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Jakarta

Jakarta
Jakarta Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Special Capital Territory of Jakarta Elevation 4 m (13 ft) Population (2008) - City 8,489,910 - Density 11,315.7/km2 (29,307.5/sq mi) - Metro 13,194,000
[1]

Time zone Area code(s) Website

WIB (UTC+7) +6221 www.jakarta.go.id

Jakarta Skyline (top), Monumen Nasional (left), Istiqlal Mosque (center right), and Jakarta traffic

Seal

Nickname(s): The Big Durian Motto: Jaya Raya ("Victorious and Great")

Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. It also has a greater population than any other city in Southeast Asia. It was formerly known as Sunda Kelapa (397–1527), Jayakarta (1527–1619), Batavia (1619–1942), and Djakarta (1942–1972). Located on the northwest coast of Java, it has an area of 661.52 square kilometres (255.41 sq mi) and a population of 8,489,910.[1] Jakarta is the country’s economic, cultural and political center. Jakarta is the twelfth-largest city in the world; the metropolitan area, called Jabodetabek, is the sixth-largest in the world. First established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. As Batavia, it grew greatly as the capital of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Renamed Jakarta in 1942 during Japan’s occupation of the Java, it was made the capital city of Indonesia when the country became independent after World War II. Major landmarks in Jakarta include Indonesia Stock Exchange, the Bank of Indonesia, and the National Monument (Tugu Monas). The city is the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat. Jakarta is served by the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport, and Tanjung Priok harbour; it is connected by several intercity and commuter railways, and served by several bus lines running on reserved busways.

Jakarta
Location of Jakarta in Indonesia

Coordinates: 6°16′0″S 106°48′0″E / 6.26667°S 106.8°E / -6.26667; 106.8Coordinates: 6°16′0″S 106°48′0″E / 6.26667°S 106.8°E / -6.26667; 106.8 Country Province Government - Type - Governor Area - City Indonesia Jakarta Special administrative area Fauzi Bowo 750.28 km2 (289.7 sq mi)

Geography
Jakarta is located on the northwestern coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea. The northern part of Jakarta is constituted on a plain land, approximately eight meters above the sea level. This contributes to the frequent flooding. The southern parts of the city are hilly. There are about thirteen rivers flowing through Jakarta, mostly flowing from the hilly southern parts of the city northwards towards the Java Sea. The most important river is the Ciliwung River, which divides the city into the western and

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eastern principalities. The city border is the province of West Java on its east side and the province of Banten on its west side. The Thousand Islands, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay north of the city.

Jakarta
established Sunda Pura as a new capital city for the kingdom, located at the northern coast of Java.[4] Purnawarman left seven memorial stones with inscriptions bearing his name spread across the area, including the present-day Banten and West Java provinces. The Tugu Inscription is considered the oldest of all of them.[5] After the power of Tarumanagara declined, all of its many territories, including Sunda Pura, became part of the Kingdom of Sunda. The harbour area were renamed Sunda Kelapa as written in a Hindu monk’s lontar manuscripts, which are now located at the Bodleian Library of Oxford University in England, and travel records by Prince Bujangga Manik.[6] By the fourteenth century, Sunda Kelapa became a major trading port for the kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices, especially black pepper.[7] The Kingdom of Sunda made a peace agreement with Portugal by allowing the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 in order to defend against the rising power of the Sultanate of Demak from central Java.[8] In 1527, Fatahillah, a Sumatran Malay warrior from Demak attacked Kingdom of Sunda and succeeded in conquering the harbour on June 22, 1527, after which Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta.[8]

Climate
Jakarta has a hot and humid equatorial/tropical climate (Af) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Located in the western-part of Indonesia, Jakarta’s wet season rainfall peak is January with average monthly rainfall of 350 millimetres (14 in), and its dry season low point is August with a monthly average of 60 millimetres (2.4 in).[2] The city is humid throughout the year with daily temperature range of 25° to 38°C (77°-100°F).[3]

History
For more details on this topic, see History of Jakarta.

The former Stadhuis of Batavia, the seat of Governor General of VOC. The building now serves as Jakarta Historical Museum, Jakarta Old Town area.

