Republic_of_China by zzzmarcus

VIEWS: 174 PAGES: 22

									From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of China

Republic of China
This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters. Republic of China ???? Zhōnghuá Mínguó 2009 estimate Density 23,046,177[7] (50tha) 636.82/km2 (14tha) 1,649.36/sq mi 2008 estimate $695.388 billion (19th) $31,892 (26th) 2008 estimate $383,347 billion (24th) $18,306 (41th) ▲ 0.932 [8] (high) New Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD) CST (UTC+8) yyyy-mm-dd yyyy?m?d? (CE; CE+2697) or ??yy?m?d ? right .tw 886

GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita HDI (2005) Currency


National Emblem

Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China

Time zone Date formats

Drives on the Internet TLD
depicting only the area currently under ROC jurisdiction

Calling code


Taipei [1]
25°02′N 121°38′E / 25.033°N 121.633°E / 25.033; 121.633

Rank based on 2006 figures. China21

Republic of China Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: ???? ????

Official languages

Standard Mandarin[2] (spoken) Traditional Chinese (written) Taiwanese[3][4][5] and Chinese[6] Semi-presidential system Ma Ying-jeou Vincent Siew Liu Chao-shiuan Legislative Yuan Xinhai Revolution October 10, 1911 January 1, 1912 December 7, 1949

Demonym Government President Vice President Premier

Legislature Establishment - Start of Xinhai Revolution - Republic established - Central government moved to Taiwan Area - Total Water (%)

36,191 km2 (136th) 13,974 sq mi 10.34


The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as "Taiwan" since the 1970s, is a state in East Asia that has evolved from a single-party state with full global recognition and jurisdiction over all of China into a multi-party democratic state with limited international recognition and remaining jurisdiction only over Taiwan and minor islands, although it enjoys de facto relations with many other countries. It was a founding member of the United Nations[9] and one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, until being replaced by the People’s Republic of China in 1971. Established in 1912, the Republic of China encompassed much of mainland China. In 1945 at the end of World War II the Republic of China added the island groups of Taiwan and Penghu to its jurisdiction. These island groups, together with Kinmen and Matsu, became the full extent of the Republic of China’s authority after 1949 when the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
War to the Chinese Communist Party which then founded the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in mainland China. Under ROC law, this area currently under ROC jurisdiction is the "Free Area of the Republic of China". Since the retreat of the Kuomintang to Taiwan post 1949, Taipei was declared as the provisional capital. Although the jurisdiction of the Republic of China only covers Taiwan and outlying islands since 1949, during the early Cold War the ROC was recognized by most Western nations and the United Nations as the sole legitimate government of China. During the 1970s, the ROC began to lose these recognitions in favor of the People’s Republic of China. The Republic of China has not relinquished its claim as the legitimate government of all China.[10] Both former Presidents Lee Teng-hui and Chen Shui-bian have held the view that it is a sovereign and independent country separate from mainland China and there is no need for a formal declaration of independence.[11] President Ma Ying-jeou has expressed the view that the ROC is a sovereign and independent country that includes both Taiwan and mainland China, a view that corresponds with the ROC constitution and the 1992 Consensus.[12] From the 1910s to 1940s, the Republic of China was commonly referred as "China". During the 1950s and 1960s, it was common to refer it as "Nationalist China" or "Free China". Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has been commonly referred to as "Taiwan". Since the late 1970s the name "China" is commonly used to refer only to the People’s Republic of China.

Republic of China
presidency and increased its majority in the legislature in the 2008 presidential and legislative elections.[14]


Map of the Republic of China printed by Rand McNally & Co. in the year 1914.

The Republic of China was established in 1912, replacing the Qing Dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. It is the oldest surviving republic in East Asia. The Republic of China on mainland China went through periods of warlordism, Japanese invasion, civil war between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Communists. The Republic of China on Taiwan has experienced rapid economic growth and industrialization, and democratization. Starting in 1928, the Republic of China was ruled by the Kuomintang as an authoritarian one-party state.[13] In the 1950s and 1960s, the KMT went through wide restructuring and decreased corruption and implemented land reform. There followed a period of great economic growth, the Republic of China became one of the Four Asian Tigers, despite the constant threat of war and civil unrest. In the 1980s and 1990s the government peacefully transitioned to a democratic system, with the first direct presidential election in 1996 and the 2000 election of Chen Shui-bian, the first non-KMT after 1949 to become President of the Republic of China. The KMT regained Yuan Shikai (left) and Sun Yat-sen (right) with two different flags representing the early Republic. The Republic of China (ROC) was commonly known as "China" or "Nationalist China" before 1949 when the ROC government was relocated to Taiwan.[15] In 1911, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established in China and the monarchy overthrown by a group of revolutionaries. The Qing government, having just experienced a century of instability, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism.[16] The Neo-Confucian principles that had, to that time, sustained the dynastic system were now called into question, and a loss of cultural self-confidence was blamed for a total of 40 million Chinese consumers of opium by 1890 (roughly 10% of the population).[17] By the time of its defeat by an expeditionary force led by the world’s major powers in 1900 during the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion, the Qing government was already in its final throes, with only the lack of an alternative regime in sight prolonging its existence until 1912.[18] The establishment of Republican China developed out of the Wuchang Uprising against the Qing on October 10,


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1911. That date is now celebrated annually as the ROC’s national day, also known as the ’Double Ten Day’. The Republic of China was established on January 1, 1912, with Dr. Sun Yat-sen as the provisional president. As part of the agreement to have the last emperor Puyi abdicate, Yuan Shikai was officially elected president in 1913.[16] However, Yuan dissolved the ruling Kuomintang party (KMT), ignored the provisional Constitution by asserting presidential power, and ultimately declared himself Emperor of China in 1915.

Republic of China

Sun Yat-sen (middle) and Chiang Kai-shek (on stage in uniform) at the founding of the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924. Yuan’s supporters deserted him, and many provinces declared independence and became warlord states. Yuan Shikai gave up on becoming Emperor in 1916 and died of natural causes shortly after.[19] Thus devoid of a strong, unified government, China thrust into a decade of warlordism. Sun Yat-sen, forced into exile, returned to Guangdong province with the help of southern warlords in 1917 and 1920, and set up successive rival governments. Sun re-established the KMT in October, 1919.[20] The Beiyang government in Beijing struggled to hold on to power. An open and wide-ranging debate evolved regarding how China should confront the West. After the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, on May 4, a student protest led to a nationwide uprising and gave the movement its name. Chinese anarchism, specifically anarchist communism, had been a prominent form of revolutionary socialism. Following the Russian Revolution, the influence of Marxism spread and became more popular. Li Dazhao and Chen Duxiu led the Marxist-Leninist movement in the beginning.[21]

Chiang Kai-shek , who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925 China under the KMT. Soviet advisors had provided training, propaganda, popular agitation, and arms. However, Chiang soon dismissed his Soviet advisors, and purged communists and leftists from the KMT, leading to the Chinese Civil War. The Communists were pushed into the interior as Chiang Kai-shek sought to destroy them. Chiang consolidated his rule, establishing a Nationalist Government in Nanking in 1927[22]. Efforts were made to establish a modern civil society, by creating the Academia Sinica, the Bank of China, and other agencies. In 1932, China, then governed by the Republic of China, sent a team for the first time to the Olympic Games. Only one athlete was actually competing, and he was likely sent only out of fear that he would otherwise compete for Japan.[23][24] Stability was interrupted by the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, with hostilities continuing through the Second Sino-Japanese War, part of World War II, from 1937 to 1945. The government of the Republic of China retreated from Nanking to Chongqing. In 1945, Japan surrendered and the Republic of China became one of the founding members of the United Nations. The government returned to Nanking.

After Sun’s death in March 1925, Chiang Kai-shek became the leader of the KMT. Chiang had led the successful Northern Expedition which, with the help of the Soviet Union, defeated the warlords and nominally united

1945 to present
Further information: Taiwan after World War II


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of China
with China before 1942. The United States and Great Britain disagreed on whether the ROC or the PRC was the legitimate government of China—as a result both treaties remained silent about who would take control of the island.[29] Advocates of Taiwan independence have used this omission to call into question the PRC and ROC claims on Taiwan, arguing that the future of Taiwan should be decided by self-determination.[29] Continuing conflict of the Chinese Civil War through the 1950s, and intervention by the United States notably resulted in legislations such as the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty and the Formosa Resolution of 1955. During the 1960s and 1970s, the ROC began to develop into a prosperous, technology-oriented industrialized developed country, while maintaining an authoritarian, single-party government. Because of the Cold War, most Western nations and the United Nations regarded the ROC as the sole legitimate government of China until the 1970s and especially after the termination of the SinoAmerican Mutual Defense Treaty; after that, most nations switched diplomatic recognition to the PRC.

