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City of New Orleans Ville de La Nouvelle-Orléans - Water - Metro Elevation Population (2009) - City - Density - Metro - Demonym Time zone - Summer (DST) Area code(s) Website 169.7 sq mi (439.4 km2) 3,755.2 sq mi (9,726.6 km2) -6.5 to 20 ft (-2 to 6 m) 469,605 2,518/sq mi (973/km2) 1,030,363 New Orleanian CST (UTC-6) CDT (UTC-5) 504 cityofno.com
Nickname(s): "The Crescent City", "The Big Easy", "The City That Care Forgot", "Nawlins" and "NOLA" (acronym for New Orleans, LA).
New Orleans (pronounced /njuː ˈɔrliənz/ French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major U.S. port and the largest city in Louisiana. New Orleans is the center of the Greater New Orleans metropolitan area, the largest metro area in the state. New Orleans is located in southeastern Louisiana, straddling the Mississippi River. It is coextensive with Orleans Parish, meaning that the boundaries of the city and the parish are the same. It is bounded by the parishes of St. Tammany (north), St. Bernard (east), Plaquemines (south) and Jefferson (south and west). Lake Pontchartrain, part of which is included in the city limits, lies to the north and Lake Borgne lies to the east. The city is named after Philippe II, Duc d’Orléans, Regent of France, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. It is well known for its multicultural and multilingual heritage cuisine, architecture, music (particularly as the birthplace of jazz), and its annual Mardi Gras and other celebrations and festivals. The city is often referred to as the "most unique" city in America.
Location in the State of Louisiana
Coordinates: 29°57′53″N 90°4′14″W / 29.96472°N 90.07056°W / 29.96472; -90.07056 Country State Parish Founded Government - Mayor Area - City - Land 1718 C. Ray Nagin (D) 350.2 sq mi (907 km2) 180.6 sq mi (467.6 km2) United States Louisiana Orleans
Beginnings through the 19th century
See also: New Orleans in the American Civil War La Nouvelle-Orléans (New Orleans) was founded May 7, 1718, by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha. It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, who was Regent of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans. The French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris (1763) and remained under Spanish
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migration of the internal slave trade. The money generated by sales of slaves in the Upper South has been estimated at fifteen percent of the value of the staple crop economy. The slaves represented half a billion dollars in property, and an ancillary economy grew up around the trade in slaves — for transportation, housing and clothing, fees, etc., estimated at 13.5 percent of the price per person. All of this amounted to tens of billions of dollars during the antebellum period, with New Orleans as a prime beneficiary. The Union captured New Orleans early in the American Civil War, sparing the city the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South.
New Orleans from the 1888 Meyers KonversationsLexikon control until 1801, when it reverted to French control. Most of the surviving architecture of the Vieux Carré (French Quarter) dates from this Spanish period. Napoleon sold the territory to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The city grew rapidly with influxes of Americans, French, and Creole French. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on large plantations outside the city. The Haitian Revolution of 1804 established the second republic in the Western Hemisphere and the first led by blacks. Haitian refugees both white and free people of color (affranchis) arrived in New Orleans, often bringing slaves with them. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out more free black men, French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population. As more refugees were allowed in Louisiana, Haitian émigrés who had gone to Cuba also arrived. Nearly 90 percent of the new immigrants settled in New Orleans. The 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites; 3,102 free persons of African descent; and 3,226 enslaved refugees to the city, doubling its French-speaking population. During the War of 1812, the British sent a force to conquer the city. The Americans decisively defeated the British troops, led by Sir Edward Pakenham, in the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815. As a principal port, New Orleans had the major role of any city during the antebellum era in the Atlantic slave trade. Its port handled huge quantities of goods for export from the interior and import from other countries to be traded up the Mississippi River. The river was filled with steamboats, flatboats, and sailing ships. At the same time, it had the most prosperous community of free persons of color in the South, who were often educated and middleclass property owners. The population of the city doubled in the 1830s and by 1840, New Orleans had become the wealthiest and third-most populous city in the nation. It had the largest slave market. Two-thirds of the more than one million slaves brought to the Deep South arrived via the forced
Skyline of New Orleans Central Business District as viewed from Uptown, (1991) In the early 20th century, New Orleans was a progressive major city whose most portentous development was a drainage plan devised by engineer and inventor A. Baldwin Wood. Until then, urban development was largely limited to higher ground along the natural river levees and bayous. Wood’s pump system allowed the city to expand into low-lying areas. Over the 20th century, rapid subsidence, both natural and human-induced, left these newlypopulated areas several feet below sea level. New Orleans was vulnerable to flooding even before the age of negative elevation. In the late 20th century, however, scientists and New Orleans residents gradually became aware of the city’s increased vulnerability. In 1965, Hurricane Betsy killed dozens of residents, even though the majority of the city remained dry. The rain-induced May 8, 1995 Flood demonstrated the weakness of the pumping system. Since that time, measures were taken to repair New Orleans’s hurricane defenses and restore pumping capacity. Throughout the 20th Century, New Orleans experienced a significant drop in economic activity compared with newer southern cities, such as Houston and Atlanta. While the port remains vitally important, automation and containerization resulted in fewer local jobs at the ports. Manufacturing in the city also diminished. New Orleans became increasingly dependent on tourism as an economic mainstay. Poor education and rising crime became
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increasingly problematic in the later decades of the century.
one of the reasons for the move, as it would be less vulnerable to hurricanes. After the Flood Control Act of 1965, the United States Army Corps of Engineers built floodwalls and man-made levees around a much larger geographic footprint that included previous marshland and swamp. Whether or not this human interference has caused subsidence is a topic of debate. A study by the Geological Society of America reported “ While erosion and wetland loss are huge problems along Louisiana’s coast, the basement 30 to 50 feet (15 m) beneath much of the Mississippi Delta has been highly stable for the past 8,000 years with negligible subsidence rates. ”
On the other hand, a report by the American Society of Civil Engineers claims that "New Orleans is subsiding (sinking)": “ A true-color satellite image of New Orleans taken on NASA’s Landsat 7 New Orleans is located at 29°57′53″N 90°4′14″W / 29.96472°N 90.07056°W / 29.96472; -90.07056 (29.964722, −90.070556) on the banks of the Mississippi River, approximately 105 miles (169 km) upriver from the Gulf of Mexico. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 350.2 square miles (907 km2), of which 180.56 square miles (467.6 km2), or 51.55%, is land. The city is located in the Mississippi River Delta on the east and west banks of the Mississippi River and south of Lake Pontchartrain. The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows. Large portions of Orleans, St. Bernard, and Jef- ” ferson parishes are currently below sea level — and continue to sink. New Orleans is built on thousands of feet of soft sand, silt, and clay. Subsidence, or settling of the ground surface, occurs naturally due to the consolidation and oxidation of organic soils (called “marsh” in New Orleans) and local groundwater pumping. In the past, flooding and deposition of sediments from the Mississippi River counterbalanced the natural subsidence, leaving southeast Louisiana at or above sea level. However, due to major flood control structures being built upstream on the Mississippi River and levees being built around New Orleans, fresh layers of sediment are not replenishing the ground lost by subsidence.
