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City of Jacksonville - Mayor - Governing body Area - City - Land - Water Elevation John Peyton (R) Jacksonville City Council
885 sq mi ([[109_m²|2,264.5]] km2) 767 sq mi (1,962.4 km2) 116.6 sq mi (302.1 km2) 16 ft (5 m)
Population (2006) - City 794,555 (13th) - Density 1,061.6/sq mi (409.89/km2) - Urban 913,125 - Metro 1,313,228
Time zone - Summer (DST) ZIP code
EST (UTC-5) EDT (UTC-4) 32099, 32201-32212, 32214-32241, 32244-32247, 32250, 32254-32260, 32266, 32267, 32277, 32290. 904 12-35000 0295003 http://www.coj.net
FIPS code GNIS feature ID Website
Nickname(s): The River City, Jax, J-ville,Duval Motto: Where Florida Begins
Downtown statue of Andrew Jackson
Location in Duval County and the state of Florida
Coordinates: 30°19′10″N 81°39′36″W / 30.31944°N 81.66°W / 30.31944; -81.66 Country State County Founded Incorporated Government - Type United States Florida Duval 1791 1832 Mayor-Council
Jacksonville is the largest city in the U.S. state of Florida and the county seat of Duval County. Since 1968, as a result of the consolidation of the city and county government, and a corresponding expansion of the city limits to include almost the entire county, Jacksonville has been the largest city in land area in the contiguous United States. Consequently the majority of Jacksonville’s metropolitan population resides within the city limits, making it the most populous city proper in Florida and the twelfth most populous in the United States. Jacksonville is the principal city in the Greater
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Jacksonville Metropolitan Area, a region with a population of more than 1,313,228. Jacksonville is located in the First Coast region of northeast Florida and is centered on the banks of the St. Johns River, about 25 miles (40 km) south of the Georgia border and about 340 miles (547 km) north of Miami. The settlement that became Jacksonville was founded in 1791 as Cowford because of its location at a narrow point in the river where cattle once crossed. In 1822, a year after the United States acquired colonial Florida from Spain, the city was renamed for Andrew Jackson, the first military governor of the Florida Territory and then-future President of the United States.
The history of Jacksonville spans hundreds of years. Ossachite, the name given by anthropologists to the first settlement in the area, was made over 6,000 years ago by the Timucua Indians in the vicinity of modern-day downtown Jacksonville. European explorers first arrived in 1562, when French Huguenot explorer Jean Ribault charted the St. Johns River. René Goulaine de Laudonnière established the first European settlement at Fort Caroline two years later. On September 20, 1565, a Spanish force from the nearby Spanish settlement of St. Augustine attacked Fort Caroline, and killed nearly all the French soldiers defending it. The Spanish renamed it Fort San Mateo. With the destruction of the French forces at Fort Caroline, St. Augustine’s position as the most important settlement in Florida was solidified. Spain ceded Florida to the British in 1763, who then gave control back to Spain in 1783. The first permanent settlement in modern Jacksonville was settled as "Cowford" in 1791, ostensibly named for a narrow point in the St. Johns River where cattlemen could ford their livestock across. The Florida Territory was ceded to the United States in 1821, and in 1822, Jacksonville’s current name had come into use. U.S. settlers led by Isaiah D. Hart authored a charter for a town government, which was approved by the Florida Legislative Council on February 9, 1832. During the American Civil War, Jacksonville was a key supply point for hogs and cattle leaving Florida and aiding the Confederate cause. The city was blockaded by the Union, who gained control of the nearby Fort Clinch and controlled the city and most of the First Coast for the duration of the war. Though no battles were fought in Jacksonville, it changed hands several times, and the city was left in a considerable state of disarray after the war. During Reconstruction and the Gilded Age, Jacksonville and nearby St. Augustine became popular winter resorts for the rich and famous. Visitors arrived by steamboat and later by railroad. President Grover Cleveland’s Jacksonville in 1864 attended the Sub-Tropical Exposition in the city on February 22, 1888 during his trip to Florida, which increased the visibility of the state’s worthiness as a place for tourism. The city’s tourism, however, was dealt major blows in the late 19th century by yellow fever outbreaks and the extension of the Florida East Coast Railway to south Florida.
Aerial view in 1893 On May 3, 1901, downtown Jacksonville was ravaged by a fire that was started at a fiber factory. Known as the "Great Fire of 1901", it was one of the worst disasters in Florida history and the largest ever urban fire in the Southeastern United States; it destroyed the business district and rendered 10,000 residents homeless in the course of eight hours. It is said the glow from the flames could be seen in Savannah, Georgia and the smoke plumes in Raleigh, North Carolina. Famed New York architect Henry John Klutho was a primary figure in the reconstruction of the city. More than 13,000 buildings were constructed between 1901 and 1912.
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the construction of a new city hall, civic auditorium, public library and other projects that created a dynamic sense of civic pride. However, the development of suburbs and a subsequent wave of "white flight" left Jacksonville with a much poorer population than before. Much of the city’s tax base dissipated, leading to problems with funding education, sanitation, and traffic control within the city limits. In addition, residents in unincorporated suburbs had difficulty obtaining municipal services such as sewage and building code enforcement. In 1958, a study recommended that the City of Jacksonville begin annexing outlying communities in order to create the needed tax base to improve services throughout the county. Voters outside the city limits rejected annexation plans in six referendums between 1960 and 1965. In the mid 1960s, corruption scandals began to arise among many of the city’s officials, who were mainly elected through the traditional good ol’ boy network. After a grand jury was convened to investigate, 11 officials were indicted and more were forced to resign. Consolidation, led by J. J. Daniel and Claude Yates, began to win more support during this period, from both inner city blacks, who wanted more involvement in government and whites in the suburbs, who wanted more services and more control over the central city. The simultaneous disaccredation of all fifteen of Duval County’s public high schools in 1964 added momentum to the proposals for government reform. Lower taxes, increased economic development, unification of the community, better public spending and effective administration by a more central authority were all cited as reasons for a new consolidated government.