The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei, built by the ROC government to honor Chiang. After the defeat of Japan during World War II, Taiwan was surrendered to the Allies, with ROC troops accepting the surrender of the Japanese garrison. The Republic of China proclaimed the "retrocession" of Taiwan to the Republic of China, the effective successors of the Chinese Qing Dynasty on October 25, 1945. Proponents of Taiwan independence, however, dispute the validity of the proclamation, arguing that the proclamation was made without a peace treaty formally transferring sovereignty. The military administration of the ROC extended over Taiwan, which led to widespread unrest and increasing tensions between Taiwanese and mainlanders.[25] The arrest of a cigarette vendor and the shooting of a bystander on February 28, 1947 triggered island-wide unrest, which was then suppressed with military force in what is now called the 228 Incident. Mainstream estimates of casualties range from 10,000 to 30,000, mainly Taiwanese elites. The administration declared martial law in 1948.[26] The Chinese civil war between the Communists and the Nationalists resumed and intensified. By the 1950s, the Republic of China lost effective control over mainland China and Hainan. Chiang Kai-shek evacuated the government from Nanking and made Taipei the provisional capital of China. Accompanying his retreat were some two million refugees from mainland China, adding to the earlier population of approximately six million.[27] Initially, the United States abandoned the KMT and expected that Taiwan would fall to the Communists. However, in 1950 the conflict between North Korea and South Korea, which had been ongoing since the Japanese withdrawal in 1945, escalated into full-blown war, and in the context of the Cold War, U.S. President Harry S. Truman intervened again and dispatched the 7th Fleet into the Taiwan Straits to prevent hostilities between Taiwan and mainland China.[28] In the Treaty of San Francisco, which came into force on April 28, 1952, and the Treaty of Taipei, which came into force on August 5, 1952, Japan formally renounced all right, claim and title to Taiwan and Penghu, and renounced all treaties signed

Political status
See also: Taiwan independence The political status of the Republic of China is a contentious issue. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) claims that the ROC government is illegitimate, referring to it as the "Taiwan Authority", while the ROC views itself as an independent sovereign state.[30] The ROC claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all China since its relocation to Taiwan in 1949 until the lift of martial law in 1987. Although the administration of pro-independence President Chen Shui-bian (2000-2008) did not actively claim sovereignty over all of China, the national boundaries of the ROC have not been redrawn and its outstanding territorial claims from the late 1940s have not been revised. Thus, the claimed area of the ROC continue to include Mainland China, several off-shore islands, Mongolia, and Taiwan. The current President Ma Ying-jeou reasserted the ROC’s claim to be the sole legitimate government of China and the claim that mainland China is part of ROC’s territory.[10] He does not, however, actively seeks reunification, and prefers to maintain an ambiguous status quo in order to improve relationships with China.[31]

Potential military conflict
The political environment is complicated by the potential for military conflict should overt actions toward independence or reunification be taken. It is the official PRC policy to use force to ensure reunification if peaceful reunification is no longer possible, as stated in its anti-secession law, and for this reason there are substantial military installations on the Fujian coast.[32]


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of China
stated that the sovereignty issues between the two cannot be resolved at present, but he quoted the "1992 Consensus", currently accepted by both sides, as a temporary measure until a solution becomes available.[12]

United States involvement and current standpoint
As a result of Cold War politics, the United States has provided military training and sold arms to the ROC armed forces.[33] However, the current status quo, as defined by the U.S., is supported on a quid pro quo basis between both Chinese states. The PRC is expected to "use no force or threat[en] to use force against Taiwan" and the ROC is to "exercise prudence in managing all aspects of Cross-Strait relations." Both are to refrain from performing actions or espousing statements "that would unilaterally alter Taiwan’s status."[34] For its part, the People’s Republic of China appears to find the retention of the name "Republic of China" far more acceptable than the declaration of a de jure independent Taiwan. However, with the rise of the Taiwanese independence movement, the name "Taiwan" has been employed increasingly more often on the island itself.

The PRC’s One-China policy
ROC international relations
Under its One-China policy, the PRC requires other countries to give no official recognition to the ROC as a condition of maintaining diplomatic relations. As a result, there are only 23 states that have official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China. However, most countries have unofficial representative offices in the ROC. The United States maintains unofficial relations with the ROC through the instrumentality of the American Institute in Taiwan.[36] The ROC maintains similar de facto embassies and consulates in most countries, called "Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Offices" (TECRO), with branch offices called "Taipei Economic and Cultural Offices" (TECO). Both TECRO and TECO are "unofficial commercial entities" of the ROC in charge of maintaining diplomatic relations, providing consular services (i.e. Visa applications), and serving the national interests of the ROC in other countries in basically the same way as an embassy or consulate.[37]

Opinions within the ROC
See also: 1992 Consensus, One-China policy, and Special non-state-to-state relations Within the ROC, opinions are polarized between those supporting unification, represented by the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties, and those supporting independence, represented by the Pan-Green Coalition. The Kuomintang, the largest Pan-Blue party, supports the status quo for the indefinite future with a stated ultimate goal of unification. However, it does not support unification in the short term with the PRC as such a prospect would be unacceptable to most of its members and the public. Ma Ying-jeou, former chairman of the KMT and the current ROC President, has set out democracy, economic development to a level near that of the ROC, and equitable wealth distribution as the conditions that the PRC must fulfill for reunification to occur. The DPP, the largest Pan-Green party, officially seeks independence, but in practice also supports the status quo because the risk of provoking the PRC is unacceptable to its members and the public.[35] Former President Chen Shui-bian of the Democratic Progressive Party stated during his years of administration that no matter what, any decision should be decided through a public referendum of the people of the ROC. Both parties’ current foreign policy positions support actively advocating ROC participation in international organizations, but while the KMT accepts the "One-China" principle, the DPP encourages the ROC’s participation as an independent state. On 2 September 2008 the ROC President Ma Jingjeou was interviewed by the Mexico based newspaper Sol de Mexico and he was asked about his views on the subject of "two Chinas" and if there is a solution for the sovereignty issues between the two. The ROC President replied that the relations are neither between two Chinas nor two states. It is a special relationship. Further, he

ROC participation in international events and organizations
Also due to its One China policy, the PRC only participates in international organizations where the ROC is not recognized as a sovereign country. In 1945, the ROC, as representative of all the territory of China, was one of the founding nations and Security Council member of the United Nations; however, in 1971, with the passage of United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, it was replaced by the PRC. Each year since 1992, the ROC has petitioned the UN for entry but has been unsuccessful. Most member states, including the United States, do not wish to discuss the issue of the ROC’s political status for fear of souring diplomatic ties with the PRC.[38] However, both the U.S. and Japan publicly support the ROC’s bid for membership in the World Health Organization as an observer.[39] However, though the ROC has applied for WHO membership every year since 1997 under various denominations, their efforts have consistently been blocked by PRC. At present, the ROC usually uses the politically neutral name "Chinese Taipei" in international events such as the Olympic Games where the PRC is also a party. The ROC is typically barred from using its national anthem and national flag in international events due to PRC pressure; ROC spectators attending events such as the Olympics are often barred from bringing ROC flags into venues.[40] The ROC is able to participate as "China" in


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
organizations that the PRC does not participate in, such as the World Organization of the Scout Movement. The relationship with the PRC and the related issues of Taiwanese independence and Chinese reunification continue to dominate ROC politics.[41] For any particular resolution public favor shifts greatly with small changes in wording, illustrating the complexity of public opinion on the topic.[42]

Republic of China
and for the people."[43] The Pan-Blue Coalition and PanGreen Coalition are presently the dominant political blocs in the Republic of China.