Elevation of New Orleans New Orleans was originally settled on the natural levees or high ground, along the Mississippi River. In fact, when the capital of French Louisiana was moved from Mobile, Alabama to New Orleans, the French colonial government cited New Orleans’ inland location as
Vertical cross-section of New Orleans, showing maximum levee height of 23 feet (7 m) A recent study by Tulane and Xavier University notes that 51% of New Orleans is at or above sea level, with the more densely populated areas generally on higher ground. The average elevation of the city is currently between one and two feet (0.5 m) below sea level, with some portions
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of the city as high as 16 feet (5 m) at the base of the river levee in Uptown and others as low as 10 feet (3 m) below sea level in the farthest reaches of Eastern New Orleans. In 2005, storm surge from Hurricane Katrina caused catastrophic failure of the federally designed and built levees, flooding 80% of the city. A report by the American Society of Civil Engineers says that "had the levees and floodwalls not failed and had the pump stations operated, nearly two-thirds of the deaths would not have occurred". New Orleans has always had to consider the risk of hurricanes, but the risks are dramatically greater today due to coastal erosion from human interference. Since the beginning of the 20th century, it has been estimated that Louisiana has lost 2,000 square miles (5,000 km2) of coast (including many of its barrier islands), which once protected New Orleans against storm surge. Following Hurricane Katrina, the United States Army Corps of Engineers has instituted massive levee repair and hurricane protection measures to protect the city. In 2006, Louisiana voters overwhelmingly adopted an amendment to the state’s constitution to dedicate all revenues from off-shore drilling to restore Louisiana’s eroding coast line. Congress has allocated $7 billion to bolster New Orleans’ flood protection.
temperature was 102 °F (39 °C) on August 22, 1980. The average precipitation is 64.2 inches (1,630 mm) annually; the summer months are the wettest, while October is the driest month. Precipitation in winter usually accompanies the passing of a cold front. Hurricanes pose a severe threat to the area, and the city is particularly vulnerable because of its low elevation. According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the city is the most vulnerable in the country, when it comes to hurricanes. Since 1965, portions of New Orleans have been flooded by four different storms: Hurricane Betsy, Hurricane Georges, Hurricane Katrina, and Hurricane Rita. The city has been identified as one of three cities in the United States most vulnerable to hurricanes, mostly due to it being surrounded by water from the north, east, and south, and Louisiana’s sinking coast; the other two cities being Miami and New York City. New Orleans experiences snowfall only on rare occasions. A small amount of snow fell during the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm. On December 25, a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. Before that, the last white Christmas was in 1954 and brought 4.5 inches (11 cm). The last significant snowfall in New Orleans fell on December 22, 1989, when most of the city received 1–2 inches (2–5 cm) of snow. Also in the morning of December 11, 2008, snow fell, followed by sleet.
National protected areas
• Bayou Sauvage National Wildlife Refuge • Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve (part) • New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park
See also: Hurricane preparedness for New Orleans
The City of New Orleans & the Mississippi River
Hurricanes of Category 3 or greater passing within 100 miles (160 km) of New Orleans (1852 to 2005) The climate of New Orleans is humid subtropical, with short, generally mild winters and hot, humid summers. In January, morning lows average around 43 °F (6 °C), and daily highs around 62 °F (17 °C). In July, lows average 74 °F (23 °C), and highs average 91 °F (33 °C). The lowest recorded temperature was 7 °F (−14 °C) on February 13, 1899. The highest recorded Bourbon Street, New Orleans, in 2003, looking towards Canal Street See also: Wards of New Orleans and New Orleans neighborhoods
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New Orleans, Chartres Street looking towards Canal Street, (2004) The Central Business District of New Orleans is located immediately north and west of the Mississippi River, and was historically called the "American Quarter" or "American Sector." Most streets in this area fan out from a central point in the city. Major streets of the area include Canal Street, Poydras Street, Tulane Avenue and Loyola Avenue. Canal Street functions as the street which divides the traditional "downtown" area from the "uptown" area. Every street crossing Canal Street between the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, which is the northern edge of the French Quarter, has a different name for the "uptown" and "downtown" portions. For example, St. Charles Avenue, known for its street car line, is called Royal Street below Canal Street. Elsewhere in the city, Canal Street serves as the dividing point between the "South" and "North" portions of various streets. In the local parlance downtown means "downriver from Canal Street", while uptown means "upriver from Canal Street". Downtown neighborhoods include the French Quarter, Tremé, the 7th Ward, Faubourg Marigny, Bywater (the Upper Ninth Ward), and the Lower Ninth Ward. Uptown neighborhoods include the Warehouse District, the Lower Garden District, the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau, and Broadmoor. However, the Warehouse and the Central Business District, despite being above Canal Street, are frequently called "Downtown" as a specific region, as in the Downtown Development District. Other major districts within the city include Bayou St. John, Mid-City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East, and Algiers.
One Shell Square, at 51 floors, stands as the tallest building in New Orleans and Louisiana.
An aerial view of New Orleans (1999) historic landmark districts, administered by the New Orleans Historic District Landmarks Commission (HDLC). Many styles of housing exist in the city, including the shotgun house (originating from New Orleans) and the bungalow style. Creole townhouses, notable for their large courtyards and intricate iron balconies, line the streets of the French Quarter. Throughout the city, there are many other historic housing styles: Creole cottages, American townhouses, double-gallery houses, and Raised Center-Hall Cottages. St. Charles Avenue is famed for its large Antebellum homes. Its mansions are in various styles, such as Greek Revival, American Colonial and the Victorian styles of Queen Anne and Italianate architecture. New Orleans is also noted for its large, European-
See also: Buildings and architecture of New Orleans and List of tallest buildings in New Orleans New Orleans is world-famous for its abundance of unique architectural styles, which reflects the city’s historical roots and multicultural heritage. The city has seventeen
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style Catholic cemeteries, which can be found throughout the city. For much of its history, New Orleans’ skyline consisted of only low- and mid-rise structures. The soft soils of New Orleans are susceptible to subsidence, and there was doubt about the feasibility of constructing large high rises in such an environment. The 1960s brought the World Trade Center New Orleans and Plaza Tower, which demonstrated that high rises could stand firm on New Orleans’ soil. One Shell Square took its place as the city’s tallest building in 1972. The oil boom of the early 1980s redefined New Orleans’ skyline again with the development of the Poydras Street corridor. Today, New Orleans’ high rises are clustered along Canal Street and Poydras Street in the Central Business District.