The Castle of Batavia, seen from West Kali Besar by Andries Beeckman circa 1656-58 Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the British East India Company’s first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the center of British trade in Indonesia until 1682.[9] Apparently, Jayawikarta also made a trading connection with the English merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615.[10] When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch later deteriorated, Jayawikarta’s soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. But even

Dutch Batavia in the 17th Century, built in what is now North Jakarta The old name of Jakarta was Sunda Kelapa. The earliest record mentioning this area as a capital city can be traced to the Indianized kingdom of Tarumanagara as early as the fourth century. In AD 39, King Purnawarman

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with the help of fifteen British ships, Prince Jayakarta’s army wasn’t able to defeat the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen (J.P. Coen). The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced the English retreat on their ships. With this victory, Dutch power in the area was consolidated. In 1619 they renamed the city "Batavia."

Jakarta
at the place where the general’s bodies were dumped. In 1966, Jakarta was declared a "special capital city district" (daerah khusus ibukota), thus gaining a status approximately equivalent to that of a state or province.[15] Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as Governor from the mid-60’s commencement of the "New Order" through to 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built several hospitals, and a large number of new schools. He also cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects—some for the benefit of the Suharto family[16][17]—and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city in order to stem the overcrowding and poverty.[18] Land redistribution, structural adjustment, and foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom which changed the face of the city.[19] The boom ended with the 1997/98 East Asian Economic crisis putting Jakarta at the center of violence, protest, and political maneuvering. Longtime president, Suharto, began to lose his grip on power. Tensions reached a peak in the Jakarta riots of May 1998, when four students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces; four days of riots and violence ensued resulting in the loss of an estimated 1,200 lives and 6,000 buildings damaged or destroyed.[20] Suharto resigned as president, and Jakarta has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia.[21] A number of Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings have occurred in the city since 2000.[11]

Batavia c.1870 Commercial opportunities in the capital of the Dutch colony attracted Indonesian and especially Chinese immigrants, the increasing numbers creating burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. On 9 October 1740, 5,000 Chinese were massacred and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls.[11] The city began to move further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 encouraged more people to move far south of the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng was started in 1913[12], and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area.[11] The city was renamed "Jakarta" by the Japanese during their World War II occupation of Indonesia. Following World War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from allied-occupied Jakarta during their fight for Indonesian independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta. In 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta was once again made the national capital.[11] Indonesia’s founding president, Sukarno, envisaged Jakarta as a great international city. He instigated large government-funded projects undertaken with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture.[13][14] Projects in Jakarta included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard (Jalan MH Thamrin-Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument, major hotels, shopping centre, and a new parliament building. In October 1965, Jakarta was the site of an abortive coup attempt which saw 6 top generals killed, and ultimately resulted in the downfall of Sukarno and the start of Suharto’s "New Order. A propaganda monument stands

Administration
Officially, Jakarta is not a city, but rather a province with special status as the capital of Indonesia. It is administered much like any other Indonesian province. For example: Jakarta has a governor (instead of a mayor), and is divided into several sub-regions with their own administrative systems. Jakarta, as a province, is divided into five cities (kota), formerly municipalities, each headed by a mayor, and one regency (kabupaten) headed by a regent. In August 2007, Jakarta held its first ever election to pick a governor; the election was won by Fauzi Bowo. The city’s governors have previously been appointed by local parliament. The poll is part of a country-wide decentralization drive, allowing for direct local elections in several areas.[22] List of cities of Jakarta: • Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat: Pop. 889,448)[23] is the most densely populated district and home to most of the city’s skyscrapers. The district is the central government office, Bank Indonesia, the big mosque of Istiqlal, the big shopping center of Grand Indonesia and numerous museums. • East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur: Pop. 2,391,166) • North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara: Pop. 1,445,623 ) • South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan: Pop. 2,001,353 ) • West Jakarta (Jakarta Barat: Pop. 2,093,013)

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Jakarta
There has also been a significant Chinese community in Jakarta for many centuries. Officially, they make up 6% of the Jakarta population, though this number may be under-reported.[25]

Jakarta skyline The only regency of Jakarta is: • Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu: Pop. 18,644), formerly a subdistrict of North Jakarta.