Head of state
The head of state is the President, who is elected by popular vote for a four-year term on the same ticket as the Vice-President. The President has authority over the five administrative branches (Yuan): the Control Yuan, Examination Yuan, Executive Yuan, Judicial Yuan and Legislative Yuan. The President appoints the members of the Executive Yuan as his cabinet, including a Premier, who is officially the President of the Executive Yuan; members are responsible for policy and administration.[43]


The main legislative body is the unicameral Legislative Yuan with 113 seats. 73 are elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies; 34 are elected based on the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties in a separate party list ballot; and six are elected from two three-member aboriginal constituencies. Members serve three-year terms. Originally the unicameral National Assembly, as a standing constitutional convention and electoral college, held some parliamentary functions, but the National Assembly was abolished in 2005 with the power of constitutional amendments handed over to the Legislative Yuan and all eligible voters of the Republic via referendums.[43]

The Presidential Building in Taipei has housed the Office of the President of the Republic of China since 1950.

The Judicial Yuan is ROC’s highest judiciary. It interprets the constitution and other laws and decrees, judges administrative suits, and disciplines public functionaries. The President and Vice-President of the Judicial Yuan and fifteen Justices form the Council of Grand Justices. They are nominated and appointed by the President of the Republic, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan. The highest court, the Supreme Court, consists of a number of civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding Judge and four Associate Judges, all appointed for life. In 1993, a separate constitutional court was established to resolve constitutional disputes, regulate the activities of political parties and accelerate the democratization process. There is no trial by jury but the right to a fair public trial is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges.[43]

Executive Yuan
Ma Ying-jeou, President of the Republic of China. The government of the Republic of China was founded on the Constitution of the ROC and its Three Principles of the People, which states that "[the ROC] shall be a democratic republic of the people, to be governed by the people The ROC’s political system does not fit traditional models. The Premier is selected by the President without the need for approval from the Legislature, but the Legislature can pass laws without regard for the President, as neither he nor the Premier wields veto power.[43] Thus, there is little incentive for the President and the Legislature to negotiate on legislation if they are of opposing


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
parties. After the election of the pan-Green’s Chen Shuibian as President in 2000, legislation repeatedly stalled because of deadlock with the Legislative Yuan, which was controlled by a pan-Blue majority.[44] Historically, the ROC has been dominated by strongman single party politics. This legacy has resulted in executive powers currently being concentrated in the office of the President rather than the Premier, even though the Constitution does not explicitely states the extend of the President’s executive power.[45]

Republic of China

Constitutional claims in a global context. does not dispute the fact that the Communist Party rules Mainland China. In practice, although ROC law still formally recognizes residents of mainland China as citizens of the ROC, it makes a distinction between persons who have household residency in the Free Area of the Republic of China and those that do not, meaning that persons outside the area administered by the ROC must apply for special travel documents and cannot vote in ROC elections. De-emphasizing previous ROC claims of souvereignity over Outer Mongolia, the DPP government under Chen Shui-bian has established a representative office in Mongolia’s capital, Ulan Bator. Offices established to create the appearance of ROC governance of Outer Mongolia, such as the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission,[47] lie dormant.[48]

Administrative regions
According to the 1947 Constitution, written before the ROC government retreated to Taiwan, the highest level administrative division is the province, which includes special administrative regions, regions, and centrally-administered municipalities. However, in 1998 the only provincial government to remain fully functional under ROC jurisdiction, Taiwan Province, was streamlined, with most responsibility assumed by the central government and the county-level governments (the other existing provincial government, Fuchien, was streamlined much earlier). The ROC currently administers two provinces and two provincial level cities.

The Republic of China also controls the Pratas Islands (Dong-Sha) and Taiping Island, which are part of the disputed South China Sea Islands. They were placed under Kaohsiung City after the retreat to Taiwan.[46] Taichung is currently under consideration for elevation to central municipality status. Also, Taipei County and Kaohsiung County are considering mergers with their respective cities.

Municipalities and cities
ROC official boundaries continue to show thirty-five provinces, fourteen municipalities, one special administrative region and two regions, instead of the twenty-three provinces, four municipalities, two special administrative regions and five autonomous regions shown on PRC maps. The former DPP government of Chen Shui-bian had dropped regulations which had required ROC map makers to depict the constitutional boundaries.

See also: Elections in the Republic of China and Human rights in the Republic of China

The original founding of the Republic centered on the Three Principles of the People (san min zhuyi): Nationalism, Democracy, and People’s Livelihood (also translated "Socialism"). "Nationalism" meant standing up to Japanese and European interference, "democracy" represented elected rule modeled after the Diet of Japan, and the "people’s livelihood" meant government regulation of the means of production. Another subordinate principle was the "republic of Five Races" (????), which emphasized the harmony of the five major ethnic groups in China (Han, Manchus, Mongols, Tibetans, and Uyghurs), represented by the colored stripes of the original Five-Colored Flag of the Republic. The Five Races Under One

Constitutional administrative division of the Republic of China. The ROC has not constitutionally renounced sovereignty over Mainland China and Outer Mongolia, but President Lee Teng-hui announced in 1991 that his government


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Union principle and the five-colored flag were abandoned in 1927. The Three Principles were not realized. Republican China was riven by warlordism, foreign invasion, and civil war. There were elected legislators, but Republican China was largely a one-party dictatorship,[49] with some minor parties, such as the Chinese Youth Party,[50] the National Socialist Party, and the Rural Reconstruction Party.[51] Within the KMT, there was suppression of dissent by the Communists. The central government was weak and unable to implement land reform or wealth redistribution. Politics of this era consisted primarily of political and military struggle between the KMT and the CPC between periods of military resistance against Japanese invasion.

Republic of China
parties (pro-independence parties) desire to be severed from China completely, be recognized as a separate country (be known as Taiwan, not ROC), and to possess a seat in the United Nations. Separate identity resolution On September 30, 2007, the ruling Democratic Progressive Party approved a resolution asserting separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a "normal country". It called also for general use of "Taiwan" as the island’s name, without abolishing its formal name, the Republic of China.[53] The Pan-Green camp tends to favor emphasizing the Republic of China as being a distinct country from the People’s Republic of China. Many Pan-Green supporters seek formally declaring Taiwan independence and to drop the title of the Republic of China. Many members of the coalition, such as former President Chen Shui-bian, have moderated their views and explain that it is unnecessary to proclaim independence because "Taiwan is already an independent, sovereign country" and the Republic of China is the same as Taiwan. A small minority claim that the ROC is nonexistent and call for the establishment of an independent Republic of Taiwan. Some Pan-Blue members, especially former leaders from the older generation, support the concept of the Republic of China, which remains an important symbol of their links with mainland China. During his visit to mainland China in April 2005, former KMT Party Chairman Lien Chan reiterated his party’s belief in the "One China" policy, which states that there is only one China and that its only government is the ROC. PFP Party Chair James Soong expressed the same sentiments during his visit in May. The more mainstream Pan-Blue position is to lift investment restrictions and pursue negotiations with the PRC to immediately open direct transportation links. Regarding independence, the mainstream Pan-Blue position is to maintain the status quo, while refusing immediate unification.[54] Today, Pan-Blue members usually seek to improve relationships with mainland China, mainly for economical reasons.[55] When asked what would be his reaction if the PRC insisted on "one China", President Ma Ying-jeou replied: "It doesn’t matter. We don’t have to recognize each other; all we have to do is not challenge and not deny the existence of the other side."[56]

The constitution of the Republic of China was drafted before the fall of Mainland China to the Communists. It was created for the purpose of forming a coalition government between the Nationalists and the Communists for ruling all of China, including Taiwan. However, the CPC boycotted the National Assembly, and the Taiwanese representatives were not elected. The constitution went into effect December 25, 1947. Taiwan remained under martial law from 1948 until 1987 and much of the constitution was not in effect. Political reforms beginning in the late 1970s and continuing through the early 1990s liberalized the ROC from an authoritarian one-party state into a multiparty democracy. Since the lifting of martial law, the Republic of China has democratized and reformed, removing legacy components that were originally meant for the governing of mainland China. Many legacy components that remain are nonfunctional. This process of amendment continues. In 2000, the KMT’s monopoly on power ended after the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) won the ROC presidency. In May 2005, a new National Assembly was elected to reduce the number of parliamentary seats and implement several constitutional reforms. These reforms have been passed; the National Assembly has essentially voted to abolish itself and transfer the power of constitutional reform to the popular ballot.[52]