behind San Francisco, California, Chicago, Illinois, Charleston, South Carolina, and New York City, respectively. However, among the top 25 U.S. travel destinations as established by the poll, the city was voted last in terms of safety and cleanliness and near the bottom as a family vacation destination. The French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter" or Vieux Carré), which dates from the French and Spanish eras and is bounded by the Mississippi River, Rampart Street, Canal Street, and Esplanade Avenue, contains many popular hotels, bars, and nightclubs. Notable tourist attractions in the Quarter include Bourbon Street, Jackson Square, St. Louis Cathedral, the French Market (including Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets) and Preservation Hall. To tour the port, one can ride the Natchez, an authentic steamboat with a calliope, which cruises the Mississippi the length of the city twice daily. The city’s many beautiful cemeteries and their distinct above-ground tombs are often attractions in themselves, the oldest and most famous of which, Saint Louis Cemetery, greatly resembles Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris.
Culture and contemporary life
New Orleans has many major attractions, from the worldrenowned French Quarter and Bourbon Street’s notorious nightlife to St. Charles Avenue (home of Tulane and Loyola Universities, the historic Pontchartrain Hotel, and many 19th century mansions), to Magazine Street, with its many boutique stores and antique shops.
Mule-drawn carriage entering Royal Street French Quarter, 2001 According to current travel guides, New Orleans is one of the top ten most visited cities in the United States; 10.1 million visitors came to New Orleans in 2004, and the city was on pace to break that level of visitation in 2005. Prior to Katrina, there were 265 hotels with 38,338 rooms in the Greater New Orleans Area. In May 2007, there were over 140 hotels and motels in operation with over 31,000 rooms. A CNN poll released in October 2007 ranked New Orleans first in eight categories, behind only New York City, which ranked first in 15. According to the poll, New Orleans is the best U.S. city for live music, cocktail hours, flea markets, antique shopping, nightlife, "wild weekends", "girlfriend getaways" and cheap food. The city also ranked second for gay friendliness, overall food and dining, friendliness of residents, and people-watching, Also located in the French Quarter is the old New Orleans Mint, a former branch of the United States Mint, which now operates as a museum, and The Historic New Orleans Collection, a museum and research center housing art and artifacts relating to the history of New Orleans and the Gulf South. The National World War II Museum, opened in the Warehouse District in 2000 as the "National D-Day Museum", is dedicated to providing information and materials related to the Invasion of Normandy. Nearby, Confederate Memorial Hall, the oldest continually operating museum in Louisiana (although under renovation since Katrina), contains the second-largest collection of Confederate memorabilia in the world. Art museums in the city include the Contemporary Arts Center, the New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) in City Park, and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. New Orleans also boasts a decidedly natural side. It is home to the Audubon Nature Institute (which consists of
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Audubon Park, the Audubon Zoo, the Aquarium of the Americas, and the Audubon Insectarium), as well as gardens that include Longue Vue House and Gardens and the New Orleans Botanical Garden. City Park, one of the country’s most expansive and visited urban parks, has one of the largest (if not the largest) stands of oak trees in the world. There are also various points of interest in the surrounding areas. Many wetlands are in close proximity to the city, including Honey Island Swamp. Chalmette Battlefield and National Cemetery, located just south of the city, is the site of the 1815 Battle of New Orleans.
Glory Road, All the King’s Men, Déjà Vu, Last Holiday, The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, and numerous others. In 2006, work began on the Louisiana Film & Television studio complex, based in the Treme neighborhood. Louisiana began to offer similar tax incentives for music and theater productions in 2007, leading many to begin referring to New Orleans as "Broadway South."
Entertainment and performing arts
Mounted Krewe Officers in the Thoth Parade during Mardi Gras. The New Orleans area is home to numerous celebrations, the most popular of which is Carnival, often referred to as Mardi Gras. Carnival officially begins on the Feast of the Epiphany, also known as the "Twelfth Night." Mardi Gras (French for "Fat Tuesday"), the final and grandest day of festivities, is the last Tuesday before the Catholic liturgical season of Lent, which commences on Ash Wednesday. The largest of the city’s many music festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. Commonly referred to simply as "Jazz Fest", it is one of the largest music festivals in the nation, featuring crowds of people from all over the world, coming to experience music, food, arts, and crafts. Despite the name, it features not only jazz but a large variety of music, including both native Louisiana music and international artists. Along with Jazz Fest, New Orleans’ Voodoo Experience ("Voodoo Fest") and the Essence Music Festival are both large music festivals featuring local and international artists. Other major festivals held in the city include Southern Decadence, the French Quarter Festival, and the Tennessee Williams/ New Orleans Literary Festival. In 2002, Louisiana began offering tax incentives for film and television production. This led to a substantial increase in the number of films shot in the New Orleans area and brought the nickname "Hollywood South." Films which have been filmed or produced in and around New Orleans include: Ray, Runaway Jury, The Pelican Brief,
Louis Armstrong, famous New Orleans jazz musician New Orleans has always been a significant center for music, showcasing its intertwined European, Latin American, and African cultures. New Orleans’ unique musical heritage was born in its pre-American and early American days from a unique blending of European instruments with African rhythms. As the only North American city to allow slaves to gather in public and play their native music (largely in Congo Square, now located within Louis Armstrong Park), New Orleans gave birth to an indigenous music: jazz. Soon, brass bands formed, gaining popular attraction that still holds today. The city’s music was later significantly influenced by Acadiana, home of Cajun and Zydeco music, and Delta blues. New Orleans’ unique musical culture is further evident in its funerals. A spin on the tradition of military brass band funerals, traditional New Orleans funerals feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) on the way to the cemetery and happier music (hot jazz) on the way back. Such traditional musical funerals still take place when a local musician, a member of a club, krewe, or benevolent society, or a noted dignitary has passed. Until the 1990s, most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music",
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but visitors to the city have long dubbed them "jazz funerals". Much later in its musical development, New Orleans was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. An example of the New Orleans’ sound in the 1960s is the #1 US hit "Chapel of Love" by the Dixie Cups, a song which knocked The Beatles out of the top spot on the Billboard Hot 100. New Orleans became a hotbed for funk music in the 1960s and 1970s, and by the late 1980s, it had developed its own localized variant of hip hop, called bounce music. While never commercially successful outside of the Deep South, it remained immensely popular in the poorer neighborhoods of the city throughout the 1990s. A cousin of bounce, New Orleans hip hop has seen commercial success locally and internationally, producing Lil Wayne, Master P, Birdman, Juvenile, Cash Money Records, and No Limit Records. Additionally, the wave of popularity of cowpunk, a fast form of southern rock, originated with the help of several local bands, such as The Radiators, Better Than Ezra, Cowboy Mouth, and Dash Rip Rock. Throughout the 1990s, many sludge metal bands started in the area. New Orleans’ heavy metal bands like Eyehategod, Soilent Green, Crowbar, and Down have incorporated styles such as hardcore punk, doom metal, and southern rock to create an original and heady brew of swampy and aggravated metal that has largely avoided standardization. New Orleans is the southern terminus of the famed Highway 61.
