludng art, cultural, toursm and nterpretaton purposes. They wll
provde the core of the unque vstor experence at Cossack.
                                                                                  Access and Visitor Amenities
                                                                                  The access and amentes at Cossack wll be mproved through the
Commercial Zone                                                                   ntroducton of new access and vstor facltes. In order to protect the vsual
                                                                                  qualtes of the hstorc town, vehcular access to the rver-front road wll
The commercal zone wll house carefully desgned new facltes, whch
                                                                                  restrcted and traffc dverted to new parkng areas for vstor vehcles and
wll renforce the uses of the buldngs n the Hertage Precnct. These uses
                                                                                  tourst buses. A new boat ramp wll be located away from the hertage
may nclude artsts studos, retal outlets and new caterng facltes.
                                                                                  precnct to ease congeston at peak tmes and pedestran access paths wll
                                                                                  be ntroduced to enable vstors to explore the hstorc town n a relaxed
Residential/Tourist Nodes                                                         manner.

These nodes wll contan lots of approxmately 400 sq m whch wll be
carefully placed to mnmse the mpact on Cossack’s rare vsual qualtes,
nternatonal scentfc nterest and hstorc mportance. A mx of resdental
accommodaton n one or two storey sngle and duplex dwellngs wll provde
on-ste accommodaton and boutque tourst accommodaton.

November 2006                                                                                                                                                   77
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage

Design Control                                                                   Tourism Potential at Cossack
Any new development at Cossack wll need to be carefully controlled to           Regional Perspective - Market Fit and High Yield Potential
protect ts unque values. The stng of new development nodes has been
                                                                                 Geographcally remote destnatons rarely succeed when developed and
selected not only to mnmse the mpact on the vsual, hstorc, scentfc,
                                                                                 promoted n solaton. Potental lnkages between the State’s number one
envronmental,and communty values, but to buld on the opportuntes
                                                                                 and two rated vstor cons Nngaloo Marne Park and Karjn Natonal Park
presented by these values.
                                                                                 respectvely can potentally offer vstors to the area experences unmatched
The stng of the new lots wthn these nodes wll need to take nto account     throughout Western Australa. The Warlu Way s a self drve tourst tral
all the constrants and opportuntes of each settng. The restrcton of the    concept currently beng developed that wll lnk these major cons and
resdental/tourst lots to four hundred square metres wll assst n reducng   has the potential to generate substantial increases in tourist traffic to and
the mpact on the landscape. The bult form wll be subject to desgn            through the Cossack destnaton.
gudelnes, whch wll nclude the maxmum sze of each buldng (200sqm)
and the palette of materals and colours. New plantngs and any ntroduced
anmals wll also be restrcted to protect the envronment and ncrease the
sustanablty of the development.
The tourst accommodaton wll also be subject to strct desgn controls to
ensure a qualty outcome that wll add value to Cossack.

                                                                                 Map illustrating potential linkages between Ningaloo, Karijini, Millstream and other
                                                                                 regional coastal destinations

Diagrammatic Plan showing option for layout of 200sqm building on 400sqm lots

78                                                                                                                                                November 2006
                                                                                                                               C O S S A C K
                                                                                                 Concept Stage Draft Master Plan