Major camps
The political scene in the ROC is divided into two camps, with the pro-unification and center-right Kuomintang (KMT), People First Party (PFP), and New Party forming the Pan-Blue Coalition, who wish that Taiwan would eventually reunify with mainland China to form one political entity, and the pro-independence Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) and centrist Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU) forming the Pan-Green Coalition. The latter

Current political issues
The dominant political issue in the ROC is its relationship with the PRC. Some people in the ROC desire the opening of direct transportation links between Taiwan and mainland China, including direct flights. This would aid many ROC businesses that have opened factories or branches in mainland China. The former DPP administration feared that such links will lead to tighter economic and political integration with the PRC, and in the 2006 Lunar New Year Speech, President Chen Shui-bian called


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
for managed opening of links. Direct weekend charter flights commenced between Taiwan and mainland China began in July 2008 under the current KMT government. Talks with the PRC are being scheduled for direct daily charter flights in late October and early November 2008. Other major political issues include the passage of an arms procurement bill that the United States authorized in 2001, and the establishment of a National Communications Commission to take over from the Government Information Office, whose advertising budget exercised great control over ROC media. The arms procurement bill was sent to the US congress for approval in October 2008. The politicians and their parties have themselves become major political issues. Corruption among some DPP administration officials has been exposed. The KMT was once the richest political party in the world[57] and KMT assets continue to be an issue. In early 2006, President Chen Shui-bian was linked to possible corruption. The political effect on President Chen Shui-bian was great, causing a divide in the DPP leadership and supporters alike. It eventually led to the creation of a Pan-Red camp led by Ex-DPP leader Shih Ming-teh which believe the President should resign than stay in disgrace; forming a 3 side standoff. Nearing the end of 2006, KMT’s chairman Ma Ying-jeou was also hit by corruption controversies, although he has since then been cleared of any wrong-doings by the courts.[58] Since completing his second term as President, Chen Shui-bian has been charged with corruption and money laundry.[59] The merger of the KMT and PFP was thought to be certain, but a string of defections from the PFP to the KMT have increased tensions within the Pan-Blue camp. There has been talk from both camps of amending the constitution to finally resolve whether the Republic of China should have a presidential system or a parliamentary system.

Republic of China
Thus protected by the U.S., Taiwan continued developing like an independent country and developed its own identity. [60] In 1979, diplomatic relationships between the U.S. and Taiwan broke down, and more and more governments started to view the PRC as the only official government of China. Thus the ROC’s politics gradually shifted its attention from Mainland China to the island of Taiwan, and most citizens started to consider themselves as part of an independent nation.[61] This can also be partly explained by the growing military threats of Mainland China towards Taiwan, which pushed politicians, and the Democratic Progressive Party in particular, to address the question of national identity.[62] The PRC follows the One China Principle, which states that "(1) China is one country; (2) Taiwan is an inseparable part of China; and (3) the PRC is the sole legitimate government to represent China", and therefore denies Taiwanese identity.[63]. That was the reason why Taiwan was only allowed to call its team "Chinese Taipei" during the Olympic Games (the PRC initially wanted it to be called "Taipei, China", but eventually agreed on "Chinese Taipei").[64] Likewise, the attitude of the Kuomintang and the actions it took during the martial law period to suppress Taiwanese culture and identity have alienated people of the ROC and thus ended up having the opposite effect, and built up Taiwanese identity.[65] In the U.S., according to the Taipei Times, "a great majority of Taiwanese Americans have strong emotional attachment to their homeland and actually will feel offended if they are called Chinese Americans."[66] According to a survey conducted in March 2009, 49% of the respondents consider themselves Taiwanese only, and 44% of the respondents consider themselves as Taiwanese and Chinese. 3% consider themselves only Chinese.[67] The question of Taiwanese identity is still a sensible issue, and these statistics may change following the recent improvement of the relationship between Mainland China and Taiwan.[68]

Taiwanese identity
Due to the unclear status of the Republic of China and the conflicts between it and the People’s Republic of China, Taiwanese identity has been an ongoing issue ever since the ROC moved to Taiwan. After the Republic of China moved to Taiwan in 1949, the intention of Chiang Kai-shek was to eventually go back to Mainland China and retake control of it. For that reason, Chiang attempted to turn the Taiwan’s inhabitants into Chinese. The PRC planned to acquire Taiwan, which would have set Taiwan on a path to becoming a regional variant of Chinese culture much like that of Guangdong or Fujian. However, the Korean War in 1950, during which the PRC fought United States soldiers, changed this situation. It indeed pushed the U.S. to conclude a mutual security treaty with the ROC since they did not want the Communists to take over the island.

Foreign relations
The foreign policy of Republican China was complicated by a lack of internal unity; competing centers of power all claimed legitimacy. There was also foreign interference and invasion. Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Germany, Russia, and other major powers all made claims to various parts of China during this time. During the early years of the Republic, almost all foreign powers recognized the "warlord" government controlled by Yuan Shi-kai in Beijing as the legitimate government of China. It was also this government that sent representatives to


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of China

Percentage of Taiwanese residents who feel themselves Taiwanese, Chinese or Taiwanese and Chinese according to various surveys. Survey National Chengchi University survey (December 2008)[6] TVBS Poll Center (March 2009)[67][69] TVBS Poll Center (March 2009)[67][70] Taiwanese 50.8% 72% 49% Chinese Taiwanese and Chinese 4.7% 16% 3% 40.8% N/A 44%

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill met at the Cairo Conference in 1943 during World War II. sign the Treaty of Versailles over protests by students in the May Fourth Movement. After the defeat of the Beiyang Government in Beijing by the Kuomintang (Nationalists) and the purging of Communists from the party, the 1928 Nanking Nationalist Government received widespread diplomatic recognition. This recognition lasted throughout the Chinese Civil War and World War II (though Japan established a rival puppet government during the invasion that received some recognition from the Axis Powers). Having fought on the side of the Allied Powers during World War II, the Republic of China became one of the founding members of the UN and held one of the five permanent seats on the UN Security Council. Despite Chiang’s failures as an administrator and military strategist, he is today recognized for several diplomatic successes. In the 1930s, he was able to moderate Japanese advances by negotiating aid from Nazi Germany. Immediately prior to World War II, he was able to secure aid from his former patrons, the Soviets. During World War II and immediately afterwards, he was able to obtain large amounts of support from the US, including lend-lease supplies. Huge infusions of military assistance, equipment, advice, and cash continued even after he evacuated the KMT to Taiwan.[28][71]

After the KMT retreat to Taiwan, most countries, notably the countries in the Western Bloc, continued to maintain

relations with the ROC. Due to diplomatic pressure, recognition gradually eroded and many countries switched recognition to the PRC in the 1970s. There are now only 23 states that maintain official diplomatic relations with the ROC. The PRC refuses to have diplomatic relations with any nation that recognizes the ROC, and requires all nations with which it has diplomatic relations to make a statement recognizing its claims to Taiwan. In practice most major nations maintain unofficial relations with the ROC and the statement required by the PRC is ambiguously worded. The ROC maintains unofficial relations via Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Offices or "Taipei Representative Offices" that take on most of the functions of an official embassy, such as issuing visas. Similarly, most nations maintain corresponding trade and economic offices in the ROC, such as the American Institute in Taiwan, which is the de facto embassy of the United States in the ROC. The ROC was a founding member of the United Nations and held China’s seat on the Security Council until 1971, when it was expelled by General Assembly Resolution 2758 and replaced in all UN organs with the PRC. Multiple attempts by the ROC to rejoin the UN have not made it past committee. (See China and the United Nations.) Besides the dispute with the PRC over mainland China, the ROC also has a controversial relationship with Mongolia. Until 1945, the ROC claimed sovereignty over Greater Mongolia, but under Soviet pressure, it recognized Mongolian independence. Shortly thereafter in 1953, it revoked this recognition and continued to claim sovereignty over Mongolia. Since the late 1990s, the relationship with Mongolia has become a controversial topic. Any move to renounce sovereignty over Mongolia is controversial because the PRC claims that it is a prelude to Taiwan independence. The ROC is required to use the name Chinese Taipei to participate in international events due to People’s Republic of China’s interpretation of the One-China policy which many international organizations choose to follow. Among organizations that have this requirement are international sports federations, including the International Olympic Committee. Due to its limited international recognition, the Republic of China is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, represented by the


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Taiwan Foundation for Democracy (TFD) under the name "Taiwan".[72]