A view of Jacksonville in 1909 In the 1910s, New York-based moviemakers were attracted to Jacksonville’s warm climate, exotic locations, excellent rail access, and cheap labor. Over the course of the decade, more than 30 silent film studios were established, earning Jacksonville the title "Winter Film Capital of the World". However, the city’s conservative political climate and the emergence of Hollywood as a major film production center ended the city’s film industry. One converted movie studio site, Norman Studios, remains in Arlington; It has been converted to the Jacksonville Silent Film Museum at Norman Studios.
Motion picture scene at Gaumont Studios, 1910 During this time, Jacksonville also became a banking and insurance center, with companies such as Barnett Bank, Atlantic National Bank, Florida National Bank, Prudential, Gulf Life, Afro-American Insurance, Independent Life and American Heritage Life thriving in the business district. The U.S. Navy also became a major employer and economic force during the 1940s, with the construction of three naval bases in the city. Jacksonville, like most large cities in the United States, suffered from negative effects of rapid urban sprawl after World War II. After World War II, the government of the City of Jacksonville began to increase spending to fund new building projects in the boom that occurred after the war. Mayor W. Haydon Burns’ Jacksonville Story resulted in
News of Jacksonville’s consolidation from The Florida Times-Union. A consolidation referendum was held in 1967, and voters approved the plan. On October 1, 1968, the governments merged to create the Consolidated City of Jacksonville. Fire, police, health & welfare, recreation, public works, and housing & urban development were all combined under the new government. The Better Jacksonville Plan, promoted as a blueprint for Jacksonville’s future and approved by Jacksonville voters in 2000, authorized a
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half-penny sales tax to generate most of the revenue required for the $2.25 billion package of projects that included road & infrastructure improvements, environmental preservation, targeted economic development and new or improved public facilities.
Jacksonville has a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa), with mild weather during winters and hot weather during summers. High temperatures average 64 to 91 °F (18-33 °C) throughout the year. High heat indices are not uncommon for the summer months in the Jacksonville area. High temperatures can reach mid to high 90s with heat index ranges of 105-115 °F. The highest temperature ever recorded in Jacksonville was 105 °F (41 °C) on July 21, 1942. It is common for daily thunderstorms to erupt during a standard summer afternoon. These are caused by the heating of the land and water, combined with extremely high humidity. During winter, the area can experience hard freezes during the night. Such cold weather is usually short lived, as the city averages only 15 nights below freezing. The coldest temperature recorded in Jacksonville was 7 °F (-14 °C) on January 21, 1985, a day that still holds the record cold for many locations in the eastern half of the US. Even rarer in Jacksonville than freezing temperatures is snow. When snow does fall, it usually melts before touching the ground, or upon making contact with the ground. Most residents of Jacksonville can remember accumulated snow on only one occasion—-a thin ground cover that occurred December 23 of 1989. Jacksonville has suffered less damage from hurricanes than most other east coast cities. The city has only received one direct hit from a hurricane since 1871, although Jacksonville has experienced hurricane or nearhurricane conditions more than a dozen times due to storms passing through the state from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean, or passing to the north or south in the Atlantic and brushing the area. The strongest effect on Jacksonville was from Hurricane Dora in 1964, the only recorded storm to hit the First Coast with sustained hurricane force winds. The eye crossed St. Augustine, with winds that had just barely diminished to 110 mph (180 km/h), making it a strong Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Jacksonville also suffered damage from 2008’s Tropical Storm Fay which crisscrossed the state, bringing Jacksonville under darkness for four days. Similarly, four years previous to this, Jacksonville was inundated by Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Jeanne, which made landfall south of the area. These tropical cyclones were the costliest indirect hits to Jacksonville. Hurricane Floyd in 1999 caused damage mainly to Jacksonville Beach. During Floyd, the Jacksonville Beach pier was completely destroyed. The rebuilt Jacksonville Beach pier was later heavily damaged by Fay, but not destroyed. Rainfall averages around 52 inches (1.3 m) a year, with the wettest months being June through September.
A simulated-color satellite image of Jacksonville, taken on NASA’s Landsat 7 satellite. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 874.3 square miles (2,264.5 km²), making Jacksonville the largest city in land area in the contiguous United States; of this, 757.7 square miles (1,962.4 km²; 86.66%) is land and 116.7 square miles (302.1 km²; 13.34%) is water. Jacksonville completely encircles the city of Baldwin. Nassau County lies to the north, Baker County lies to the west, and Clay and St. Johns County lie to the south; the Atlantic Ocean lies to the east, along with the Jacksonville Beaches. The St. Johns River divides the city. The Trout River, a major tributary of the St. Johns River, is located entirely within Jacksonville.
Picture of a very rare Jacksonville snowfall, December 23, 1989
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Rank Name 1 2 3 4 5 Bank of America Tower Modis Building AT&T Tower The Peninsula at St. Johns Center Riverplace Tower Street Address 50 North Laura Street 1 Independent Drive 301 West Bay Street 1401 Riverplace Boulevard 1301 Riverplace Boulevard Height feet / meters 617 / 188 535 / 163 447 / 136 437 / 133 432 / 132
Floors 42 37 32 36 28 Year 1990 1974 1983 2006 1967
Jacksonville skyline panorama.
See also: List of tallest buildings in Jacksonville Downtown Jacksonville has a memorable skyline with the tallest building being the Bank of America Tower, constructed in 1990 as the Barnett Bank Center. It has a height of 617 ft (188 m) and includes 42 floors. Other notable structures include the 37-story Modis Building (once, with its distinctive flared base, the defining building in the Jacksonville skyline), originally built in 1972-74 by the Independent Life and Accident Insurance Company, and the 28 floor Riverplace Tower which, when completed in 1967, was the tallest precast, post-tensioned concrete structure in the world.  