As can be seen from the map detaled above the major vstor cons of          Lnkng these spectacular nature based assets and an emergng collecton
Nngaloo, Karjn are relatvely close geographcally to Mllstream, the      of Aborgnal cultural hertage products wll offer future vstors an unmatched
Burrup and other coastal destnatons such as Cossack. These locatons         visitor experience. Cossack is well positioned to benefit from this growth in
offer a potentally rewardng tourst loop lnked va good qualty sealed      hgh yeld tourst vstaton as ths wder regon contnues to become known as
road networks. Exmouth also boasts Learmonth Arport wth large arcraft       a destnaton offerng memorable and hghly engagng vstor experences.
capacty and s rated to nternatonal standards.
                                                                               Interestngly, the Department of Envronment and Conservaton’s (prevously
Exmouth in particular has been identified by the State Government as the       CALM) Pilbara regional office includes Ningaloo, Karijini, Millstream
“northern gateway to the Nngaloo Coast” and all resdental expanson n      Chchester and the Burrup Pennsula and ths agency has been a strong
the regon s beng planned for the exstng populaton centres of ether      drver of the Warlu Way tourst tral concept lnkng and promotng these
Exmouth, Coral Bay and Carnarvon. The role of Exmouth as an mportant          assets cooperatvely. The “experental” or “geotraveller” s a new and
regonal commercal centre wll therefore only contnue to grow. The           domnant toursm trend globally, and although stll n ts development phase,
Nngaloo Coast Regonal Strategy Carnarvon to Exmouth was released n          the Warlu Way (ncludng attractons such as Cossack) are well placed to
August 2004 and states,                                                        benefit from these forecasted trends.
         “Exmouth will cater for higher order and higher impact
         development, infrastructure and tourist facilities within             Cossack - Commercial Short Stay Accommodation Facility
         the Ningaloo Coast.”
                                                                               The outlne concept s to create a major tourst focal pont at Cossack that
And a plannng gudelne of,                                                   would attract and hold vstors n the regon for extended stays. Although
                                                                               no formal feasblty work has yet been carred out, the major focus of the
         “Encouraging larger scale tourism development such                    accommodaton faclty would be the development of a 4 star style complex
         as hotels, motels and resorts to locate within the                    offerng between 80 and 100 rooms, restaurant, pool and typcal resort style
         Exmouth townsite at a scale and design which accords                  facltes.
         with townscape and landscape plans for Exmouth.”
                                                                               Ths s generally accepted as an accommodaton model large enough to
           (pages 139 – 149 Nngaloo Coast Regonal Strategy
                                                                               delver economes of scale n operatons and also capable of achevng
                                                   Aug 2004)
                                                                               acceptable return on nvestment levels typcally sought through green
                                                                               field hospitality property development. Although impacted by varying local
The Exmouth Marna development wll also provde an addtonal focal pont
                                                                               influences, an 80 to 100 unit business model provides a solid base to
for ncreased hgh yeld vstor actvty and new hgh standard commercal
                                                                               develop more detaled plannng. Staged development consderatons, the
tourst accommodaton s ether beng bult or n the plannng stages for
                                                                               levels of senstvty to envronmental sustanablty, and scope of facltes
the Exmouth area. Inland, substantal nvestment n new hgh standard
                                                                               integrated into final design are all elements that would require more detailed
tourst based accommodaton wthn Karjn Natonal Park s well underway
                                                                               and further nvestgaton.
and wll come on lne n 2007. There are also plans to develop upmarket
commercal accommodaton at Coral Bay and n order for ths substantal        In terms of market fit this facility would specifically target,
level of commercal property nvestment to be successful there wll need to        o	 Corporate/busness travel assocated wth local mnng nterests n
be a dramatc ncrease n ar servce frequency and capacty nto the regon          the area,
over the next 5 years.

November 2006                                                                                                                                               79
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage

     o	 Packaged upmarket group/coach travel,                                      The emergence of new large scale toursm nvestment n and around the
     o	 Upmarket FITs (flexible itinerary travellers) that would be self drive     Nngaloo and Plbara regons and the development and promoton of tourst
        holday and lesure vstors to the area,                                  trals concepts such as the Indan Ocean and Warlu Way(s) wll work to
                                                                                   significantly alter this investment landscape. Whilst tourism interests at
     o	 Meetngs and Incentve travellers.                                         Cossack will be a direct beneficiary of these developments the timeframe
Based upon a prelmnary revew of local condtons the concept has mert          when these wll be receved remans unknown.
in that there is a definite and immediate need for 4 star plus commercial          A major commercal short stay accommodaton faclty at Cossack and
accommodaton wthn the regon drven almost entrely by the burgeonng           developed wthn the parameters of ths Masterplan wll undoubtedly be a
resources sector. Future high yield tourist demand will flow from the regional     major catalyst for the growth of local tourism. Specifically, it will generate a
actvtes as outlned n the prevous secton however current demand levels       favourable vstor envronment that wll assst other local toursm ndustry
for ths standard of short stay accommodaton at Cossack remans untested          operators and aspirants to develop smaller, potentially successful flow-on
and unknown. The relatvely solated locaton of the proposed Cossack              tourism and hospitality based ventures to the benefit of both residents and
faclty also poses some uncertanty on whether the venture would be               vstors.
financially sustainable. These aspects can only be clarified through more
detaled feasblty plannng work.
Hstorcally at least, demand for commercal accommodaton n the regon
has been largely drven by local mnng nterests whch would most lkely
have a far greater usage of such a faclty f t were located wthn one of the
larger, local townstes. Even corporate usage of such a faclty therefore also
remans untested. Wth excepton to a small number of purely holday market
destnatons, what s known s that few commercal short stay accommodaton
operatons n the 4 star plus range rarely succeed n regonal WA when
wholly relant upon tourst demand. Any commercal accommodaton faclty
n Cossack would therefore need to cater to a mx of market types and be
desgned to take advantage of corporate busness generated by current
buoyant condtons wthn the local resources ndustres.
Uncertanty over major toursm nvestment decsons s certanly not
unque to the Cossack destnaton. The same feasblty arguments are
currently beng faced by potental developers along the entre WA coastlne
stretchng north from the Perth metropoltan regon. In a very broad sense,
these largely unsophstcated coastal locatons have hstorcally attracted
and catered to more budget style travellers. Whlst the qualty of the nature
based assets of these destnatons s undenable the hgher yeld traveller
has not prevously been a major market source shyng away due largely
to a lack of attractve ar packages, acceptable servce standards and hgh
qualty accommodaton optons.