Republic of China

Several armies were associated with this era, including those of the various warlords, the KMT, and the CPC. There were two armies regarded as the "National army": the Beiyang Army of the Warlord government and later the National Revolutionary Army of the Nationalist Government. The founding of the Republic was made possible by mutiny within the Qing New Army. When Yuan Shikai took over as president, he was already commander of the Beiyang Army, which controlled North China. However, with Yuan’s death in 1916, numerous factions within the Beiyang Army broke loose, and the leading generals of the Beiyang Army became warlords, ruling huge fiefdoms in the following decade. Regulars in these warlord armies often did not wear uniforms and the distinction between bandit and soldier was blurred. With the help of the Comintern, Sun Yat-sen established the National Revolutionary Army in 1925 in Guangdong with a goal of reunifying China under the Kuomintang. To this end, it initially fought against the warlords who had fractured China, successfully unifying China, and later against the Communist Red Army. A minor Sino-Soviet conflict in 1929 was fought over the administration of the Manchurian Chinese Eastern Railway. The National Revolutionary Army also fought against Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1931 and 1937–45), which became a part of the larger World War II. Leadership of the military during this time empowered political leadership. Following the principles of Leninism the distinctions among party, state, and army were blurred. When the People’s Liberation Army won the Chinese Civil War, much of the National Revolutionary Army retreated to Taiwan along with the government. It was later reformed into the Republic of China Army. Units which surrendered and remained in Mainland China were either disbanded or incorporated into the PLA.

ROC Military Police special forces disembarking from a UH-1H helicopter from the ROC Army 602nd Air Cavalry Brigade during a counter-terrorism exercise (ROC Ministry of National Defense). navy. Control of the armed forces has also passed into the hands of the civilian government. As the ROC military shares historical roots with the KMT, the older generation of high ranking officers tends to have Pan-Blue sympathies.[73] However, many have retired and there are many more non-Mainlanders enlisting in the armed forces in the younger generations, so the political leanings of the military have moved closer to the public norm in Taiwan.

Republic of China Air Force Indigenous Defense Fighter. The ROC’s armed forces number approximately 300,000, with nominal reserves totaling 3,870,000. The ROC began a force reduction program to scale down its military from a level of 430,000 in the 1990s which drew to a close in 2005. Conscription remains universal for qualified males reaching age eighteen, but as a part of the reduction effort many are given the opportunity to fulfill their draft requirement through alternative service and are redirected to government agencies or defense related industries. Current plans call for a transition to a predominantly professional army over the next decade. Conscription periods will decrease by two months each year, with a final result of three months.

See also: Republic of China Military Academy Today, the Republic of China maintains a large and technologically advanced military, mainly as defense against the constant threat of invasion by the PRC under the AntiSecession Law of the People’s Republic of China.[32] From 1949 to the 1970s the military’s primary mission was to "retake the mainland." As this mission has shifted to defense, the ROC military has begun to shift emphasis from the traditionally dominant army to the air force and


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of China

Bonds that Sun Yat-sen used to raise money for revolutionary cause. (The Republic of China was also once known as the Chunghwa Republic.) much foreign interference. Progress was impeded by constant war and internal and external strife. The weak national government made some attempts to promote economic activity, such as by establishing the Industrial Bank of China. There was little government control of the economy however, other than causing runaway inflation by overprinting money to finance wars against the Japanese and the Communists. Foreign debts also made the national government susceptible to foreign influence. The Nationalists, like Yuan Shi-kai before them, were propped up through massive economic loans by the United States. China at the time was largely agrarian, with most of the land, and thus the wealth, concentrated in a wide pyramid structure. Much of the land was owned by a few very wealthy landowners; the general population were tenant farmers who did not own land. The founders of both the Republic of China and the Communist Party had aimed to overturn this inequality. The Henan famine (1943–44) aided the collapse of the Republican government. Labor unions had been crushed in the purge of the Communists from the Kuomintang, leading to more inequality. Many of the wealthiest landowners and business leaders were also ministers and officials of the state and were often corrupt, preventing effective measures from being implemented.

Republic of China Navy Kang Ding class frigate. The armed forces’ primary concern at this time is the possibility of an attack by the PRC, consisting of a naval blockade, airborne assault and/or missile bombardment. Four upgraded Kidd class destroyers were recently purchased from the United States, significantly upgrading Taiwan’s air defense and submarine hunting abilities.[74] The Ministry of National Defense planned to purchase diesel-powered submarines and Patriot anti-missile batteries from the United States, but its budget has been stalled repeatedly by the opposition-Pan-Blue Coalition controlled legislature. The defense package was stalled from 2001-2007 where it was finally passed through the legislature and the US responded on October 3, 2008 with a $6.5 Billion arms package including PAC III Anti-Air defence systems, AH-64D Apache Attack helicopters and other arms and parts. .[75] A significant amount of military hardware has been bought from the United States, and continues to be legally guaranteed today by the Taiwan Relations Act.[33] In the past, the ROC has also purchased military weapons and hardware from France and the Netherlands. The first line of defense against invasion by the PRC is the ROC’s own armed forces. Current ROC military doctrine is to hold out against an invasion or blockade until the U.S. military responds. A defense pact between the U.S. and Japan signed in 2005 implies that Japan would be involved in any response.[73] Other U.S. allies, such as Australia, could theoretically be involved but this is unlikely in practice.[76] It is also worth noting that there is no guarantee in the Taiwan Relations Act or any other treaty that the United States will attack the PRC, even in the event of invasion.[77]

Taiwan Miracle
Taiwan’s quick industrialization and rapid growth during the latter half of the twentieth century, has been called the "Taiwan Miracle" (????) or "Taiwan Economic Miracle". As it has developed alongside Singapore, South Korea and Hong Kong, the ROC is one of the industrialized developed countries known as the "Four Asian Tigers". When the KMT government fled to Taiwan it brought the entire gold reserve and the foreign currency reserve of mainland China to the island which stabilized prices and reduced hyperinflation. More importantly, as part of its retreat to Taiwan, KMT brought with them the intellectual and business elites from mainland China.[78] The KMT government instituted many laws and land reforms that it had never effectively enacted on mainland China. The government also implemented a policy of import-

See also: Communications in Taiwan

During the first half of the twentieth century the economy of the Republic of China was essentially capitalist, with


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of China

Taipei, capital of the Republic of China. industrial firms are being privatized. Real growth in GDP has averaged about 8% during the past three decades. Exports have provided the primary impetus for industrialization. The trade surplus is substantial, and foreign reserves are the world’s third largest.[79] The Republic of China’s current GDP (PPP) per capita is equal to the average of EU Countries. The Republic of China has its own currency, the New Taiwan dollar. Agriculture constitutes only two percent of the GDP, down from 35 percent in 1952. Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being moved offshore and with more capital and technology-intensive industries replacing them. The ROC has become a major foreign investor in the PRC, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam. It is estimated that some 50,000 Taiwanese businesses and 1,000,000 businesspeople and their dependents are established in the PRC.[80] Because of its conservative financial approach and its entrepreneurial strengths, the ROC suffered little compared with many of its neighbors from the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Unlike its neighbors South Korea and Japan, the Taiwanese economy is dominated by small and medium sized businesses, rather than the large business groups. The global economic downturn, however, combined with poor policy coordination by the new administration and increasing bad debts in the banking system, pushed Taiwan into recession in 2001, the first whole year of negative growth since 1947. Due to the relocation of many manufacturing and labor intensive industries to the PRC, unemployment also reached a level not seen since the 1970s oil crisis. This became a major issue in the 2004 presidential election. Growth averaged more than 4% in the 2002-2006 period and the unemployment rate fell below 4%. The ROC often joins international organizations under a politically neutral name. The ROC is a member of governmental trade organizations such as the World Trade Organization under the name Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu since 2002.

Taipei 101 is a symbol of the success of the Taiwanese economy. substitution, attempting to produce imported goods domestically. Much of this was made possible through US economic aid, subsidizing the higher cost of domestic production. In 1962, Taiwan had a per capita gross national product (GNP) of $170, placing the island’s economy squarely between Zaire and Congo. By 2008 Taiwan’s per capita GNP, adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP), had soared to $33,000 (2008 est.), contributing to a Human Development Index equivalent to that of other developed countries.