As the largest city in land area in the contiguous United States, Jacksonville’s official website divides the city into six major sections:
• , (Northside) officially considered to be everything north of the St. Johns & Trout Rivers and east of US 1. • is located north of Interstate 10, south of the Trout River. • (Southside, Mandarin), referring to everything east of the St. Johns River and south of Beach Blvd. • (Westside) consists of everything west of the St. Johns River and south of Interstate 10. • (Downtown Jacksonville) includes the south & north banks of the narrowest part of the St. Johns River east from the Fuller Warren Bridge and extending roughly 4 miles (6.4 km) north and east. Jacksonville is divided into several sections; Northside, Southside and Westside, with each section having several distinct neighborhoods. Today, what distinguishes a "section" of Jacksonville from a "neighborhood" is primarily a matter of size and divisibility. However, definitions are imprecise, and sometimes not universally agreed upon. Each of these sections not only encompasses a large area, but also, each is divided into many neighborhoods. Each of these neighborhoods, in turn, has its own identity. Some, such as Mandarin, LaVilla and Bayard had existed previously as independent towns or villages, prior to consolidation, and have their own histories.
Parks and gardens
See also: List of parks in Jacksonville Jacksonville operates the largest urban park system in the United States, providing facilities and services at more than 337 locations on more than 80,000 acres (320 km²) located throughout the city. Jacksonville gathers significant natural beauty from the St. Johns River and Atlantic Ocean and many parks provide access for people to boat, swim, fish, sail, jetski, surf and waterski. Several parks around the city have received international recognition. Kids Kampus, in particular, is a unique facility for families with young children. The Jacksonville Arboretum and Gardens broke ground on a new center in April, 2007 and held their grand opening on November 15, 2008. The Veterans Memorial Wall is a tribute to local servicemen and women killed while serving in US armed forces. A ceremony is held each Memorial Day
Sections of Jacksonville • (Arlington) is situated east and south of the St. Johns River and north of Beach Blvd.
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recognizing any service woman or man from Jacksonville who died in the previous year. The Treaty Oak is a massive, 250 year-old tree at Jesse Ball Dupont Park in downtown. Office workers from nearby buildings sit on benches to eat lunch or read a book in the shade of its canopy. The Jacksonville-Baldwin Rail Trail is a linear city park which runs 14.5 miles (23.3 km) from Imeson Road to a point past Baldwin, Florida.
The Times-Union Center for the Performing Arts consists of three distinct halls: the Jim & Jan Moran Theater, a venue for touring Broadway shows; the Jacoby Symphony Hall, home of the Jacksonville Symphony Orchestra; and the Terry Theater, intended for small shows and recitals. The building was originally erected as the Civic Auditorium in 1962 and underwent a major renovation and construction in 1996. The Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena, which opened in 2003, is a 16,000-seat performance venue that attracts national entertainment, sporting events and also houses the Jacksonville Sports Hall of Fame. It replaced the outdated Jacksonville Memorial Coliseum that was built in 1960 and demolished on June 26, 2003. The Alhambra Dinner Theatre, located on the Southside near the University of North Florida, has offered professional productions that frequently starred well-known actors for over forty years. There are also a number of popular community theatres such as Players by the Sea at Jacksonville Beach., Atlantic Beach Experemental Theatre (ABET), and Orange Park Community Theatre  In 1999, Stage Aurora Theatrical Company, Inc. was established in collaboration at Florida Community College at Jacksonville North Campus as. Currently, Their goal is to produce theatre that enlightens, and is the most popular theatre on the Northside, and is located at Gateway Town Center. Jacksonville is also home to The Teal Sound Drum and Bugle Corps, a junior team that competes in Drum Corps International Open Class competition. Jacksonville also houses live improv comedy. The Mad Cowford Improv Troupe performs weekly at Northstar Substation every Friday night. Mad Cowford is Jacksonville’s only improv group. Shows consist of 100% onthe-spot material and audience participation. The troupe is led by director John Kalinowski. In the early 1900s, New York-based moviemakers were attracted to Jacksonville’s warm climate, exotic locations, excellent rail access, and cheaper labor, earning the city the title of "The Winter Film Capital of the World". Over 30 movie studios were opened and thousands of silent films produced between 1908 and the 1920s, when most studios relocated to Hollywood, California. Since that time, Jacksonville has been chosen by a number of film and television studios for on-location shooting. Notable motion pictures that have been partially or completely shot in Jacksonville since the silent film era include Creature from the Black Lagoon (1954), The New Adventures of Pippi Longstocking (1988), Brenda Starr (1989), G.I. Jane (1997), The Devil’s Advocate (1997), Ride (1998), Why Do Fools Fall In Love (1998), Forces of Nature (1999), Tigerland (2000), Sunshine State (2002), Basic (2003), The Manchurian Candidate (2004), Lonely Hearts (2006), Monster House (2006), Moving
Jacksonville, Florida, ca. 1910 See also: List of people from Jacksonville, Florida
Entertainment and performing arts
The Florida Theatre The Florida Theatre, opened in 1927, is located in downtown Jacksonville and is one of only four remaining highstyle movie palaces built in Florida during the Mediterranean Revival architectural boom of the 1920s. Theatre Jacksonville was organized in 1919 as the Little Theatre and is one of the oldest continually producing community theatres in the United States. The Riverside Theater opened in 1927. It was the first theater equipped to show talking pictures in Florida and the third nationally. It is located in the Five Points section of town and was renamed the Five Points Theater. The Ritz Theatre, opened in 1929, is located in the LaVilla neighborhood of the northern part of Jacksonville’s downtown. Rebuilt and opened in October, 1999.
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McAllister (2007), The Year of Getting to Know Us (2008). Notable television series or made-for-television films that have been partially or completely shot in Jacksonville include Intimate Strangers (1986), Inherit the Wind (1988), Roxanne: The Prize Pulitzer (1989), A Girl of the Limberlost (1990), Orpheus Descending (1990), Pointman (1995), Saved by the Light (1995), The Babysitter’s Seduction (1996), Sudden Terror: The Hijacking of School Bus #17 (1996), First Time Felon (1997), Gold Coast (1997), Safe Harbor (1999), The Conquest of America (2005), Super Bowl XXXIX (2005), Recount (2008), and American Idol (2009). In an episode of NCIS, the suspect/criminal was stationed at Naval Air Station Jacksonville even though it wasn’t really filmed there.