Culture

One of the many Sukarno era statues in the city Jakarta has several performance centers, such as the Senayan center. Traditional music is often found at highclass hotels, including wayang and gamelan performances. As the nation’s largest city and capital, Jakarta has lured much national and regional talent who hope to find a greater audience and more opportunities for success. Ironically, the Betawi arts are rarely found in Jakarta due to their infamous low-profile and most of them had moved to the border of Jakarta, ridden by the wave of immigrant. It is easier to find Java or Minang based wedding ceremonial instead of Betawi wedding in Jakarta. It is easier to find Javanese Gamelan instead of Gambang Kromong (mixture between Betawi and Chinese music) or Tanjidor (mixture between Betawi and Portuguese music) or Marawis (mixture between Betawi and Yaman music). However, some festivals such as Jalan Jaksa Festival or Kemang Festival tried to preserve the Betawi art by inviting the artist to do some performances.[26]

National Museum of Indonesia As the economic and political capital of Indonesia, Jakarta attracts many foreign as well as domestic immigrants. Many of the immigrants are from the other parts of the island of Java, bringing along a mixture of dialects of the Javanese and Sundanese languages, as well as their traditional foods and customs. A nickname for Jakarta is "The Big Durian". The Betawi (Orang Betawi, or "people of Batavia") is a term used to describe the descendants of the people living around Batavia and recognized as a tribe from around the 18th-19th century. The Betawi people are mostly descended from various Southeast Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labor needs, and include people from various parts of Indonesia.[24] The language and culture of these immigrants are distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese. The language is more based on East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Javanese, Chinese, and Arab. Nowadays, the Jakarta-dialects used by people in Jakarta is loosely based on Betawi Language.

Economy
The economy depends heavily on financial service, trading, and manufacturing. Financial service constituted 23% of Jakarta’s GDP in 1989. The manufacturing industry is well-diversified with significant electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing sectors.[27] Jakarta is the most luxurious and busiest city in Indonesia. In 2009, 13% of population had an income per capita in excess of US$ 10,000 (Rp 108,000,000).[28]

Transportation
One of the most populous cities in the world, Jakarta is strained by transportation problems.[29] In Indonesia most

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Jakarta
economic crisis of 1998, some returned amid less effective government attempts to control them.[30]

Jalan Thamrin, a main road in Central Jakarta communal transport is provided by mikrolets, which are privately run minibuses. TransJakarta bus service in Jakarta The TransJakarta bus rapid transit service operates on seven reserved busway corridors in the city; the first, from Blok M to Jakarta Kota opened in January 2004. An outer ring road is now being constructed and is partly operational from Cilincing-Cakung-Pasar Rebo-Pondok Pinang-Daan Mogot-Cengkareng. A toll road connects Jakarta to Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in the north of Jakarta. Also connected via toll road is the port of Merak and Tangerang to the west and Bekasi, Cibitung and Karawang, Purwakarta and Bandung to the east.

Road transport
Despite the presence of many wide roads, Jakarta suffers from congestion due to heavy traffic, especially in the central business district. To reduce traffic jams, some major roads in Jakarta have a ’three in one’ rule during rush hours, first introduced in 1992, prohibiting fewer than three passengers per car on certain roads.

Rail and Waterway
Numerous railways serve Jakarta, connecting the city to its neighboring regions: Depok and Bogor to the south, Tangerang and Serpong to the west, and Bekasi, Karawang, and Cikampek to the east. The major rail stations are Gambir, Jatinegara, Pasar Senen, Manggarai, Tanah Abang, and Jakarta Kota. During peak hours, the number of passengers greatly exceeds the system’s capacity, and crowding is common. Two lines of the Jakarta Monorail are under construction: the green line serving Semanggi-Casablanca Road-Kuningan-Semanggi and the blue line serving Kampung Melayu-Casablanca Road-Tanah Abang-Roxy. In addition, there are plans for a two-line metro (MRT) system, with a north-south line between Kota and Lebak Bulus, with connections to both monorail lines; and an eastwest line, which will connect with the north-south line at the Sawah Besar station. The current project, which began in 2005, has been delayed due to a lack of funds, and the project has been abandoned by the developer PT Jakarta Monorail in March 2008. The government is now looking for new investors. On 30 November 2007, KRL(Commuter Train) Ciliwung Blue Line began operation.[31] It serves Jakarta’s circle line, which was used in the 80s. The fare price is

Motorised bajaj Auto rickshaws, called bajaj (pronounced badge-eye), provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city. From the early 1940s to 1991 they were a common form of local transportation in the city. In 1966, an estimated 160,000 rickshaws were operating in the city; as much as fifteen percent of Jakarta’s total workforce was engaged in rickshaw driving. In 1971, rickshaws were banned from major roads, and shortly thereafter the government attempted a total ban, which substantially reduced their numbers but did not eliminate them. An especially aggressive campaign to eliminate them finally succeeded in 1990 and 1991, but during the