Orleans-based bands and singers were 50,000-watt WNOE-AM (1060) and 10,000-watt WTIX-AM (690). These two stations competed head-to-head from the late 1950s to the late 1970s. WTUL, a local college radio station, broadcasts a wide array of programming, including classical music, reggae, jazz, showtunes, indie rock, electronic music, and even news programming from DemocracyNow. WTUL is listener supported and non-commercial. The disc jockeys are volunteers, many of them college students. Louisiana’s film and television tax credits have spurred some growth in the television industry, although to a lesser degree than in the film industry. K-Ville, a cop drama series set in post-Katrina New Orleans, aired on the Fox Network in 2007. Filming of the X-Men Origins: Wolverine took place in the city in early 2008 (although most of the filming took place in Australia and New Zealand).
New Orleans is world-famous for its food. The indigenous cuisine is distinctive and influential. From centuries of amalgamation of the local Creole, haute Creole, and New Orleans French cuisines, New Orleans food has developed. Local ingredients, French, Spanish, Italian, African, Native American, Cajun, and a hint of Cuban traditions combine to produce a truly unique and easily recognizable Louisiana flavor. Unique specialties include beignets (locally pronounced like "ben-yays"), square-shaped fried pastries that could be called "French doughnuts" (served with café au lait made with a blend of coffee and chicory rather than only coffee); Po’ boy and Italian Muffuletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell, fried oysters, boiled crawfish, and other seafood; étouffée, jambalaya, gumbo, and other Creole dishes; and the Monday favorite of red beans and rice. (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "Red beans and ricely yours".) New Orleans residents enjoy some of the best restaurants in the United States that cater specifically to locals, and visitors are encouraged to try the local establishments recommended by their hosts. Another New Orleans specialty is the Praline (locally pronounced as /ˈprɑːliːn/, not /ˈpreliːn/), a delicious candy made with brown sugar, granulated sugar, cream, butter and pecans.
The major daily newspaper is the The Times-Picayune, publishing since 1837. Weekly publications include The Louisiana Weekly and Gambit Weekly. Also in wide circulation is the Clarion Herald, the newspaper of the Archdiocese of New Orleans. Greater New Orleans is the 54th largest Designated Market Area (DMA) in the U.S., serving 566,960 homes. Major television network affiliates serving the area include: • 4 WWL • 12 WYES • 38 WNOL (The (CBS) (PBS) CW) • 6 WDSU • 20 WHNO • 42 KGLA (NBC) (LeSEA) (Telemundo) • 8 WVUE • 26 WGNO • 49 WPXL (ION) (Fox) (ABC) • 54 WUPL • 32 WLAE (MyNetworkTV) (PBS) WWOZ, the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Station, broadcasts 24 hours per day of jazz, blues, Zydeco, and New Orleans music at 90.7 FM and at www.wwoz.org. Two radio stations that were influential in promoting New
New Orleans has developed a distinctive local dialect over the years that is neither Cajun nor the stereotypical Southern accent, so often misportrayed by film and television actors. It does, like earlier Southern Englishes, feature frequent deletion of the post-vocalic "r". This dialect is quite similar to New York "Brooklynese", to people unfamiliar with either. There are many theories to how it came to be, but it likely resulted from New Orleans’
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geographic isolation by water and the fact that the city was a major immigration port throughout the 19th century. As a result, many of the ethnic groups who reside in Brooklyn also reside in New Orleans, such as the Irish, Italians (especially Sicilians), and Germans, among others, as well as a very sizeable Jewish community. One of the strongest varieties of the New Orleans accent is sometimes identified as the Yat dialect, from the greeting "Where y’at?" This distinctive accent is dying out generation by generation in the city itself, but remains very strong in the surrounding parishes. Less visibly, various ethnic groups throughout the area have retained their distinctive language traditions to this day. Although rare, Kreyol Lwiziyen is still spoken by the Creoles. Also rare, an archaic Louisiana-Canarian Spanish dialect is spoken by the Isleño people, but it can usually only be heard by older members of the population.
A tanker on the Mississippi River in New Orleans
New Orleans’ professional sports teams include the New Orleans Saints (NFL), the New Orleans Hornets (NBA), the New Orleans VooDoo (AFL), and the New Orleans Zephyrs (PCL). It is also home to the Big Easy Rollergirls, an all-female flat track roller derby team, and the New Orleans Blaze, a women’s football team. A local group of investors began conducting a study in 2007 to see if the city could support a Major League Soccer team. The Louisiana Superdome is the home of the Saints, the Sugar Bowl, and other prominent events. The New Orleans Arena is the home of the Hornets and many events that aren’t large enough to need the Superdome. New Orleans is also home to the Fair Grounds Race Course, the nation’s third-oldest thoroughbred track. The city’s Lakefront Arena has also been home to sporting events. Each year New Orleans plays host to the Sugar Bowl, the New Orleans Bowl and the Zurich Classic, a golf tournament on the PGA Tour. In addition, it has often hosted major sporting events that have no permanent home, such as the Super Bowl, ArenaBowl, NBA All-Star Game, BCS National Championship Game, and the NCAA Final Four.