1,000 boats that compete for over $500,000 in prizes, attracting approximately 30,000 spectators. The Greater Jacksonville Agricultural Fair is held every November at the Jacksonville Fairgrounds & Exposition Center, featuring an array of carnival games & rides, food, live entertainment, vendor merchandise booths and agriculture/livestock exhibition & judging. Planetfest, an annual corporate music festival in November, features a variety of musicians and is sponsored by radio station WPLA, Planet 107.3. Thanksgiving weekend is a busy time, with the lighting of Jacksonville’s official Christmas Tree at the Jacksonville Landing on Friday, the day after Thanksgiving. The Jacksonville Light Parade happens on Saturday night following Thanksgiving. "The World’s Largest Outdoor Cocktail Party" or "Florida/Georgia-Georgia/Florida" college football game.
One of the most popular sporting events is the annual Gate River Run, the US National Championship 15K since 1994 and largest 15K race in the country. The 13,000+ recreational runners -- some running for the first time -- are joined by a few thousand more supporters, spectators and volunteers who make this Jacksonville’s largest participation sporting event.  The 9.3-mile (15.0 km) race has taken place every March since 1977. . The Amelia Island Concours d’Elegance, an annual event in early March, is one of the nation’s premier automotive concours events. Also in March is the Blessing of the Fleet and the Great Atlantic Seafood and Music Festival. The Jacksonville Jazz Festival is held every April and is the second-largest jazz festival in the nation. Springing the Blues is a free outdoor blues festival held in Jacksonville Beach, also in April. The Jacksonville Film Festival is staged every May and features a variety of independent films, documentaries, and shorts screening at seven historic venues in the city. Past attendees of the festival have included director John Landis and Academy Award nominee Bill Murray and winner Graham Greene, both of whom were awarded the Tortuga Verde Lifetime Achievement Award. The World of Nations Celebration is also in May. The Spring Music Fest is a free concert Memorial Day weekend that is sponsored by the city that features some of today’s most popular artists. Every July 4 is the Freedom, Fanfare & Fireworks celebration, one of the nation’s largest fireworks displays, held at Metropolitan Park and on the surface of the St. Johns River. A very large fireworks display is also held at Jacksonville Beach, centered on the rebuilt pier. The AT&T Greater Jacksonville Kingfish Tournament is an annual event held in July. The first contest was held in 1981 and it has grown to be the largest Kingfish tournament in the United States. Participation is limited to
See also: List of museums in Florida The city center includes the Jacksonville Landing and the Jacksonville Riverwalks. The Landing is a popular riverfront dining and shopping venue, accessible by River Taxi from the Southbank Riverwalk. The Northbank Riverwalk runs 2.0 miles (3.2 km) along the St. Johns from Berkman Plaza to I-95 at the Fuller Warren Bridge while the Southbank Riverwalk stretches 1.2 miles (1.9 km) from the Radisson Hotel to Museum Circle. Adjacent to Museum circle is St. Johns River Park (aka Friendship Park), location of Friendship Fountain, one of the most recognizable and popular attractions for locals as well as tourists in Jacksonville. This landmark was built in 1965 and promoted as the “World’s Tallest and Largest” fountain. Just east of the fountain is the Jacksonville Maritime Museum, located in an enclosed pavilion on the riverwalk. Their collection includes models of ships, paintings, photographs and artifacts dating to 1562. Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) opened its 60,000-square-foot (6,000 m2) facility in 2003, located adjacent to the Main Library downtown. Tracing its roots back to the formation of Jacksonville’s Fine Arts Society in 1924, the museum features eclectic permanent and traveling exhibitions. In November 2006, JMOMA was renamed Museum of Contemporary Art Jacksonville (MOCA Jacksonville) to reflect their continued commitment to art produced after the modernist period. The Museum of Science & History (MOSH) is found on Jacksonville’s Southbank Riverwalk, and features a main exhibit that changes quarterly, plus three floors of nature and local history exhibits, a hands-on science area and the Alexander Brest Planetarium. Mr. Brest, founder of Duval Engineering and Contracting Co., was also the benefactor for the Alexander Brest Museum and Gallery on the campus of Jacksonville
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University. The exhibits are a diverse collection of carved ivory, Pre-Columbian artifacts, Steuben glass, Chinese porcelain and Cloisonné, Tiffany glass, Boehm porcelain and rotating exhibitions containing the work of local, regional, national and international artists.  Three other art galleries are located at educational institutions in town. Florida Community College at Jacksonville has the Kent Gallery on their westside campus and the Wilson Center for the Arts at their main campus. The University Gallery is located on the campus of the University of North Florida. The Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens holds a large collection of European and American paintings, as well as a world-renowned collection of early Meissen porcelain. The museum is surrounded by three acres of formal English and Italian style gardens, and is located in the Riverside neighborhood, on the bank of the St. Johns River. There is also a hands-on children’s section. The Karpeles Manuscript Library is the world’s largest private collection of original manuscripts & documents. The museum in Jacksonville is located in a 1921 neoclassical building on the outskirts of downtown. In addition to document displays, there is also an antique-book library, with volumes dating from the late 1800s. The Catherine Street Fire Station building is on the National Register of Historic Places and was relocated to Metropolitan Park in 1993. It houses the Jacksonville Fire Museum and features 500+ artifacts including an 1806 hand pumper. The LaVilla Museum opened in 1999 and features a permanent display of African-American history. The art exhibits are changed periodically. There are also several historical properties and items of interest in the city, including the Klutho Building, the Old Morocco Temple Building, the Palm and Cycad Arboretum, and the Prime F. Osborn III Convention Center, originally built as Union Station train depot. The Art Walk, a monthly outdoor art festival on the first Wednesday of each month, is sponsored by Downtown Vision, Inc, an organization which works to promote artistic talent and venues on the First Coast. The Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens boasts the second largest animal collection in the state. The zoo features elephants, lions, and, of course, jaguars (with an exhibit, Range of the Jaguar, hosted by the owners of the Jacksonville Jaguars, Delores and Wayne Weaver), as well as a multitude of reptile houses, free flight aviaries, and many other animals. Shipwreck Island in Jacksonville Beach is the only waterpark in Duval County. It opened in 1995 and changes rides every few years to keep the season passholders coming back. Adventure Landing in Jacksonville and Jacksonville Beach are the only amusement parks in Duval County. Jungle Quest, located across from the Jacksonville Naval Air Station, is the only Jungle Quest store located
outside of Colorado. Jungle Quest features zip lines and rock climbing for children.
