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FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE BY ROMAN JAKOBSON According to Jakobson, we can divide the functions of language into six factors which are required for communication: (1) context, (2) addresseer (3) addressee, (4) contact, (5) common code, (6) message. A message is sent by the addreesser (a sender, or enunciator) to the addressee ( a receiver, or enunciatee). The message can not be understood outside of a context. “A Code” should be common fully or at least partially to the addresser and addressee. A contact which is physical channel and phsychological connection between addresser and addressee is necessary for both of them to enter and stay in communication. JAKOBSON‟S COMMUNICATION MODEL Each of these six factors has a different function of language. The diversity in these functions is a result of a different hierarchical order of functions. Shortly , these six functions of verbal communication can be analyzed as follows: 1) REFERENTIAL FUNCTION: It is denotative,cognitive function which is oriented toward the „context‟. To show things or facts, the refential function is the most obvious function of language: for example: “The earth is round.”, “Water boils at 100 degrees.” 2) EMOTIVE FUNCTION: It is also known as “expressive function”. This function focuses on the „addresser‟. This function comes out when we want to express our emotions although we don‟t speak to give an information. In this function, we communicate for ourselves more than other people who hear us or not. For example: the interjections, which are words or phrases used to express sudden surprise, pleasure or annoyance such as : “Bah!” , “Oh!” , “Yuck!” “Ouch” ,”Aie”. They are not components but equivalent of sentences. Moreover, as Roman Jakobson‟s example in “Linguistics and Poetics” , only from the changes in the sound shape of the same two words ( like “this evening” ), we can make a list of forty or more emotional situations by diversifying its expressive tint. 3) CONATIVE FUNCTION: The conative function is an orientation toward „addressee‟. This function finds it purest grammatical expression in vocative and imperative sentences, and it helps us to make people do something and it includes orders and prayers. For example: “Drink!” or “Go Away”. 4) PHATIC FUNCTION: The phatic function which sets for „contact‟ establishes, prolongs or discontinues the communication. We use this function to know whether channel works or whether the contact is still there. Our purpose in this function firstly to maintain the contact with the person we are talking to. For example: “Hello!” “Are you listening?” “Do you hear me?”. It is also the first verbal function which is acquired by infants before they are able to send or receive informative communication. 5)METALINGUAL FUNCTION: „Code‟ performs the “ metalingual function” which is used whenever the addresser and the addressee need to check whether they use same code and when the language is used to speak about language. For example: “What do you mean by “krill”?” , “ What is plucked?”. In the process of language learning, the acqusition of mother tongue includes wide use of metalingual actions; for example aphasia may be described as a loss of capability for metalingual actions. 6) POETIC FUNCTION: The poetic function which is orientation toward “message” and “the focus on the message for its own sake”. This function includes more than poetry, linguistics cannot limit itself just to the field of poetry. When we say “John and Margery” instead of “Margery and John” or when we say “horrible Harry” instead of “ terrible Harry , dreadful Harry” which have same meaning, we use the poetic function of language. When we analyze the functions of language for a given unit such as a word, a text, or an image, we specify which functions are present or absent, to which class or type this unit belongs and which characteristics these functions have regarding hierarchical and other relations that can operate between them. We can complement Jakbson‟s communication model of factors by a corresponding scheme of the functions: Factors of communication and functions of language Target TARGET SOURCE FUNCTION factor FACTOR FACTOR and function no. 1 Context Message Referential 2 Addresser Message Emotive 3 Addressee Message Conative 4 Contact Message Phatic 5 Code Message Metalingual 6 Message Message Poetic APPLICATIONS OF THESE FUNCTIONS TO THE ADVERTISEMENTS The poster advertisement “Fake hurts real” is a part of advertising of ADIDAS shoes company. When we talk about the message that advertisement conveys , we also should mention about the stages it has to accomplish. In proper analysis of advertisements, we start by determining whether each of the functions of language is present or absent. If you find more than one function as present then we can create simple hierarchy between them by identifying dominant function. In this advertisement, we see phatic function which aims to draw attention of receiver. The company tries to take attention to the imitations and their harm to health by giving wounded naked foot with sticking plaster on it ,which is similar to Adidas original logo. Secondly, the advertisement convinces people with the aim not to buy imitations, which fulfills the “conative function” of language. It also appeals to a reason (referential function) which results in injuries on human foot. Two opposite words are given together “fake and real” to intensify the attraction. In the advertisement “fake hurts real” gives some associations (referential function) to the addressee : 1) if you buy imitations, your health that is symbolized by the „real‟ is in danger , 2) if you buy Adidas which is in orthopaedic shoes category for the ad , your foot will be protected. HUGO BOSS PARFUME “FIND OUT WHY HARMONY IS OVERRATED” The poster advertisement above is part of advertising of Hugo Parfume Company. In this ad, the message (poetic function) is given by connotations of parfume with different qualities. Closeleness of “man “ and “woman” to each other can be associated with „loyalty‟, „sexual promiscuity‟, „sexual potencity‟, and „attraction‟. The motto “Find out why harmony is overrated” fulfills phatic function in which the product plays a role in sexual relationship. The names of parfume “XY” and “XX” refers to the “unknown” . In other words, there is an unknown in the bottles which is waiting to be discovered. The intention of the message