Intracoastal Waterway near New Orleans United States based on volume of cargo handled, secondlargest in the state after the Port of South Louisiana, and 12th-largest in the U.S., based on value of cargo. The Port of South Louisiana, also based in the New Orleans area, is the world’s busiest in terms of bulk tonnage and, when combined with the Port of New Orleans, it forms the 4thlargest port system in volume handled. Like Houston, New Orleans is located in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the many oil rigs that lie just offshore. Louisiana ranks fifth in oil production and eighth in reserves in the United States. It is also home to two of the four Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage facilities: West Hackberry in Cameron Parish and Bayou Choctaw in Iberville Parish. Other infrastructure includes 17 petroleum refineries with a combined crude oil distillation capacity of nearly 2.8 million barrels per day (450,000 m³/d), the second highest in the nation after Texas. Louisiana has numerous ports, including the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), which is capable of receiving ultra large oil tankers. With all of the product to distribute, Louisiana is home to many major pipelines supplying the nation: Crude Oil (Exxon, Chevron, BP, Texaco, Shell, Scurloch-Permian, Mid-Valley, Calumet, Conoco, Koch Industries, Unocal, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Locap); Product (TEPPCO Partners, Colonial, Plantation,
New Orleans is home to one of the largest and busiest ports in the world. It also accounts for a major portion of the nation’s refinery and production of petroleum, has a top 50 research university, Tulane University, as well as half a dozen other institutions of higher education, and is renowned for its cultural tourism. New Orleans is also an industrial and distribution center. The Port of New Orleans is the 5th-largest port in the
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Explorer, Texaco, Collins); and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Dixie, TEPPCO, Black Lake, Koch, Chevron, Dynegy, Kinder Morgan Energy Partners, Dow Chemical Company, Bridgeline, FMP, Tejas, Texaco, UTP). There are a few energy companies that have their regional headquarters in the city, including Chevron Corporation and Shell Oil Company. The city is the home and worldwide headquarters of a single Fortune 500 company: Entergy, an energy and infrastructure providing company. Freeport-McMoRan, the city’s other Fortune 500 company, merged its copper and gold exploration unit with an Arizona company and relocated that division to Phoenix, Arizona. Other companies with a significant presence or base in New Orleans include: AT&T, IBM, Navtech, Harrah’s Entertainment, Popeyes Chicken & Biscuits, Zatarain’s, Whitney National Bank (Corp. HQ), Capital One (Banking HQ), Tidewater (NYSE: TDW) (Corp. HQ), and Energy Partners Ltd. (NYSE: EPL) (Corp. HQ). Tourism is a major staple of the city’s economy, a $5.5 billion industry that accounts for 40 percent of New Orleans’ tax revenues. In 2004, tourism employed 85,000 people, making it New Orleans’ top industry. The city also hosts the World Cultural Economic Forum (WCEF). The forum, held annually at the New Orleans Morial Convention Center, is directed toward promoting cultural and economic development opportunities through the strategic convening of cultural ambassadors and leaders from around the world. The first WCEF took place in October 2008. The federal government has a significant presence in the area. NASA’s Michoud Assembly Facility is located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish, known as New Orleans East and is operated by Lockheed Martin. It is a large manufacturing facility where the external fuel tanks for the space shuttles are produced, and it also houses the National Finance Center, operated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
1920 387,219 14.2% 1930 458,762 18.5% 1940 494,537 7.8% 1950 570,445 15.3% 1960 627,525 10.0% 1970 593,471 −5.4% 1980 557,515 −6.1% 1990 496,938 −10.9% 2000 484,674 −2.5% Est. 2009 469,605 −3.1% Historical Population Figures
New Orleans contains many distinctive neighborhoods. As of the census of 2000, there were 484,674 people, 188,251 households, and 112,950 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,684.3 inhabitants per square mile (1,036.4 /km²). There were 215,091 housing units at an average density of 1,191.3 inhabitants per square mile (460.0 /km²). The racial makeup of the city was 67.25% African American, 28.05% White, 0.20% Native American, 2.26% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.93% from other races, and 1.28% from two or more races. 3.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The last population estimate before Hurricane Katrina was 454,865, as of July 1, 2005. A population analysis released in August 2007 estimated the population to be 273,000, 60% of the pre-Katrina population and an increase of about 50,000 since July 2006. A September 2007 report by The Greater New Orleans Community Data Center, which tracks population based on U.S. Postal Service figures, found that in August 2007, just over 137,000 households received mail. That compares with about 198,000 households in July 2005, representing about 70% of pre-Katrina population. A 2006 study by researchers at Tulane University and the University of California, Berkeley determined that
Historical populations Census Pop. %± 1810 17,242 — 1820 27,176 57.6% 1830 46,082 69.6% 1840 102,193 121.8% 1850 116,375 13.9% 1860 168,675 44.9% 1870 191,418 13.5% 1880 216,090 12.9% 1890 242,039 12.0% 1900 287,104 18.6% 1910 339,075 18.1%
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there are as many as 10,000 to 14,000 illegal immigrants, many from Mexico, currently residing in New Orleans. Janet Murguía, president and chief executive officer of the National Council of La Raza, stated that there could be up to 120,000 Hispanic workers in New Orleans. In June 2007, one study stated that the Hispanic population had risen from 15,000, pre-Katrina, to over 50,000. A recent article released by The Times-Picayune indicated that the city had undergone a recent influx of 5,300 households in the later half of 2008, bringing the population to around 469,605 households or 88.1% of its pre-Katrina levels. While the area’s population has been on an upward trajectory since the storm, much of that growth was attributed to residents returning after Katrina. Many observers predicted that growth would taper off, but the data center’s analysis suggests that New Orleans and the surrounding parishes are benefiting from an economic migration resulting from the global financial crisis of 2008–2009.
schools, street names, architecture, and festivals, including Mardi Gras. New Orleans also famously has a presence of its distinctive variety of Louisiana Voodoo, due in part to syncretism with Roman Catholic beliefs, the fame of voodoo practitioner Marie Laveau, and New Orleans’ distinctly Caribbean cultural influences. Although the exotic image of Voodoo within the city has been highly promoted by the tourism industry, there are only a small number of serious adherents to the religion. New Orleans’ pre-Katrina population of 10,000 Jews has now dropped to 7,000. In the wake of Katrina, all New Orleans synagogues lost members, but were able to re-open in their original locations, except for Congregation Beth Israel, the oldest and most prominent Orthodox synagogue in the New Orleans region. Beth Israel’s building in Lakeview was destroyed by flooding, and it is currently in temporary quarters in Metairie.