Today the Republic of China has a dynamic capitalist, export-driven economy with gradually decreasing state involvement in investment and foreign trade. In keeping with this trend, some large government-owned banks and

The Republic of China has a twenty-two year comprehensive educational system influenced by the Japanese educational system. The system includes six years of elementary school, three years of middle school, three years


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
of high school, and four years of college. The system has been successful in that pupils in the ROC boast some of the highest test scores in the world, especially in mathematics and science;[81] However, it has also been criticized for placing excessive pressure on students and eschewing creativity in favor of rote memorization. Many Taiwanese students attend bushiban to improve mathematics, science and other topics. The teachers in cram schools will ask students to do questions repeatedly so that knowledge will be deeply ingrained in students’ minds. The literacy rate is 96.1%.[36]

Republic of China
The figures below are the 2009 estimates for the twenty largest urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations).
Largest cities of the Republic of China Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Taipei 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2009 Census Keelung Taipei

Core City

Kaohsiung Taichung Tainan Banciao Zhonghe Hsinchu

The population of areas under control of the Republic of China was estimated in July 2006 at 23,036,087[36] spread across a total land area of 35,980 square kilometres (13,890 sq mi) making it the twelfth most densely populated country in the world with a population density of 640/km² (1,658/sq mi). 98% of Taiwan’s population is made up of Han Chinese while 2% are Austronesian aborigines.

Taiwan religiosity
religion Buddhism Taoism Atheism Christianity I-Kuan Tao percent 35.1% 33% 14% 3.9% 3.5%

Xinzhuan Taoyuan

Sanchong Zhongli

There are approximately over 18,718,600 religious followers in Taiwan as of 2005 (81.3% of total population) and over 14-18% are non-religious. According to the 2005 census, of the 26 religions recognized by the ROC government, the five largest are: Buddhism (8,086,000 or 35.1%), Taoism (7,600,000 or 33%), I-Kuan Tao (810,000 or 3.5%), Protestantism (605,000 or 2.6%), and Roman Catholicism (298,000 or 1.3%). But according to the CIA World Factbook and other latest sources from U.S. State Department or the Religious Affairs Section of the MOI, over 80% to 93% of the population are nominal or cultural adherents of a Chinese traditional combination of Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism (Ancestor worship) and Taoism .[36][82][83][84] Taiwan is undergoing a decline in birth rates with a population growth of just 0.61% for the year 2006. The official national language is Mandarin Chinese though the majority also speak Taiwanese (variant of the Min Nan speech of Fujian province) and Hakka.[85][86] Aboriginal languages are becoming extinct as the aborigines have become sinicized and the ROC government has not preserved the Formosan languages.

Fongshan Xindian Tucheng Yonghe


Yongkang Pingjhen Dali Xizhi

Largest cities
See also: List of cities of the Republic of China


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Number 16,174 5,701 2,422 1,085 437 35 23 Subject outpatient-only facilities dental clinics Chinese medicine clinics inpatient/outpatient facilities local community hospitals Chinese medicine hospitals academic medical centers

Republic of China

Public health
Health care in the ROC is managed by the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI).[87] The current program was implemented in 1995 and is considered social insurance. The government health insurance program maintains compulsory insurance for employed, impoverished, un-employed citizens and persons of natural disasters with fees that correlate to the individual and/or family income; it also maintains protection for non-citizens working in Taiwan. The 2001 premium for the district population was US$18.88 per person per month.[88] A standardized method of calculation applies to all persons and can optionally be paid by an employer or by individual contributions. BNHI insurance coverage requires co-payment at the time of service for most services unless it is a preventative health service, for low-income families, veterans, children under three years old, or in the case of catastrophic diseases. Low income households maintain 100% premium coverage by the BNHI and co-pays are reduced for disabled or certain elderly peoples. According to a recently published survey, out of 3,360 patients surveyed at a randomly chosen hospital, 75.1% of the patients said they are "very satisfied" with the hospital service; 20.5% said they are "okay" with the service. Only 4.4% of the patients said they are either "not satisfied" or "very not satisfied" with the service or care provided.[89] Taiwan has its own Center for Disease Control, and during the SARS outbreak occurring in March 2003 confirmed 347 cases. During the outbreak the CDC and local governments set up monitored stations throughout public transportation, recreational sites and other public areas. With full containment in July 2003, there has not been a case of SARS since.[90] BNHI Facility Contract Distribution facilities total 17,259, including:[91] Basic coverage areas of the insurance include: • In-patient care • Mental Illness • Ambulatory care • Traditional • Laboratory tests Chinese medicine • Prescription and over• Home care the-counter drugs

• Preventative services* * child check-ups, prenatal care, pap smears, adult checkups In 2004 the infant mortality rate was 5.3 with 15 physicians and 63 hospital beds per 10,000 people. The life expectancy for males was 73.5 years and 79.7 years for females according the World Health Report. Since the inception of the BNHI in 1995 the aggregate life expectancy increase is 1.6 years for males and 2 years for females, possibly a key indicator for success in the BNHI program considering the relatively stable life expectancy rate prior to the initiative.[92] Other health related programs in Taiwan are the Center for Disease Control and the Department of Health.

• Dental services

See also: Chinese calendar, Holidays in Taiwan, and Public holidays in the Republic of China Following the imperial tradition of using the sovereign’s era name and year of reign, official ROC documents use the Republic (Chinese: ??; pinyin: míngúo; literally "The Country of the People") system of numbering years in which the first year (????) was 1912, the year of the founding of the Republic of China. For example, 2007 is the "96th year of the Republic" (??????, ??96?, or simply 96). As Chinese era names are traditionally two characters long, ?? (Republic) is employed as an abbreviation of ???? (Republic of China). Months and days are numbered according to the Gregorian calendar. Based on Chinese National Standard CNS 7648: Data Elements and Interchange Formats — Information Interchange — Representation of Dates and Times, (similar to ISO 8601), year numbering may use the A.D. system as well as the ROC era. For example, May 3, 2004 may be written 2004-05-03 or R.O.C.93-05-03. The ROC era numbering happens to be the same as the numbering used by North Korea because its founder, Kim Il-sung, was born in 1912. The years in Japan’s Taishō period (July 30, 1912 to December 25, 1926) are also coincident with the ROC era.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Context GDP (PPP) Organization International Monetary Fund / CIA Rank 19/179 (IMF) 18/227 (CIA) 28/179 (IMF) 40/227 (CIA) 23/177 if ranked 32/169 32/195 25/157 24/130 50/178 13/125 21/121 21/111 2/198 5/185 13/55 17/127 34/180 52/130 2/66 18/82 19/70 40/149 4/125 7/125

Republic of China
Year 2007 Source IMF CIA

GDP (PPP) per capita

International Monetary Fund / CIA



Human Development Index Worldwide press freedom index Freedom of the Press Index of Economic Freedom Economic Freedom of the World Ease of Doing Business Index Global Competitiveness Report Business Competitiveness Index Worldwide quality-of-life index Global e-Government Study Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen IQ and Global Inequality World Competitiveness Yearbook Network Readiness Index Corruption Perceptions Index Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index IT industry competitiveness index Business Environment Rankings E-readiness rankings Environmental Performance Index Bertelsmann Transformation Index (Status) Bertelsmann Transformation Index (Managem.)

Government of the Republic of China Reporters Without Borders Freedom House The Wall Street Journal and the Heritage Foundation Fraser Institute World Bank World Economic Forum World Economic Forum The Economist Brown University Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster International Institute for Management Development World Economic Forum Transparency International World Economic Forum Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Economist Intelligence Unit Yale University Bertelsmann Foundation Bertelsmann Foundation

2005 2007 2008 2008 2004 2008 2006 2005 2006 2006 2008


[94] [95] [96]

[97] [98]

2006–2007 [99]
[100] [101] [102] [103]


2007–2008 [105] 2007 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008
[106] [107]

[108] [109] [110] [111] [112]


The use of the ROC era system extends beyond official documents. When used to mark expiration dates on products for export, they can be misunderstood as having an expiration date 11 years earlier than intended. Misinterpretation is more likely in the cases when the prefix (R.O.C. or ??) is omitted. Traditional Chinese holidays such as the Chinese New Year, the Lantern Festival, and the Dragon Boat Festival are celebrated regularly.