convinces ( the conative function) the addressee that this discovery can be acquired just by the combination of “XY” with “XX”. The CONTEXT (referential function) contains a verbal pairing which is presented by “ for him” and “for her”. In other words, the addressees are not “they” but “he” and “she”. This difference is also shown with the different colour of two parfume bottles (blue and yellow). Two different colours in the background behind „man‟ and „woman‟ also refer to the hidden meaning given by the addresser (emotive function). Moreover, the ringside in the background has the connotations such as „boundaries‟ , „limits‟ and „restrictions‟ in human nature, the colour of the ringside “red” associates with the „passion‟ and the parfume gives the MESSAGE (poetic function) that “with passion” the parfume gives to the addressee , the receiver can break the „borders‟ and „limits‟ which results in poetic function (the effect). „MORE SCIENTISTS AND EDUCATORS SMOKE KENT with the MICRONITE FILTER‟ The poster advertisement is one of the advertising of Kent cigarette company. The ad gives a paradoxical MESSAGE. An unhealthy product is advertised with the high images of scientists and educators in minds. In this advertisement, the oddness attracts attention (the phatic function) because, ironically scientists and educators are shown as if they smoke this cigarette. As a result, connotations of this product can be associated with „power‟, „intelligency‟, „knowledge‟, „science‟, „high statue‟. This advertisement convinces ( the conative function) the ADDRESSEE that if this cigarette is smoken , it will give a chance to the receiver to get these qualities (the poetic function, the effect). „For good smoking taste‟, it seems reasonable to smoke “KENT” which is supported with an appearance of a man who is smart, good looking and attractive. The harms of the unhealthy product are covered by higher qualities of educated people. Moreover, the huge building behind the man, which is higher than the other buildings around, symbolizes the capitalism in America which is under the control of powerful group. The context has a reason (the referential function) that smoking this cigarette can provide the addreesser an opportunity to be a member of this group. This advertisement contains a number of oppositions such as high/low, educated/uneducated, rich/poor and higher status/lower status which attracts attention and makes the phatic function occur. This advertisement directly shows the combination between phatic function and the other functions especially in „cause‟ and „effect‟ (poetic function) relationship. The MESSAGE “Reserved for drunk people” is orientated directly to the ADDRESSEE, and shows that if a drunk driver drives a car (cause), it may result in “accident” (effect), in other words, the result (poetic function) is „already‟ known which is receiver‟s death or punishment. The parking place in the advertisement includes a tree in the middle which symbolizes that driving will be end with a “crash”. The tree in the middle attracts attention (the phatic function) because it differentiates the place from being a normal parking area. The ADDRESSER is highly concerned about what could happen to drunk drivers (the expressive function), also the utterance explains an objective truth (referential function). The advertising message clearly aims to give a moral value. Morever, it shows this with the possible consequence-the adreessee‟s accident in very striking way, which contains the conative and poetic function. We can also find the „conative function‟ behind the hidden imperative meaning which indirectly orders drivers not to drive a car when they are not sober. „JUST DO IT‟ This is one of the series advertisement of NIKE shoes company. The MESSAGE (poetic function) directly includes a „conative function‟ which is oriented toward ADDRESSEE by an imperative sentence “JUST DO IT”. The image of a child peeing against a wall can be associated with “freedom”, “ independence” , “ out of borders of civilized world”. It convinces (the conative function) that “ you are free in your life, so do whatever you want !”. Moreover, it is important to emphazise that the child in the advertisement is black. The CONTEXT “ JUST DO IT” also shows it is not just for white people, it is also for black ones to get their independence, again it has a connotation of “freedom” or „out of others‟ control‟. However, ironically the dog near the child refers to the comparison betweeen them. Dog uses nature to pee especially walls or trees, which indirectly has a MESSAGE that you dont need to live in a concept of civilized world. The advertisement draws attention (phatic function) by providing many oppositions: the skin colour of the child is “black” whereas dog is “white”, and this is an advertisement of well-known shoe brand NIKE, but the little child has no shoes to wear. The ad draws the ADRESSEE into acting as s/he wants ( the conative and referential functions). This combination of two functions is clearly the most important, and the others are subordinate. „USE ONLY WHAT YOU NEED‟ The MESSAGE (poetic function) in this advertisement is used for a “warning”. The message has a „conative function‟ which orders that water should be used as much as it is needed , the rest shouldn‟t be wasted. This function consists main structure of the advertisement in the hierarchical order. The association is given by an image of a bench which has only small seat to sit on. It symbolizes that you should use your part and you shouldn‟t pass the other side which “the others” need. It also gives relationship between cause (phatic) and effect (poetic). If you (also can be thought as „self‟ ) use water more than you should (cause), the inevitable effect is that the “others” cannot find anything left for themselves, which is associated with the empty side of the bench. Emphasize on possible consequence fulfills the emotive and poetic funtion. The image of an incomplete bench draws attention ( the phatic function) of the ADDRESSEE by the sender. Finally, as we see above, the main representations of linguistic functions are based on the sign model which functions through its relations with the sender ( addresser), the receiver ( addressee), and the referent (context). As Jakobson points out that the context is somewhat ambiguous, in other words, it can be interpreted in more than one way as we infer from all these advertisements.
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