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Rp5000,00. It serves Manggarai, Mampang, Karet, Jend. Sudirman Road, Duri, Angke, Kampung Bandan, Rajawali, Kemayoran, Pasar Senen, Gang Sentiong, Kramat, Pondok Jati, and Jatinegara. The train can carry 400 passengers.[32] On 6 June 2007, the city administration started to introduce the Waterway, a new river boat service along the Ciliwung River.[29][33]

Jakarta
capacity of 7,000 seats, is the home arena of the Indonesian national basketball team. Many international basketball matches are played in this stadium. The Senayan sports complex comprises several sport venues, which include the Bung Karno soccer stadium, Madya Stadium, Istora Senayan, a shooting range, a tennis court and a golf driving range. The Senayan complex was built in 1959 to accommodate the Asian Games in 1962. In 2011, Jakarta, together with Bandung, will once again host the Southeast Asian Games. Preparations to host the event have started since the conclusion of the 2007 Thailand Southeast Asian Games. The Indonesian Polo Association, as the governing body of polo in Indonesia, have stated its commitment to host the SEA Games polo tournament in Indonesia after polo is confirmed to be absent in the 2009 Laos Southeast Asian Games. The Indonesian Polo Team were placed last in the 2007 Southeast Asian Games.

Air
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK) is Jakarta’s major airport and Indonesia’s primary international gateway. It is used by both private and commercial carriers connecting Jakarta with other Indonesian cities and international destinations, and is Indonesia’s busiest airport. A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport (HLP) serves mostly private and presidential flights.

Education
See also: List of universities in Indonesia Jakarta is the home of many universities, the oldest of which are state-run University of Indonesia(UI)[34] and the privately-owned Universitas Nasional (UNAS)[35]. There are also many other private universities in Jakarta, such as Universitas Trisakti [36] and Universitas Tarumanagara, which are two of the few largest private universities in Jakarta. As the largest city and the capital, Jakarta houses a large number of students from various parts of Indonesia, many of whom reside in dormitories or home-stay residences. Similar to other large cities in developing Asian countries, there are many professional schools. For basic education, there are a variety of primary and secondary schools, tagged with public (national), private (national and bi-lingual national plus) and international schools. Two of the major international schools located in Jakarta are the Jakarta International School and the British International School, Jakarta. BIS is a SEASAC and a FOBISSEA school.

Nusantara Polo Club

Media
Newspapers
Jakarta has several daily newspapers such as Bisnis Indonesia, Investor Daily, Jakarta Globe, The Jakarta Post, Indo Pos, Seputar Indonesia, Kompas, Media Indonesia, Republika, Pos Kota, Warta Kota, Lampu Merah and Suara Pembaruan.

Sports
Since Soekarno’s era, Jakarta has often been chosen as the venue for international sport events, such as being the host of Asian Games in 1962, host of Asian Cup 2007 and several times hosting the regional-scale Sea Games. Jakarta is also home of several professional soccer clubs. The most popular of them is Persija, which regularly plays its matches in the Lebak Bulus Stadium. Another premiere division team is Persitara. The champions of Galatama competition, Warna Agung and Jayakarta soccer club, also homebase in Jakarta. The biggest stadium in Jakarta is the Bung Karno Stadium with a capacity of 100,000 seats[37]. For basketball, the Kelapa Gading Sport Mall in Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta, with a

Television
Government television: TVRI. Private national television: TPI, RCTI, Metro TV, Indosiar, StarANTV, SCTV, Trans TV, TV ONE (used to be Lativi), Trans 7, and Global TV. Local television: Jak-TV, O-Channel, and SpaceToon. Cable television: First Media, TelkomVision Satellite television: Indovision, Astro Nusantara, TelkomVision, Aora TV

Radio

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Jakarta
near rapidly urbanizing Bogor and Depok, and the fact that 40% of it is below sea level. Major floods occurred in 1996[40][41] when 5,000 hectares of land were flooded [42] and 2007.[43] Losses from infrastructure damage and state revenue were at least 5.2 trillion rupiah (572 million US dollars) and at least 85 people were killed [44] and about 350,000 people forced from their homes.[45]. Approximately 70% of Jakarta’s total area was flooded with water up to four meters deep in parts of city.[46] [47]

Landmarks
National Monument (or Monumen Nasional/Monas in local term), National Museum, Presidential Palace, Gambir Train Station, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Bung Karno Stadium