See also: Hurricane Katrina, Effect of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans, and Drainage in New Orleans
An aerial view from a United States Navy helicopter showing floodwaters around the entire downtown New Orleans area (2005). By the time Hurricane Katrina approached the city at the end of August 2005, most residents had evacuated. As the hurricane passed through the Gulf Coast region, the city’s federal flood protection system failed, resulting in the worst civil engineering disaster in American history. Floodwalls and levees constructed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers failed below design specifications and 80% of the city flooded. Tens of thousands of residents who had remained in the city were rescued or otherwise made their way to shelters of last resort at the Louisiana Superdome or the New Orleans Morial Convention Center. Over 1,500 people died in Louisiana and some are still unaccounted for. Hurricane Katrina called for the first mandatory evacuation in the city’s
Saint Louis Cathedral is a symbol of New Orleans. New Orleans is notably absent from the Protestant Bible Belt that dominates religion in the Southern United States. In New Orleans and the surrounding Gulf Coast area, the predominant religion is Catholicism. Within the Archdiocese of New Orleans (which includes not only the city but the surrounding Parishes as well), 35.9% percent of the population is Roman Catholic. The influence of Catholicism is reflected in many of the city’s French and Spanish cultural traditions, including its many parochial
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history, the second of which came 3 years later with Hurricane Gustav.
by district and two at-large councilmembers. Mayor Ray Nagin was elected in May 2002 and was reelected in the mayoral election of May 20, 2006. The Orleans Parish Civil Sheriff’s Office serves papers involving lawsuits and provides security for the Civil District Court and Juvenile Courts. The Criminal Sheriff, Marlin Gusman, maintains the parish prison system, provides security for the Criminal District Court, and provides backup for the New Orleans Police Department on an as-needed basis. The city of New Orleans and the parish of Orleans operate as a merged city-parish government. Before the city of New Orleans became co-extensive with Orleans Parish, Orleans Parish was home to numerous smaller communities. The original city of New Orleans was composed of what are now the 1st through 9th wards. The city of Lafayette (including the Garden District) was added in 1852 as the 10th and 11th wards. In 1870, Jefferson City, including Faubourg Bouligny and much of the Audubon and University areas, was annexed as the 12th, 13th, and 14th wards. Algiers, on the west bank of the Mississippi, was also annexed in 1870, becoming the 15th ward. Four years later, Orleans Parish became coextensive with the city of New Orleans, when the city of Carrollton was annexed as the 16th and 17th wards. New Orleans’ government is now largely centralized in the city council and mayor’s office, but it maintains a number of relics from earlier systems when various sections of the city ran much of their affairs separately. For example, New Orleans has seven elected tax assessors, each with their own staff, representing various districts of the city, rather than one centralized office. A constitutional amendment passed on November 7, 2006, will consolidate the seven assessors into one by 2010.
The city was declared off-limits to residents while efforts to clean up after Hurricane Katrina began. The approach of Hurricane Rita in September 2005 caused repopulation efforts to be postponed, and the Lower Ninth Ward was reflooded by Rita’s storm surge.
The Census Bureau in July 2006 estimated the population of New Orleans to be 223,000; a subsequent study estimated that 32,000 additional residents had moved to the city as of March 2007, bringing the estimated population to 255,000, approximately 56% of the pre-Katrina population level. Another estimate, based on data on utility usage from July 2007, estimated the population to be approximately 274,000 or 60% of the pre-Katrina population. These estimates are somewhat smaller than a third estimate, based on mail delivery records, from the Greater New Orleans Community Data Center in June 2007, which indicated that the city had regained approximately two-thirds of its pre-Katrina population.
The New Orleans cityscape as of 2007 Several major tourist events and other forms of revenue for the city have returned. Large conventions are being held again, such as those held by the American Library Association and American College of Cardiology. College football events such as the Bayou Classic, New Orleans Bowl, and Sugar Bowl returned for the 2006-2007 season. The New Orleans Saints returned that season as well, following speculation of a move. The New Orleans Hornets returned to the city fully for the 2007-2008 season, having partially spent the 2006-2007 season in Oklahoma City. New Orleans successfully hosted the 2008 NBA All-Star Game and the 2008 BCS National Championship Game. The city hosted the first and second rounds of the 2007 NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Tournament. New Orleans and Tulane University will be hosting the Final Four Championship in 2012. Major events, such as Mardi Gras and the Jazz & Heritage Festival were never displaced or cancelled.
The United States Postal Service operates post offices in New Orleans. The New Orleans Main Post Office is at 701 Loyola Avenue in the Central Business District.
New Orleans’s violent crime rate is high compared with other cities in the United States. Homicides peaked at 421 in 1994, a rate of 86 per 100,000 residents. The homicide rate rose and fell year to year throughout the late 1990s, but the overall trend from 1994 to 1999 was a steady reduction in homicides. From 1999 to 2004, the homicide rate increased. New Orleans had the highest homicide rate of any major American city in 2002 (53.3 per 100,000 people) and again in 2003 (275 homicides). Violent crime is a serious problem for New Orleans residents, but far less of a problem for tourists. As in other U.S. cities of comparable size, the incidence of
See also: List of mayors of New Orleans New Orleans has a mayor-council government. The city council consists of five council members, who are elected
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homicide and other violent crimes is highly concentrated in certain low-income neighborhoods, such as housing projects, that are sites of open-air drug trade. The homicide rate for the entire New Orleans metropolitan area was 24.4 per 100,000 in 2002. After Hurricane Katrina, media attention focused on the reduced violent crime rate following the exodus of many New Orleanians. Conversely, a number of cities that took in Katrina evacuees had a significant increase in their murder rate. Houston, for example, had a 25% increase in murders from the previous year. Captain Dwayne Ready stated, "We also recognize that Katrina evacuees continue to have an impact on the murder rate." Police have not kept records of how evacuees have affected crime rates other than homicide. As more residents return to New Orleans, the trend is starting to reverse itself, although calculating the homicide rate remains difficult given that no authoritative source can cite a total population figure. There were 22 homicides in July 2006, the same as the monthly average for the city from 2002 until Hurricane Katrina. There were 161 homicides in 2006. On Thursday, January 11, 2007, several thousand New Orleans residents marched through city streets and gathered at City Hall for a rally demanding police and city leaders tackle the crime problem. Mayor Ray Nagin said he was "totally and solely focused" on addressing the problem. The city of New Orleans implemented checkpoints starting in early January 2007 from the hours of 2 a.m and 6 a.m. in high-crime areas and, as of January 20, 2007, they had made over 60 arrests and issued more than 100 citations. Although the city has lost more than 40% of its preKatrina population, it has recaptured an infamous unwanted title, as the nation’s "murder capital", according to the FBI. By November 2007, local media reports claimed homicides had already eclipsed the previous year’s numbers. The city recorded a total of 209 homicides in 2007.
The Greater New Orleans area has approximately 200 parochial schools, with the vast majority being run by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans. The prevalence of very good parochial schools has been both a cause and a consequence of the troubles in the public schools. Because so many middle class students have been enrolled in non-public schools, middle class support for public education has been relatively weak. At the same time, the apparent low quality of public schools in New Orleans has encouraged middle class families to educate their children in private or parochial schools. This has contributed to a major underfunding of the public school system.