80                                                                                                                                              November 2006
                                                   C O S S A C K
                                    Concept Stage Draft Master Plan

Tourist Activities at a
Reinvigorated Cossack
A rch and vared experence
awats vstors to Cossack
from the rch cultural hstory to
a wde range of actvtes on
land and water.

Vstors wll be attracted to
Cossack as both day vstors
and short-stay travellers.

                                                 Potential tourist activities at Cossack

November 2006                                                                        81
Draft Master Plan Concept Stage

Services Improvements                                                             Power
                                                                                  An assessment of the load schedule requred to meet the proposed
                                                                                  development ndcates a maxmum demand at 315 kVA. A 33 kV 3 phase
Current Water Corporaton offtakes from the Pont Sampson man requre            lne and a 315 kVA pad mount transformer are recommended.
pressure reducng. Ths wll requre nstallaton of a valve pt wth pressure
                                                                                  In 2004, Western Power suppled underground cable to the Shre of
reducng and pressure relef valves and bypass system.
                                                                                  Roebourne and t s assumed that ths cable s sutable for current
The proposed 150mm supply man wll provde a flow of 1,100 kL per day            requrements. It s recommended that ths cable be nstalled n a common
whch wll have adequate capacty to meet the proposed development.               trench to a pad mount transformer to be located near the proposed vstor
The man wll be extended to the exstng tank ste wth a new 200kL tank         and bus parkng.
constructed adjacent to the exstng tank to provde Water Corporaton
                                                                                  Three 415 V three phase feeder cables are recommended to run to
requrements of two days storage for a populaton of 100 wth daly demand
                                                                                  the Tourst Node (North-West Feeder), Resdental/ Tourst Nodes and
of 1,100 ltres/person /day.
                                                                                  Commercal Zone (North-East Feeder), and the Hertage Precnct (South-
The exstng tank ste s at an elevaton of 20m wth the communty at            West Feeder).
elevatons of approxmately 6m, whch ndcates that to meet mnmum
Water Corporaton requrements elevated storage or a pump booster wll
be requred. To meet the aesthetc requrements of the ste t s proposed to     Telstra have a “Unversal Servce Oblgaton” to customers. Whle
construct a booster pump staton to ensure a low profle nstallaton.            dscussons have not been held wth Telstra, t s assumed that the proposed
                                                                                  funded nfrastructure wll nclude fbre optc cable from the Pont Samson Rd
Water dsnfecton wll be requred as the water source s not treated. The
                                                                                  wthn the common trench. It s recommended that condut and cable pts
optons are for chlornaton or ultravolet dsnfecton, the Water Corporaton
                                                                                  be nstalled for Telstra underground cablng throughout the development on
preferred method s chlornaton but may accept UV. Costs of both optons
                                                                                  three man routes, one to the North-West, one to the North-East and one to
are smlar.
                                                                                  the South-West.
Sewerage Reticulation
Determnng factors for the selecton of the sewerage treatment type nclude
proxmty to the rver/nlet sol type and lmtatons of the mud flats.
It has been assumed that a gravty sewer system be nstalled that wll requre
a man pump staton, and mnor pump statons to servce the nodes. Ths
s consdered a more cost effectve opton to excavaton of deep trenches
n rock.
Wth the lmtatons of stes for treatment ponds due to flood areas and
aesthetcs a preferred opton wll be a package treatment plant. The
treatment plant should be located above the 100 year flood levels. Further
nvestgaton would be necessary to determne a sutable locaton.

82                                                                                                                                           November 2006
                                                                                              C O S S A C K
                                                                                Concept Stage Draft Master Plan
                                                                                                    next steps

Next Steps
Ths Draft Master Plan: Concept Stage has been developed wth a wealth of
nformaton from past resdents, descendants of former resdents, a dverse
range of scentsts and experts, and people from the local communty and
those who have an nterest n Cossack. It s strongly supported by the
State Government and the Shre of Roebourne workng n partnershp.
Durng the popular events held n Cossack, Karratha, Roebourne and
Perth durng 2006, as part of the development of a proposed new future
for the town, t became apparent that the current cadastral layout for the
town, developed n 1866, s well past ts use-by date. The proposed way
forward for Cossack s a marked change from ts past, and ths path has
been carefuly crafted to provde a sustanable future and offer a wealth of
opportuntes for local, state, natonal and nternatonal people to vst or
stay n ths specal place n the Plbara, whch, we heard overhwhelmngly
durng our consultatons, needs to be handled wth care.
Ths concept for the future of Cossack s now open for dscusson and
comment. You are nvted to do ths by attendng meetngs (detals avalable
on the webstes lsted below), or by provdng your comments by phone,
emal, fax or letter to the addresses below.
For detals of meetngs
Comments on the Draft
Emal, phone or fax Helen Grzyb
•        Emal
•        Phone on 0411 722 613
•        Fax on 08 9388 1440
Wrte to Nerda Moredoundt at
•        Palasss Archtects, 353 Rokeby Rd, Subaco. WA 6008

November 2006                                                                                                    83

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