Problems

The informal sector
In September 2007, a new law was brought into effect which attempted to regulate aspects of public order. It forbids the giving of money to beggars, buskers and hawkers, bans squatter settlements on river banks and highways, and prohibits spitting and smoking on public transportation. Unauthorized people cleaning car windscreens and managing traffic at busy intersections will also be penalized. Critics of the new legislation claim that such laws will be difficult to enforce and it tends to ignore the desperate poverty of many of the capital’s inhabitants.[48] A trash dump in Bantar Gebang, Bekasi Like many big cities in developing countries, Jakarta suffers from major urbanization challenges. The population has risen sharply from 1.2 million in 1960 to 8.8 million in 2004, counting only its legal residents. The population of greater Jakarta is estimated at 23 million, making it the second largest urban area in the world. The rapid population growth has outgrown the government’s ability to provide basic needs for its residents. As the third biggest economy in Indonesia,Jakarta has attracted a large number of visitors. The population during weekdays is almost double that of weekends, due to the influx of residents residing in other areas of Jabodetabek. Because of government’s inability to provide adequate transportation for its large population, Jakarta also suffers from severe traffic jams that occur almost every day. Air pollution and waste management are also severe problems. By 2025 the population of Jakarta may reach 24.9 million, not counting millions more in surrounding areas.[38]

Sister relationships
Jakarta has sister relationships with a number of towns and regions worldwide: • in PRC • in Germany • in Hungary • in Turkey • in Saudi Arabia • in United States • in United Kingdom • in India • (state) in Australia • in France • in Netherlands • in South Korea • in Japan • in North Korea

References
[1] ^ Penduduk Provinsi DKI Jakarta: Penduduk Provinsi DKI Jakarta Januari 2008 (Demographics and Civil Records Service: Population of the Province of Jakarta January 2008 Turner, Peter (1997). Java (1st edition ed.). Melbourne: Lonely Planet Publications. pp. 37. ISBN 0-86442-314-4. "Jakarta: When to Go". Lonely Planet. Lonely Planet Publications. 2008. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/worldguide/indonesia/ jakarta/when-to-go. Retrieved on 2008-10-06. Sundakala: cuplikan sejarah Sunda berdasarkan naskah-naskah “Panitia Wangsakerta” Cirebon. Yayasan Pustaka Jaya, Jakarta. 2005. The Sunda Kingdom of West Java From Tarumanagara to Pakuan Pajajaran with the Royal

[2]

Sanitation
Surveys show that "less than a quarter of the population is fully served by improved water sources. The rest rely on a variety of sources, including rivers, lakes and private water vendors. Some 7.2 million people are [without clean water]."[39] [3]

[4]

Flooding
During the wet season, Jakarta suffers from flooding due to clogged sewage pipes and waterways, deforestation

[5]

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Center of Bogor. Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka. 2007. Three Old Sundanese Poems. KITLV Press. 2007. Sumber-sumber asli sejarah Jakarta, Jilid I: Dokumen-dokumen sejarah Jakarta sampai dengan akhir abad ke-16. Cipta Loka Caraka. 1999. ^ "History of Jakarta". BeritaJakarta. http://www.beritajakarta.com/english/AboutJakarta/ HistoryofJakarta.asp. Ricklefs, M.C. (1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300 (2nd edition ed.). London: MacMillan. pp. p.29. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. Heuken, Adolf (2000). Sumber-sumber asli sejarah Jakarta Jilid II: Dokumen-dokumen Sejarah Jakarta dari kedatangan kapal pertama Belanda (1596) sampai dengan tahun 1619 (Authentic sources of History of Jakarta part II: Documents of history of Jakarta from the first arrival of Dutch ship (1596) to year 1619). Jakarta: Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka. ^ Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet Publications. pp. 138–139. ISBN 1-74059-154-2. Template:Http://www.bapekojakartapusat.go.id/ node/42 Kusno, Abidin (2000). Behind the Postcolonial: Architecture, Urban Space and Political Cultures. New York City: Routledge isbn=0415236150. Schoppert, P.; Damais, S. (1997). Java Style. Paris: Didier Millet. ISBN 962-593-232-1. "Jakarta". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9106450/ Jakarta#13148.toc. Retrieved on 2007-09-17. Douglas, M. (1989). "The Environmental Sustainability of Development. Coordination, Incentives and Political Will in Land Use Planning for the Jakarta Metropolis". Third World Planning Review 11 (2 pages=pp. 211-238). Douglas, M. (1992). "The Political Economy of Urban Poverty and Environmental Management in Asia: Access, Empowerment and Community-based Alternatives". Environment and Urbanization 4 (2): 9–32. Turner, Peter (1997). Java (1st edition). Melbourne: Lonely Planet. pp. 315. ISBN 0-86442-314-4. Sajor, Edsel E. (2003). "Globalization and the Urban Property Boom in Metro Cebu, Philippines". Development and Change 34 (4): 713–742. doi:10.1111/1467-7660.00325?cookieSet=1. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ 1467-7660.00325?cookieSet=1&journalCode=dech. Friend, Theodore (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press. p. 329. ISBN 0-674-01137-6. Friend, T. (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01137-6.