Jacksonville has two fully enclosed shopping malls. The older is the Regency Square Mall, which opened in 1967 and is located on former sand dunes in the Arlington area. The other is The Avenues Mall, which opened in 1990 on the Southside, at the intersection of I-95 and US 1. The end of the indoor shopping mall may be indicated by the opening of The St. Johns Town Center in 2005 and the River City Marketplace, on the Northside in 2006. Both of these are "open air" malls, with a similar mix of stores, but without being contained under a single, enclosed roof. According to the International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC), only one enclosed mall has been built in the United States since 2006. The Avenues and St. John’s Town Center are both owned by Simon Property Group; Regency is owned by General Growth Properties; River City Marketplace is being developed by Ramco Gershenson.
Jacksonville is home to one major league sports team—the NFL’s Jaguars—and a number of minor league teams. Jacksonville is also home to two universities, a four year college, and the fourth largest community college in the country. All of these institutions field sports teams. Additionally, several college sports events are held in Jacksonville annually by teams and conferences not located in the city. Jacksonville is seen as a likely city to receive a franchise in the proposed professional rugby league competition, NRLUS, which is expeected to start in 2010.
The Florida Times-Union is the major daily newspaper in Jacksonville and Jacksonville.com is its official website. Another daily newspaper is the Financial News and Daily Record. Popular magazines include Folio Weekly, MetroJacksonville, Jacksonville Free Press, Jacksonville Business Journal, The Florida Star, Saint Augustine Catholic, Arbus, Hola News, and Jacksonville Magazine. Jacksonville is served by television stations affiliated with major American networks including WTLV (NBC), WJXX (ABC), WTEV (CBS), WAWS (FOX/My Network TV), WJCT (PBS),and WCWJ (CW). WJXT is a former longtime CBS affiliate that turned independent in 2002. The website, Jax4Kids.com is a resource available to Jacksonville-area parents, grandparents and educators to find current and upcoming events, classes, camps, sports and other programs for cultural and educational enrichment for children. See also: List of radio stations in Florida
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Club Jacksonville JAM Jacksonville Jaguars Jacksonville Suns Jacksonville University Jacksonville Barracudas Jacksonville Dixie Blues Sport Basketball Football Baseball College Baseball Hockey Women’s Football League American Basketball Association (ABA) National Football League (NFL) AFC Venue
UNF Arena Jacksonville Municipal Stadium
Southern League - Southern Division Baseball Grounds of Jacksonville NCAA - Atlantic Sun Conference Alexander Brest Field
Southern Professional Hockey League Jacksonville Ice (SPHL) Women’s Football League Florida Women’s Hockey League NCAA – Pioneer Football League NCAA – Atlantic Sun Conference NAIA – The Sun Conference NAIA – The Sun Conference NCAA – Atlantic Sun Conference NCAA – Atlantic Sun Conference Episcopal High School Jacksonville Ice D.B. Milne Field Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena Earl Kitchings Stadium James Weldon Johnson Gymansium UNF Arena UNF Harmon Stadium
Jacksonville Breakers Women’s Ice Hockey Jacksonville University Jacksonville University Edward Waters College Edward Waters College University of North Florida University of North Florida University of North Florida Duval Panthers College Football College Basketball College Football College Basketball College Basketball College Baseball College Lacrosse
Florida Lacrosse League - Division II UNF Intramural Fields (FLL) American National Rugby League FFAA Jacksonville RollerGirls UNF Stadium Field Jean Ribault High School Mandarin Skate Station/Jacksonville Ice
Jacksonville Axemen Rugby League Minor American Football
New Jax City Rollers Roller derby
Jacksonville’s radio market is dominated by the same two large ownership groups that dominate the radio industry across the United States: Cox Radio and Clear Channel Communications. The dominant AM radio station in terms of ratings is WOKV 690AM, which is also the flagship station for the Jacksonville Jaguars. In September 2006, WOKV began simulcasting on 106.5 FM as WOKV FM. There are two radio stations broadcasting a primarily contemporary hits format; WAPE 95.1 has dominated this niche for over twenty years, and more recently has been challenged by WFKS 97.9 FM (KISS FM). WJBT 93.3 (The Beat) is a hip-hop/R&B station, WPLA 107.3 is a modern rock and alternative music station, WFYV 104.5—Rock 105 Jacksonville Classic rock,
WQIK 99.1 is a country station as well as WGNE-FM 99.9, WCRJ FM 88.1 (The Promise) is the main Contemporary Christian station operating since 1984, WHJX 105.7 and WFJO 92.5 plays music in Spanish like salsa, merengue, and reggaeton, and WJCT 89.9 is the local National Public Radio affiliate. Local Jones College also hosts a station, WKTZ 90.9 FM.
Historical populations Census Pop. %± 1850 1,045 — 1860 2,118 102.7%
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The population density was 374.9/km² (970.9/mi²). There were 308,826 housing units at an average density of 157.4/km² (407.6/mi²). There were 284,499 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.0% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.07. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, and 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. According to the 2007 American Community Survey, the city’s population was 63.7% White (58.7% nonHispanic-White alone), 31.0% Black or African American, 0.8% American Indian and Alaska Native, 4.0% Asian, 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 2.2% from some other race and 1.7% from two or more races. 5.9% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The largest ancestries are German (9.6%), Irish (9.0%), English (8.5%), Italian (3.5%), and French (2.2%). In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $40,316, and the median income for a family was $47,243. Males had a median income of $32,547 versus $25,886 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,337. About 9.4% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.7% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over.