Colleges and universities
A large number of institutions of higher education exist within the city, including Tulane University and Loyola University New Orleans, the city’s major private universities. These universities also administrate the city’s three professional schools, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane University Law School and Loyola University New Orleans College of Law. The University of New Orleans is a large public research university in the city. Dillard University, Southern University at New Orleans and Xavier University of Louisiana are among some of the leading historically black colleges and universities in the United States (Xavier being the only predominantly black Catholic university in the U.S.) Louisiana State University School of Medicine is the state’s flagship public university medical school, which also conducts research. Our Lady of Holy Cross College, Notre Dame Seminary and the New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary are several smaller religiously affiliated universities. Other notable schools include Delgado Community College, the William Carey College School of Nursing, the Culinary Institute of New Orleans, Herzing College, and Commonwealth University.
There are numerous academic and public libraries and archives in New Orleans, including Monroe Library at Loyola University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University, the Law Library of Louisiana, and the Earl K. Long Library at the University of New Orleans. The New Orleans Public Library includes 13 locations, most of which were damaged by Hurricane Katrina. However, only four libraries remained closed in 2007. The main library includes a Louisiana Division housing city archives and special collections. Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection and the Old U.S. Mint. An independently operated lending library called Iron Rail Book Collective specializes in radical and hard-tofind books. The library contains over 8,000 titles and is
New Orleans Public Schools is the city’s school district and one of the area’s largest (along with the Jefferson Parish School District). It is widely recognized as the lowest performing school district in Louisiana. According to researchers Carl L. Bankston and Stephen J. Caldas, 12 of the 103 schools in New Orleans showed reasonably good performance at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Following Hurricane Katrina, the state of Louisiana took over most of the schools within the system (all schools that fell into a nominal "worst-performing" metric); about 20 new charter schools have been started since the storm, educating 15,000.
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open to the public. It was the first library in the city to reopen after Hurricane Katrina.
streetcars which normally run on the Riverfront and Canal Street lines. Restoration of service has been gradual, with vintage St. Charles line cars running on the Riverfront and Canal lines until the more modern red cars are back in service; they are being individually restored at the RTA’s facility in the Carrollton neighborhood. On December 23, 2007, streetcars were restored to running on the St. Charles line up to Carrolton Avenue. The much-anticipated re-opening of the second portion of the historic route, which continues until the intersection of Carrolton Avenue and Claiborne Avenue, was commemorated on June 28, 2008.
Public transportation in the city is operated by the New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). There are many bus routes connecting the city and suburban areas. The RTA lost 200+ buses due to Hurricane Katrina, this would mean that there would be a 30-60 minute waiting period for the next bus to come to the bus stop, and the streetcars took until 2008 to return, so the RTA placed an order for 38 Orion VII Next Generation clean diesel buses, which arrived in July 2008. The RTA has these new buses running on biodiesel. The Jefferson Parish Department of Transit Administration operates Jefferson Transit, which provides service between the city and its suburbs.
A Saint Charles Avenue streetcar traveling Canal Street
See also: Famous streets of New Orleans New Orleans proper is served by Interstate 10, Interstate 610 and Interstate 510. I-10 travels east-west through the city as the Pontchartrain Expressway. In the far eastern part of the city, New Orleans East, it is known as the Eastern Expressway. I-610 provides a direct shortcut for traffic passing through New Orleans via I-10, allowing that traffic to bypass I-10’s southward curve. In the future, New Orleans will have another interstate highway, Interstate 49, which will be extended from its current terminus in Lafayette to the city. In addition to the interstate highways, U.S. 90 travels through the city, while U.S. 61 terminates in the city’s downtown center. In addition, U.S. 11 terminates in the eastern portion of the city. New Orleans is home to many bridges, the tolled Crescent City Connection is perhaps the most notable. It serves as New Orleans’ major bridge across the Mississippi River, providing a connection between the city’s downtown on the eastbank and its westbank suburbs. Other bridges that cross the Mississippi River in the New Orleans area are the Huey P. Long Bridge, over which U.S. 90 travels, and the Hale Boggs Memorial Bridge, which carries Interstate 310. The Twin Span Bridge, a five-mile (8 km) causeway in eastern New Orleans, carries I-10 across Lake
New Orleans has three active streetcar lines. The St. Charles line is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in America and each car is a historic landmark. The Riverfront line runs parallel to the river from Esplanade Street through the French Quarter to Canal Street to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District. The Canal Street line uses the Riverfront line tracks from the intersection of Canal Street and Poydras Street, down Canal Street, then branches off and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue, with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade, near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art. The city’s streetcars were also featured in the Tennessee Williams play, A Streetcar Named Desire. The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948. There are proposals to revive a Desire streetcar line, running along the neutral grounds of North Rampart and St. Claude, as far downriver as Poland Avenue, near the Industrial Canal. Hurricane Katrina destroyed the power lines supplying the St. Charles Avenue line. The associated levee failures flooded the Mid-City facility storing the red
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Pontchartrain. Also in eastern New Orleans, Interstate 510/LA 47 travels across the Intracoastal Waterway/Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal via the Paris Road Bridge, connecting New Orleans East and suburban Chalmette. The tolled Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, consisting of two parallel bridges are, at 24 miles (39 km) in length, the longest bridges in the world. Built in the 1950s (southbound span) and 1960s (northbound span), the bridges connect New Orleans with its suburbs on the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain via Metairie.
National Railway. The New Orleans Public Belt Railroad provides interchange services between the railroads. Recently, many have proposed extending New Orleans’ public transit system by adding light rail routes from downtown, along Airline Highway through the airport to Baton Rouge and from downtown to Slidell and the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Proponents of this idea claim that these new routes would boost the region’s economy, which has been badly damaged by Hurricane Katrina, and serve as an evacuation option for hospital patients out of the city.
The metropolitan area is served by the Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport, located in the suburb of Kenner. New Orleans also has several regional airports located throughout the metropolitan area. These include the Lakefront Airport, Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base New Orleans (locally known as Callendar Field) in the suburb of Belle Chasse and "Southern Seaplane", also located in Belle Chasse. Southern Seaplane has a 3,200-foot (980 m) runway for wheeled planes and a 5,000-foot (1,500 m) water runway for seaplanes. New Orleans International suffered some damage as a result of Hurricane Katrina, but as of April 2007, it contained the most traffic and is the busiest airport in the state of Louisiana and the sixth busiest in the Southeast.