Jakarta
[22] "Jakarta holds historic election". BBC News. BBC. 2007-08-08. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asiapacific/6936276.stm. [23] "Jumlah Penduduk dan Rasio Jenis Kelamin menurut Provinsi dan Kabupaten/Kota, 2005 (Number of Population and Sex Ratio by Province and District, 2005))" (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. http://www.datastatistik-indonesia.com/ component/option,com_tabel/task,show/ Itemid,164/. [24] The Betawi - due to their diverse origins - play a major role concerning ethnic and national identity in contemporary Jakarta; see Knörr, Jacqueline: Kreolität und postkoloniale Gesellschaft. Integration und Differenzierung in Jakarta, Campus Verlag: Frankfurt a.M. & New York, 2007, ISBN 978-3-593-38344-6 [25] Johnston, Tim (2005-03-03). "Chinese diaspora: Indonesia". BBC News. BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/ 1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4312805.stm. [26] Knörr, Jacqueline (2007). Kreolität und postkoloniale Gesellschaft. Integration und Differenzierung in Jakarta. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag. ISBN 978-3-593-38344-6. [27] Template:Http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/ uu11ee/uu11ee15.htm [28] Tak ada Krisis untuk Konsumtivisme. http://epaper.kompas.com. May 1st. [29] ^ Williamson, Lucy (6 June 2007). "Jakarta begins river boat service". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/ 6725843.stm. [30] Azuma, Yoshifumi (2003). Urban peasants: beca drivers in Jakarta. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan. [31] "KRL Dalam Kota "Ciliwung Blue Line" Dioperasikan" (in Indonesian). ANTARA News. ANTARA. 2007-11-23. http://www.antara.co.id/arc/ 2007/11/23/krl-dalam-kota-ciliwung-blue-linedioperasikan/. [32] "KRL Dalam Kota Akan Terintegrasi dengan Moda Transportasi Lain". Berita Aktual. 2007-12-01. http://beritadotcom.blogspot.com/2007/12/keretalingkar-jakarta-resmi-meluncur.html. [33] "Jakarta gets its first klong taxis". Bangkok Post. The Post Publishing Public Co. http://www.bangkokpost.net/breaking_news/ breakingnews.php?id=119260. [34] Universitas Indonesia | The University with world class perspectives | Posts [35] Web Universitas Nasional 1949 [36] [1] [37] Football stadiums of the world - Stadiums in Indonesia [38] Far Eastern Economic Review, Asia 1998 Yearbook, p. 63.

[6] [7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12] [13]

[14] [15]

[16]

[17]

[18] [19]

[20]

[21]

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[39] United Nations Human Development Report 2006, p. 39 [2] [40] Asiaviews - Asian News [41] "Floods in DKI Jakarta Province, updated 19 Feb 2007 Emergency Situation Report No. 6". ReliefWeb. 2007-02-19. http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/ RWB.NSF/db900SID/ VBOL-6YPCN6?OpenDocument. [42] 1996 "2007 Global Register of Major Flood Events". Dartmouth Flood Observatory. Dartmouth College. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~floods/ Archives/1996sum.htm 1996. [43] Bloomberg.com: Asia [44] Three killed, 90,000 evacuated in Jakarta floods: officials - Yahoo! News [45] Disease fears as floods ravage Jakarta [46] Jakarta Flood Feb 2007 « (Geo) Information for All [47] http://www.dartmouth.edu/~floods/Archives/ 2007sum.htm

Jakarta
[48] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/ 6989211.stm; "Condemned Communities: Forced Evictions in Jakarta" Human Rights Watch Sep 2006.

See also
• • • • • • 2005 Java-Bali Blackout 2007 Jakarta flood 2007 Java earthquake Jakarta Old Town Jakarta riots of May 1998 List of Governors of Jakarta

External links
• Official website • Jakarta Tourism Guide • Jakarta travel guide from Wikitravel

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakarta" Categories: Capitals in Asia, Capital districts and territories, Coastal settlements, Jakarta, Provinces of Indonesia, Port cities and towns in Indonesia, Metropolitan areas, Settlements in Indonesia This page was last modified on 20 May 2009, at 22:35 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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