City Center 1870 6,912 226.3% 1880 7,650 10.7% 1890 17,201 124.8% 1900 28,429 65.3% 1910 57,699 103.0% 1920 91,558 58.7% 1930 129,549 41.5% 1940 173,065 33.6% 1950 204,275 18.0% 1960 201,030 −1.6% 1970 528,865 163.1% 1980 540,920 2.3% 1990 635,230 17.4% 2000 735,503 15.8% Est. 2006 799,875 8.8% Jacksonville is the most populous city in Florida, and the twelfth most populous city in the United States. As of the census estimates of 2006, there were 799,875 people, 315,796 households, and 199,037 families residing in the city. However, it is perhaps misleading to compare Jacksonville’s population to other major cities. As a result of the 1968 consolidation of Jacksonville and Duval County, most of the suburban communities of Jacksonville were absorbed within the city limits of Jacksonville proper. It may be a more accurate comparison to compare the metropolitan area of Jacksonville to the Metropolitan area of other cities.
As of 2000, English spoken as a first language accounted for 90.60%, while Spanish was at 4.13%, and Tagalog spoken as a mother tongue made up 1.00% of the population. In total, all languages spoken other than English were at 9.39%.
Jacksonville has a diverse religious population. The city is estimated to contain 265,158 Evangelical Protestants and 89,649 Mainline Protestants who attend a total of 794 churches. Several of these are megachurches, including First Baptist Church downtown and Christ’s Church (formerly Mandarin Christian Church) on Greenland Road. There are 162,329 Roman Catholics who attend 51 Catholic churches within the Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine. Since 1906, the city’s Unitarian Universalists have worshipped at the Unitarian Universalist Church of Jacksonville  The Episcopal Diocese of
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Florida has its see in St. John’s Cathedral, the current building dating from 1906. There is a good representation of various Lutheran Synods, as well. The greater metropolitan area also has a Jewish population of 14,000, mostly residing in the neighborhood of Mandarin. There are two Reform, four Conservative, and four Orthodox synagogues, three of them Chabad-affiliated,. There are over 3,000 members of various Eastern Orthodox Church jurisdictions in eight parishes or missions, and 18,050 of other religious affiliations. Within the city limits there are also seven Mormon church buildings housing twelve congregations of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a population of Muslims centered on the Islamic Center of Northeast Florida,, a Bahá’í center, and New Age and Neopagan communities.
There has been an increase in Gang activity over the past few years. The murder rate is the most troubling, and the majority of homicides involve drug-related crime. Based on the Morgan Quitno Press 2006 national crime rankings, Jacksonville ranked as the 10th safest in the nation among the 32 US cities with a population of 500,000 or more. As of Nov 19, 2007, Jacksonville ranked the 11th most dangerous city in Florida, safer than Orlando (1st), Miami (3rd), Tampa (6th), Tallahassee (7th) and Gainesville (8th). Nationwide, Jacksonville was ranked as the 115th most dangerous city; Detroit was 1st.
Some government services remained - as they had been prior to consolidation – independent of both city and county authority. In accordance with Florida law, the school board continues to exist with nearly complete autonomy. Jacksonville also has several quasi-independent government agencies which only nominally answer to the consolidated authority, including electric authority, port authority, transportation authority, housing authority and airport authority. The main environmental and agricultural body is the Duval County Soil and Water Conservation District, which works closely with other area and state agencies.
Law and government
The most noteworthy feature of Jacksonville government is its consolidated nature. The Duval County-Jacksonville consolidation eliminated any type of separate county executive or legislature, and supplanted these positions with the Mayor of Jacksonville and the City Council of the City of Jacksonville, respectively. Because of this, voters who live outside of the city limits of Jacksonville, but inside of Duval County, are allowed not only to vote in elections for these positions, but to run for them as well. In fact, in 1995, John Delaney, a resident of Neptune Beach, was elected mayor of the City of Jacksonville. Jacksonville uses the Mayor-Council form of city government, also called the Strong-Mayor form, in which a mayor serves as the city’s Chief Executive and Administrative officer. The mayor holds veto power over all resolutions and ordinances made by the city council, and also has the power to hire and fire the head of various city departments. The current mayor is John Peyton. See also: List of mayors of Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville is home to Jacksonville University, the University of North Florida, Florida State College at Jacksonville, Edward Waters College, The Art Institute of Jacksonville, Florida Coastal School of Law, Brewer Christian College, Trinity Baptist College, Jones College (Jacksonville), and Florida Technical College Former mayor John Delaney has been president of the University of North Florida since leaving office in July 2003.
Jacksonville and Duval County historically maintained separate police agencies: the Jacksonville Police Department and Duval County Sheriff’s Office. As part of consolidation in 1968, the two merged, creating the Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office (JSO). The JSO is headed by the elected Sheriff of Duval County, currently John Rutherford, and is responsible for law enforcement and corrections in the county.
Primary and secondary education
Public schools in Duval County are controlled by the Duval County School Board. The county is home to four of the nation’s best high schools: (Stanton College Preparatory School 5th, Paxon School for Advanced Studies 8th, Mandarin High School 151st, and Douglas Anderson School of the Arts 158th,) according to Newsweek Magazine in 2008. Jacksonville, along with the standard district schools, is home to three International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme ("IB") high schools. They are Stanton, Paxon, and Jean Ribault High School. Jacksonville also has a notable magnet high school devoted to the performing and expressive arts, Douglas Anderson. The Advanced
In 2006, based on the United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation-Uniform Crime Reports, Jacksonville reported 6,663 violent crimes including 110 murders. Violent Crime in Jacksonville was up 9.5% since 2005 but property crimes were down.
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International Certificate of Education Program (AICE) is available at Mandarin High School and William M. Raines High School.
of the economy has declined over time. The area’s economy is balanced among distribution, financial services, biomedical technology, consumer goods, information services, manufacturing, insurance and other industries. Jacksonville is a rail, air, and highway focal point and a busy port of entry, with Jacksonville International Airport, ship repair yards and extensive freight-handling facilities. Lumber, phosphate, paper, cigars and wood pulp are the principal exports; automobiles and coffee are among imports. The city also has a large and diverse manufacturing base. According to Forbes in 2007, Jacksonville, Florida ranked 3rd in the top ten U.S. cities to relocate to find a job. Jacksonville was also the 10th fastest growing city in the U.S. Cecil Commerce Center is located on the site of the former Naval Air Station Cecil Field which closed in 1999 following the 1993 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) decision. Covering a total area of 22,939 acres (92.8 km²), it was the largest military base in the Jacksonville area and is now the most significant, long-term development asset in the City of Jacksonville. The parcel contains more than 3% of the total land area in Duval County (17,000 acres)and is one of the best locations for business in the Southeast. The industrial and commercialzoned center offers mid to large-size parcels for development and boasts excellent transportation and utility infrastructure as well as the third-longest runway in Florida.