Ferry connecting New Orleans and Algiers The Canal Street Ferry connects the heart of New Orleans with the neighborhood of Algiers Point on the other side of the Mississippi River. This service has been in continuous operation since 1827. Pedestrians ride for free, while automobiles are charged a fee. Service is from 6 am until midnight.
The city is served by rail via Amtrak. The New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal is the central rail depot, and is served by three trains: the Crescent, operating between New Orleans and New York City; the City of New Orleans, operating between New Orleans and Chicago; and the Sunset Limited, operating through New Orleans between Orlando, Florida, and Los Angeles, California. From late August 2005 to the present, the Sunset Limited has remained officially a Florida-to-Los Angeles train, being considered temporarily truncated due to the lingering effects of Hurricane Katrina. At first (until late October 2005) it was truncated to a San Antonio-to-Los Angeles service; since then (from late October 2005 on) it has been truncated to a New Orleans-to-Los Angeles service. As time has passed, particularly since the January 2006 completion of the rebuilding of damaged tracks east of New Orleans by their owner, CSX Transportation, the obstacles to restoration of the Sunset Limited’s full route have been more managerial and political than physical. With the strategic benefits of both a major international port and one of the few double-track Mississippi River crossings, the city is served by six of the seven Class I railroads in North America: Union Pacific Railroad, BNSF Railway, Norfolk Southern Railway, Kansas City Southern Railway, CSX Transportation and Canadian
New Orleans has eleven sister cities: • • • • • • • • • • • Caracas, Venezuela Durban, South Africa Holdfast Bay, Australia Innsbruck, Austria Juan-les-Pins, France Maracaibo, Venezuela Matsue, Shimane, Japan Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo San Miguel de Tucuman, Argentina Tegucigalpa, Honduras
The city’s several nicknames are illustrative: • Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city.
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• The Big Easy was possibly a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It also may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speak-easy due to the inability of the federal government to control alcohol sales in open violation of the 18th Amendment. The term was used by local columnist Betty Gillaud in the 1970s to contrast life in the city to that of New York City. The name also refers to New Orleans’ status as a major city, at one time "one of the cheapest places in America to live" and came into popular usage throughout the United States in the wake of the 1987 film, The Big Easy, which was set in New Orleans. • The City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, and refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of many of the residents. • America’s Most Interesting City appears on welcome signs at the city limits. • Hollywood South is a reference to the large number of films, big and small, shot in the city since 2002. • The Northernmost Caribbean City is a reference from The Boston Globe, as well as other travel guides due in part to the similarities of culture with the Caribbean islands. • One of the 15 Coolest North American Cities is a designation given to the city by MSN travel due to the city’s busy downtown area during business hours and during night hours. 
"Louisiana Parish Map with Administrative Cities". http://geology.com/county-map/louisiana.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. ^ "Home Rule Charter of the City of New Orleans as amended through January 1, 1996". 1996-01-01. http://cityofno.com/portal.aspx?portal=1&tabid=9. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. Cultures well represented in New Orleans’ history include African American, Creole, Cajun, French, German, Irish, Italian, Jewish, Latino, Spanish, and Vietnamese. "Multicultural History". http://www.neworleansonline.com/neworleans/ multicultural/multiculturalhistory/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-26. ^ "New Orleans: The Birthplace of Jazz" (primarily excerpted from Jazz: A History of America’s Music). PBS – JAZZ A Film By Ken Burns. http://www.pbs.org/jazz/places/ places_new_orleans.htm. Retrieved on 2006-05-17. "America Savors Its Music During Jazz Appreciation Month". U.S. Dept. of State – USINFO. http://usinfo.state.gov/scv/Archive/2006/ Apr/03-859354.html. Retrieved on 2006-05-17. Institute of New Orleans History and Culture at Gwynedd-Mercy College Behind the Scenes: Hurricane on the Bayou New Orleans: A Choice Between Destruction and Reparations, by David Billings, The Fellowship of Reconciliation, November/December 2005 Bring New Orleans Back Spike Lee offers his take on Hurricane Katrina, by Damian Dovarganes, Associated Press, July 14, 2006 In Motion: African American Migration Experience - Haitian Immigration: 18th & 19th Centuries, NY Public Library], accessed 7 May 2008 "History of Les Gens De Couleur Libres". http://www.creolehistory.com/. Retrieved on 2006-05-17. Walter Johnson, Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999, p.2 and 6 "The Ustica Connection". http://www.ustica.org/ san_bartolomeo/catalog/civilwar.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-22. Kusky, Timothy M. (2005-12-29) (PDF). Why is New Orleans Sinking?. Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences , Saint Louis University. http://www.eas.slu.edu/People/TMKusky/ original%20files/ Why%20is%20New%20Orleans%20Sinking.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-06-17. O’Hanlon, Larry (2006-03-31). "New Orleans Sits Atop Giant Landslide". Discovery Channel. http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20060327/ neworleans_pla.html. Retrieved on 2006-06-17.
  
• • • • • • Hurricane on the Bayou (film) List of National Historic Landmarks in Louisiana List of people from New Orleans, Louisiana New Orleans in fiction Orléans, France USS Orleans Parish (LST-1069)
 "Census revises 2007 population in New Orleans area". The Associated Press. 2009-01-14. http://news.aol.com/ story?id=n20090114180609990022. Retrieved on 2009-02-10. Also /nuː ˈɔrlənz/. Locally it is [ˈnɔːlənz], and in many parts of the US, /ˌnuː ɔrˈliːnz/. "Bartleby". http://www.bartleby.com/61/40/ N0084000.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-02. [lanuvɛlɔʀleɑ̃] ^ ""Orleans Parish History and Information"". http://www.mylouisianagenealogy.com/la_county/ or.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-18.
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• • • • • • • • • Official Website of the City of New Orleans Official Tourism Website of the City of New Orleans New Orleans travel guide by Wikitravel History of New Orleans New Orleans Collection, 1770-1904 from the NewYork Historical Society New Orleans PodCasting -- Listen to the voices that are rebuilding New Orleans A sampling of New Orleans music including jazz, R&B, rock and roll, funk, and brass band New Orleans Cemeteries aka "The Cities of the Dead" Army Corps of Engineers’ New Orleans Risk and Reliability Report -- Interactive map showing flood risk Live Emergency Scanner Feeds Online Who’s Killing New Orleans? - City Journal New Orleans Jazz And Heritage Festival ‹The template WikiMapia is being considered for deletion.› New Orleans at WikiMapia
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Coordinates: 29°58′N 90°03′W / 29.967°N 90.05°W / 29.967; -90.05