International rankings See also
• • • • • Wikimedia Atlas of Republic of China Battle of Kuningtou Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang Taiwanization Tangwai movement


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of China
"Demonyms - Names of Nationalities". library/weekly/aa030900a.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. ^ "???─???? ???/?????????". TaiwanChineseID.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. Republic of China Interior Affair - Department of Statistics - Area and Number of Villages, Neighborhoods, Households and Resident Population Due to its political status, the UN has not calculated an HDI for the ROC. The ROC government calculated its HDI for 2005 to be 0.932 National Statistics General Publication Taiwan Journal Text of Lee’s message to recall signing of UN Charter ^ "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 2008-10-08. 2008/10/08/2003425320. China: The Fragile Superpower: Susan L. Shirk ^ "Taiwan and China in ’special relations’: Ma". China Post. 2008-09-04. Roy, Denny (2003). Taiwan: A Political History. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 55, 56. ISBN 0-8014-8805-2. Decisive election win puts KMT back in power, The Birth of the Republic of China ^ "The Chinese Revolution of 1911". U.S. Department of State. time/ip/88116.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-20. Trocki, Carl A. (1999). Opium, empire and the global political economy: a study of the Asian opium trade, 1750-1950. Routledge. pp. 126. ISBN 0415199182, 9780415199186. books?id=DDNvkSC26bcC&pg=PA126&lpg=PA126. Fairbank; Goldman. China. pp. 235. Meyer, Kathryn; James H Wittebols, Terry Parssinen (2002). Webs of Smoke. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 54-56. ISBN 074252003X, 9780742520035. books?id=RNknjDjfH6AC&pg=PA54. Pak, Edwin; Wah Leung (2005). Essentials of Modern Chinese History. Research & Education Assoc.. pp. 59-61. books?id=BX04ZA8R9ugC&pg=PA59. A History of the Chinese Communist Party 1921-1949. Taylor & Francis. pp. 22-23. books?id=WVEOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA22.




[9] [10]

[11] [12]

A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President. • Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion • Treaty of Shimonoseki • Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization • Whampoa Military Academy


[14] [15] [16]

[1] "Yearbook 2004". Government Information Office of the Republic of China. 2004. taiwan-website/5-gp/yearbook/2004/P045.htm. "Taipei is the capital of the ROC" "Taiwan (self-governing island, Asia) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". 1975-04-05. 580902/Taiwan. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. "The ROC’s Humanitarian Relief Program for Afghan Refugees". 2001-12-11. help_41.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. "Taiwanese health official invited to observe birdflu conference". 2005-11-11. 20051111/2005111101.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-07.



[18] [19]






From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of China

[22] "???". ?????????. Ministry of Education, R.O.C.. remained only a separate state on the island of Taiwan." [31] "?????????????? (In the 16th Year of the Republic article4636572.ece [1927], the National Government established [32] ^ "2004 National Defense Report" (PDF). ROC [Nanking] as the capital)" Ministry of National Defense. 2004. [23] Xu, Guoqi (2008). Olympic dreams. Harvard University Press. pp. 16. Retrieved on 2006-03-05. pages 89-90: "The PRC books?id=fGblxH31sRYC&pg=PP16. refusal to renounce using military power against [24] "The Games of the Xth Olympiad, Los Angeles 1932, Taiwan, its current emphasis on ’enhancing Official Report". preparation for military struggle’, its obvious 6oic/OfficialReports/1932/1932s.pdf. intention of preparing a war against Taiwan [25] "This Is the Shame". Time Magazine. 1946-06-10. reflected in operational deployment, readiness efforts, and annual military exercises in the 0,10987,792979,00.html. (subscription required) Southeast China coastal region, and its progress in [26] "Snow Red & Moon Angel". Time Magazine. aerospace operations, information warfare, 1947-04-07. paralyzing warfare, and non-conventional warfare, preview/0,10987,804090,00.html. all of these factors work together so that the ROC [27] Ng, Franklin (1998). The Taiwanese Americans. Armed Forces face an increasingly complicated and Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 10. difficult situation in terms of self-defense and counterattack. These multiple daunting challenges books?id=lPzsB_wJQW0C&pg=PA10. are testing our defense security." [28] ^ U.S. Department of Defense (1950). Classified [33] ^ "Executive Summary of Report to Congress on Teletype Conference, dated June 27, 1950, between implementation of the Taiwan Relations Act". the Pentagon and General Douglas MacArthur Report to Congress Pursuant to Public Law regarding authorization to use naval and air forces 106-113. U.S. Department of Defense. 2000. in support of South Korea. Papers of Harry S. Truman: Naval Aide Files. Truman Presidential twstrait_12182000.html. Retrieved on 2005-03-05. Library and Museum. [34] U.S. Department of State (2004-04-21). Overview of U.S. Policy Towards Taiwan. Press release. study_collections/korea/large/week1/kw_22_1.htm. Page 1: "In addition 7th Fleet will take station so as [35] prevent invasion of Formosa and to insure that victory-in-taiwan-wasn-t-enough-for-some.html Formosa not be used as base of operations against [36] ^ "CIA - The World Factbook -- Taiwan" (in Chinese mainland." Page 4: "Seventh Fleet is hereby English). CIA. 2009-04-09. assigned to operational control CINCFE for library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ employment in following task hereby assigned tw.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-22. CINCFE: By naval and air action prevent any attack [37] "TECRO Profile & Mission". TECRO in the United on Formosa, or any air or sea offensive from States. 2006-05-03. Formosa against mainland of China." contents/?ID=2&T=About%20TECRO. [29] ^ Alagappa, Muthiah (2001). Taiwan’s presidential [38] politics. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 265. archives/2009/05/13/2003443455 [39] "WHO application: a question of health or books?id=2Zx7nPeGWgwC&pg=PA265. politics?". The Taipei Times. 2004-05-19. [30] "The One-China Principle and the Taiwan Issue". PRC Taiwan Affairs Office and the Information 2004/05/19/2003156094. Office of the State Council. 2005. [40] "Taiwan flags in S.L. ruffle a few feelings". The Deseret News. 2002-02-10. detail.asp?table=WhitePaper&title=White%20Papers%20On%20Taiwan%20Issue&m_id=4. oly/view/0,3949,70000298,00.html. Retrieved on 2006-03-06. Section 1: "Since the [41] Mainland Affairs Council, ROC Executive Yuan KMT ruling clique retreated to Taiwan, although its (2005-03-29). The Official Position of the Republic regime has continued to use the designations of China on China’s Passing of the Anti-secession "Republic of China" and "government of the (Anti-Separation) Law. Press release. Republic of China," it has long since completely forfeited its right to exercise state sovereignty on mofa940329e.htm. Section II-2: "’The Republic of behalf of mainland China and, in reality, has always China is an independent and sovereign state.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Taiwan’s sovereignty belongs to the 23 million people of Taiwan. Only the 23 million citizens of Taiwan may decide on the future of Taiwan.’ This statement represents the greatest consensus within Taiwan’s society today concerning the issues of national sovereignty and the future of Taiwan. It is also a common position shared by both the ruling and opposition parties in Taiwan. A recent opinion poll shows that more than 90% of the people of Taiwan agree with this position." Swaine, Michael; James C. Mulvenon (2001) [2001]. "3" (PDF). Taiwan’s Foreign and Defense Policies: Features and Determinants. RAND Corporation. p. 30. ISBN 0-8330-3094-9. MR1383/MR1383.ch3.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-03-05. ""Efforts to accurately measure and assess public and group views and interests on these and other issues are fraught with problems, however, such as political bias and the use of unscientific methodologies. A significant number of opinion polls are conducted each year by Taiwan’s political parties, newspapers, and various politicallyoriented private groups or foundations on a wide range of subjects. Many such polls arguably produce inaccurate results, either as a result of sampling errors, biased questions, or a subject’s awareness of the highly partisan nature of the polling agency."" ^ yearbook/ch4.html archives/2006/09/14/2003327608 Jayasuriya, Kanishka (1999). Law, capitalism and power in Asia. Routledge. pp. 217. books?id=OqGSrD9QhXcC&pg=PA217. "World: Asia-Pacific Analysis: Flashpoint Spratly". BBC. 1999-02-14. "?????•Introduction to MTAC". Retrieved on 2009-05-07. "Taiwan-Mongolia ties move on". The Taipei Times. 2002-09-10. taiwan/archives/2002/09/10/167505. "Greet the New High Tide of the Chinese Revolution". Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung. 2005. reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-4/ mswv4_17.htm#bm7. Retrieved on 2006-03-08. Chang, Y.F. Bradford. The Flood of Political Ideas in China During the 1920s. City University of Hong Kong. summaries/number7/Chang%20Yu-fa.htm.