Some of the larger private schools in Jacksonville include the Bolles School , Episcopal High School, and Trinity Christian Academy, as well as two Catholic high schools, Bishop Kenny High School and Bishop John J. Snyder High School.  There are a number of smaller private Christian and Catholic schools. See also: List of high schools in Jacksonville
The Jacksonville Public Library had its beginnings when May Moore and Florence Murphy started the "Jacksonville Library and Literary Association" in 1878. The Association was populated by various prominent Jacksonville residents and sought to create a free public library and reading room for the city. Over the course of 127 years, the system has grown from that one room library to become one of the largest in the state. The Jacksonville library system has twenty branches, ranging in size from the from the 54,000 sq ft (5,000 m2) West Regional Library to smaller neighborhood libraries like Westbrook and Eastside. The Library annually receives nearly 4 million visitors and circulates over 6 million items. Nearly 500,000 library cards are held by area residents. On November 12, 2005, the new 300,000 sq ft (30,000 m2) Main Library opened to the public, replacing the 40-year old Haydon Burns Library. The largest public library in the state, the opening of the new main library marked the completion of an unprecedented period of growth for the system under the Better Jacksonville Plan. The new Main Library offers specialized reading rooms, public access to hundreds of computers and public displays of art, an extensive collection of books, and special collections ranging from the African-American Collection to the recently opened Holocaust Collection.
Jacksonville is home to many prominent corporations & organizations including three Fortune 500 Companies: CSX Corporation, Fidelity National Financial and WinnDixie Supermarkets. Fortune Magazine identified Landstar System, MPS Group and PSS World Medical as the best big companies in Jacksonville in 2009. For more details on this topic, see List of companies in Jacksonville, Florida.
Jacksonville is home to three military facilities, and with Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay nearby gives Jacksonville the third largest military presence in the country. Only Norfolk, Virginia and San Diego, California are bigger. The military is by far the largest employer in Jacksonville and their total economic impact is approximately $6.1 billion annually. Naval Air Station Jacksonville is a military airport located four miles (6 km) south of the central business district. Approximately 23,000 civilian and active-duty personnel are employed on the base. There are 35 operational units/squadrons assigned there and support facilities include an airfield for pilot training, a maintenance depot capable of virtually any task, from changing a tire to intricate micro-electronics or total engine disassembly. Also on-site is a Naval Hospital, a Fleet Industrial Supply
Jacksonville’s location on the St. Johns River and the Atlantic Ocean proved providential in the growth of the city and its industry. The largest city in the state, it is also the largest deepwater port in the south (as well as the secondlargest port on the U.S. East coast) and a leading port in the U.S. for automobile imports, as well as the leading transportation and distribution hub in the state. However, the strength of the city’s economy lies in its broad diversification. While the area once had many thriving dairies such as Gustafson’s Farm and Skinner Dairy, this aspect
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Center, a Navy Family Service Center, and recreational facilities. Naval Station Mayport is a Navy Ship Base that is the third largest fleet concentration area in the United States. Mayport’s operational composition is unique, with a busy harbor capable of accommodating 34 ships and an 8,000-foot (2,400 m) runway capable of handling any aircraft used by the Department of Defense. Until 2007, it was home to the aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy, which locals called "Big John". In January, 2009, the Navy committed to stationing a nuclear-powered carrier at Mayport when the official Record of Decision was signed. The port will require approximately $500 million in facility enhancements to support the larger vessel, which will take several years to complete. The ship is projected to arrive in 2014. Blount Island Command is a Marine Corps Logistics Base whose mission is to support the Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) which provides for rapid deployment of personnel to link up with prepositioned equipment and supplies embarked aboard forward deployed Maritime Prepositioning Ships (MPS). USS Jacksonville, a nuclear powered Los Angeles class submarine, is the only US Navy ship named for the city. The ship’s nickname is The Bold One and Norfolk, Virginia is her home port. The Florida Air National Guard is based at Jacksonville International Airport.
Baptist Medical Center South, completed in February, 2005, was Jacksonville’s first hospital of the 21st century and Shands HealthCare for local residents, but the Nemours Children’s Hospital and Mayo Clinic Hospital facilities each draw patients regionally. There are literally hundreds of individual practitioners and Professional Associations (PA) in the Jacksonville area. For more details on this topic, see List of hospitals in Florida.
The Jacksonville Housing Authority (JHA) is the quasiindependent agency responsible for public housing and subsidized housing in Jacksonville. The Mayor and City Council of Jacksonville established the JHA in 1994 to create an effective, community service oriented, public housing agency with innovative ideas and a different attitude. The primary goal was to provide safe, clean, affordable housing for eligible low and moderate income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. The secondary goal was to provide effective social services, work with residents to improve their quality of life, encourage employment and self-sufficiency, and help residents move out of assisted housing. To that end, JHA works with HabiJax to help low and moderate income families to escape the public housing cycle and become successful, productive, homeowners and taxpayers.
The Port of Jacksonville is a large component of the local economy. Approximately 50,000 jobs in Northeast Florida are related to port activity and a total of $2.7 billion in economic impact in Northeast Florida: • port wages & salaries = $1.3 billion • in business revenue = $743 million • in local purchases = $239.1 million • state & local taxes = $119.3 million • customs revenue = $258 million
The TaxExemptWorld.com website, which compiles Internal Revenue Service data, reported that in 2007, there are 2,910 distinct, active, tax exempt/non-profit organizations in Jacksonville which, excluding Credit Unions, had a total income of $7.08 billion and assets of $9.54 billion. There are 333 charitable organizations with assets of over $1 million. The largest share of assets was tied to Medical facilities, $4.5 billion. For more details on this topic, see Non-profit organizations in Jacksonville, Florida.