Republic of China
[51] "The Formal Establishment of an Anti-Japanese National United Front". PLA Daily. 2005-08-01. 2005-08/01/content_263104.htm. [52] "Taiwan assembly passes changes". BBC. 2005-06-07. 4616043.stm. [53] AP, Taiwan Party Asserts Separate Identity [54] archives/2008/01/21/2003398185 [55] 4482617.stm [56] 0,9171,1211639,00.html [57] Bristow, Michael (2001-10-26), Wealth probe for ’world’s richest’ party, asia-pacific/1621048.stm, retrieved on 2007-11-12 [58] Court clears Ma of graft charges Retrieved on May 6, 2008 [59] Chen Shui-bian lied about Lien Chan-endorsed check Retrieved on October 9, 2008 [60] June Teufel Dreyer (July 17, 2003). "Taiwan’s Evolving Identity". Taiwan%27s%20Identity%20(J_Dreyer).pdf. Retrieved on May 20, 2009. ""In order to shore up his government’s legitimacy, Chiang set about turning Taiwan’s inhabitants into Chinese."" [61] "New National Identity Emerges in Taiwan". 2004-01-02. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. [62] "Information Division, Taipei Economic and Cultural Office". book/no055/taiwan2004.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. [63] epaper3.html [64] [65] Blumenthal, Dan. Gordius in the Strait: A New Taiwan and an Impatient China. AP2_Untying%20RT.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. "KMT policies that promoted social discrimination, suppression of both Taiwanese culture and linguistic expression, and an unequivocal concept of "one China" all further alienated the Taiwanese and helped to foster a new "Taiwan identity."". [66] [67] ^ "ECFA issues and the nationality identification". 200905/yijung-20090508145032.pdf. [68] Ho, Stephanie. "China-Taiwan Relationship Showing Signs of Improvement".


[43] [44] [45]







From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2008-06-12-voa5.cfm?moddate=2008-06-12. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. Quote: "Table 12: In Taiwan, some people identify themselves as Chinese, some identify themselves as Taiwan (sic). Do you identify yourself as Taiwanese or Chinese? (Do not prompt both Taiwanese and Chinese)" Quote: "Table 13: In Taiwan, some people identify themselves as Chinese, some identify themselves as Taiwan (sic). Do you identify yourself as Taiwanese, Chinese or both Taiwanese and Chinese?" Fairbank and Goldman, 330–37. "Taiwan". UNPO. view/7908/146/. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. ^ Swaine, Michael; James C. Mulvenon (2001) [2001] (PDF). Taiwan’s Foreign and Defense Policies: Features and Determinants. RAND Corporation. ISBN 0-8330-3094-9. MR1383/MR1383.ch3.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-03-05. "Kidd-class warships set sail for Taiwan". The Taipei Times. 2005-10-31. 2005/10/31/2003278135. "Taiwanese leader hails weapons deal with U.S.". The Washington Post. 2008-10-05. article/2008/10/04/AR2008100400477.html. Tow, William (2005). "ANZUS: Regional versus Global Security in Asia?". International Relations in the Asia-Pacific 5 (2): 197. doi:10.1093/irap/ lci113. "China Threat to Attack Taiwan Alarms Asia". Associated Press. 2005-03-14. i003051S91.DTL. Roy, Denny (2003). Taiwan: A Political History. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 76, 77. ISBN 0-8014-8805-2. "CIA - The World Factbook - Country Comparisons - Reserves of foreign exchange and gold". Retrieved on 2009-05-07. Morris, Peter (February 4, 2004). "Taiwan business in China supports opposition". Asia Times Online. FB04Ad04.html. Gary Phillips (November 17, 2007) (PDF). Chance Favors the Prepared Mind: Mathematics and Science Indicators for Comparing States and Nations. American Institutes for Research.

Republic of China
phillips.chance.favors.the.prepared.mind.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-11-21. "China (includes Taiwan only): International Religious Freedom Report 2005". U.S. Department of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2005-11-08. irf/2005/51508.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-24. "China (includes Taiwan only): International Religious Freedom Report 2006". U.S. Department of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2006-09-15. irf/2006/71337.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-24. "China (includes Taiwan only): International Religious Freedom Report 2007". U.S. Department of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2006-09-15. irf/2007/90134.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-24. Lynn F. Lee. "Language". yearbook/2002/chpt03-2.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. "????(??)??????????? Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan)". ct.asp?xItem=35570&ctNode=4101. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. "Bureau of National Health Insurance". Taiwan BNHI. 2006-07-18. "Bureau of National Health Insurance faq". Taiwan BNHI. 2006-07-18. e_06faq_813.asp. "Taiwanese Hospital Public Satisfaction Poll". Taiwan Department of Health. October 2004. showreports.php?id=2_1. "Center for Disease Control". Taiwan CDC. 2006-07-18. "Bureau of National Health Insurance Full Summary" (PDF). Taiwan BNHI. July 18, 2006. "Taiwan Department of Health Full Summary" (PDF). Taiwan Department of Health. 2006-07-18. 712121616871.pdf "Reporters sans frontières - Annual Worldwide Press Freedom Index - 2007". Retrieved on 2009-05-07. FOTP2008Tables.pdf countries.cfm EFW2006complete.pdf






[71] [72] [73]




[87] [88]





[90] [91]




[93] [94]


[95] [96] [97]



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[98] "Rankings - Doing Business - The World Bank Group". Doing Business. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. [99] "World Economic Forum - Global Competitiveness Report". 2008-10-08. Global%20Competitiveness%20Report/index.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. [100] Global_Competitiveness_Reports/Reports/ gcr_2006/BCI.pdf [101] QUALITY_OF_LIFE.pdf [102]"06-007 (Global e-Government)". 2006-08-01. News_Bureau/2006-07/06-007.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. [103]"Title". article_intelligence/t4.asp. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. [104] upload/scoreboard.pdf [105] Rankings.pdf [106] surveys_indices/cpi/2007 [107] [108]"EIU Media Directory". default.asp?PR=2008091601. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. [109]"EIU Media Directory". default.asp?PR=2008042102. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. [110] 20080331202303/ ibm_ereadiness_2008.pdf [111] 2008EPI_Rankings_1page.pdf [112]"Transformation: Status Index". Retrieved on 2009-05-07. [113]"Transformation: Management Index". 33.0.html?&L=1. Retrieved on 2009-05-07.

Republic of China

Further reading
• Bush, R. & O’Hanlon, M. (2007). A War Like No Other: The Truth About China’s Challenge to America. Wiley. ISBN 0471986771 • Bush, R. (2006). Untying the Knot: Making Peace in the Taiwan Strait. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815712901 • Carpenter, T. (2006). America’s Coming War with China: A Collision Course over Taiwan. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403968411 • Cole, B. (2006). Taiwan’s Security: History and Prospects. Routledge. ISBN 0415365813 • Copper, J. (2006). Playing with Fire: The Looming War with China over Taiwan. Praeger Security International General Interest. ISBN 0275988880 • Federation of American Scientists et al. (2006). Chinese Nuclear Forces and U.S. Nuclear War Planning • Feuerwerker, Albert. 1968. The Chinese Economy, 1912–1949. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. • Gill, B. (2007). Rising Star: China’s New Security Diplomacy. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815731469 • Shirk, S. (2007). China: Fragile Superpower: How China’s Internal Politics Could Derail Its Peaceful Rise. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195306090 • Tsang, S. (2006). If China Attacks Taiwan: Military Strategy, Politics and Economics. Routledge. ISBN 0415407850 • Tucker, N.B. (2005). Dangerous Strait: the U.S.Taiwan-China Crisis. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231135645

External links
Office of the President Control Yuan Examination Yuan Executive Yuan Government Information Office Judicial Yuan Legislative Yuan Ministry of Foreign Affairs National Assembly Taipei Economic & Cultural Representative Office in the U.S. • History, Cuisine, Culture and General Information Coordinates: 22°57′N 120°12′E / 22.95°N 120.2°E / 22.95; 120.2 • • • • • • • • • •

Retrieved from "" Categories: Republic of China, First republics in Asia, Island countries, Chinese-speaking countries and territories, Liberal democracies


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of China

This page was last modified on 21 May 2009, at 17:36 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


To top