In 2008, Jacksonville had approximately 2.8 million visitors who stayed overnight, spending nearly $1 billion. Research Data Services of Tampa was commissioned to undertake the study, which quantified the importance of tourism. The total economic impact was $1.6 billion and supported nearly 43,000 jobs, 10% of the local workforce.
Healthcare in Jacksonville is highly competitive. Major players include St. Vincent’s HealthCare, Baptist Health
Basic utilities in Jacksonville (water, sewer, electric) are provided by the JEA (formerly Jacksonville Electric Authority). According to Article 21 of the Jacksonville City Charter, "JEA is authorized to own, manage and
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operate a utilities system within and outside the City of Jacksonville. JEA is created for the express purpose of acquiring, constructing, operating, financing and otherwise have plenary authority with respect to electric, water, sewer, natural gas and such other utility systems as may be under its control now or in the future." • People’s Gas is Jacksonville’s natural gas provider. • Comcast is Jacksonvilles local cable provider. • AT&T (formerly BellSouth) is Jacksonville’s local phone provider. The city has a successful recycling program with separate pickups for garbage, yard waste and recycling. Collection is provided by several private companies under contract to the City of Jacksonville.
A downtown Jacksonville free Trolley-like bus. (paratransit) and the stadium shuttle. The city has the JTA Skyway, an elevated monorail, which travels through the central business district. However, there are few Skyway stations and as such, traffic is light. The Skyway has been criticized in that it goes from "nowhere to nowhere" along its limited route, which encompasses only downtown and is of no help in commuting from suburban neighborhoods or to the Jacksonville Sports complex.
Jacksonville is also home to the world headquarters of CSX Transportation, which owns a large building on the riverbank downtown that is a significant part of the skyline. The Amtrak passenger railroad serves Jacksonville from a station on Clifford Lane in the northwest section of the city. Florida East Coast Railway is another large railroad which is headquartered in Jacksonville. P-3 Orion aircraft from NAS Jacksonville overfly downtown Jacksonville and three of its road bridges, 1994. The Fuller Warren drawbridge in the foreground has since been torn down and replaced by a higher span.
Airports in Jacksonville are managed by the Jacksonville Aviation Authority (JAA). The commercial passenger facility is Jacksonville International Airport on the Northside. Smaller planes can fly to Craig Municipal Airport in Arlington and Herlong Airport on the Westside. The JAA also operates Cecil Field, the former NAS airfield at Cecil Commerce Center that is intended for the aerospace and manufacturing companies located there.
Interstate Highways 10 and 95 intersect in Jacksonville. Interstate Highway 10 ends at this intersection (the other end being in Santa Monica, California). The eastern terminus of US-90 is in nearby Jacksonville Beach near the Atlantic Ocean. Additionally, several other roads as well a major local expressway, J. Turner Butler Boulevard (SR 202) also connect Jacksonville to the beaches. Interstate 95 has a bypass route, with I-295, which bypasses the city to the west, and SR-9A, bypassing the city to the east. The major interchange at SR 9A and SR 202 (Butler Blvd) was finally completed on December 24, 2008. In the very near future, SR 9A will become I-295 and the interstate will therefore circumscribe the most populated portion of Jacksonville.
Public seaports in Jacksonville are managed by the Jacksonville Port Authority, known as JAXPORT. Four modern deepwater (38 ft) seaport facilities, including America’s newest cruise port, make Jacksonville a full-service international seaport. In FY2006, JAXPORT handled 8.7 million tons of cargo, including nearly 610,000 vehicles, which ranks Jacksonville 2nd in the nation in automobile handling, behind only the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The 20 other maritime facilities not managed by the Port Authority move about 10 million tons of additional cargo in and out of the St. Johns River. In terms of total tonnage, the Port of Jacksonville ranks 40th nationally;
Public transportation provided by the Jacksonville Transportation Authority (JTA) includes regular and express bus service, downtown trolleys, JTA Connexion
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within Florida, it is 3rd behind Tampa and Port Everglades. In 2003, the JAXPORT Cruise Terminal opened, providing cruise service to Key West, Florida, the Bahamas, and Mexico via Carnival Cruise Lines ship, Celebration. In FY2006 there were 78 cruise ship sailings with 128,745 passengers. The Mayport Ferry became JAXPORTs responsibility on October 1, 2007.
Jacksonville has six sister cities. They are: • • • - Bahia Blanca, Argentina (since 1967) - Murmansk, Russia (1975) - Masan, South Korea (1983) • • • - Nantes, France (1984) - Yingkou, China (1990) - Port Elizabeth, South Africa (2000)
In 2000, The Sister Cities International awarded Jacksonville the Innovation Arts & Culture Award for the city’s program with Nantes. See also: List of sister cities in Florida
• Orange Park, Florida
"Population Estimates for the 25 Largest U.S. Cities based on July 1, 2006 Population Estimates" (PDF). US Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/PressRelease/www/2007/cb07-91table1.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.  ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.  "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.  "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/ Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/ cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.  "US Census July 1, 2006 est". http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUBEST2006-01.xls.  "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". US Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/metro/tables/2008/ CBSA-EST2008-01.xls. Retrieved on 2009-04-01.  "Timucua Village of Ossachite". The Historical Text Archive. http://historicaltextarchive.com/ books.php?op=viewbook&bookid=70&cid=1#N_2_. Retrieved on 2007-11-03.  Exploring Florida.com: Pedro Menendez de Aviles Claims Florida for Spain  http://books.google.com/ books?printsec=frontcover&id=xjD5x9F1WyoC#PPA1,M1   Absolute Astronomy, Great Fire of 1901 
A 1992 map of downtown Jacksonville showing three road bridges.
Acosta Bridge over the St. Johns River There are seven bridges over the St. Johns River at Jacksonville. They include (starting from furthest downstream) the Dames Point Bridge, the Mathews Bridge, the Isaiah D. Hart Bridge, the Main Street Bridge, the Acosta Bridge, the Fuller Warren Bridge (which carries I-95 traffic) and the Buckman Bridge (which carries I-295 traffic). Beginning in 1953, tolls were charged on the Hart, Mathews, Fuller Warren and the Main Street bridges to pay for bridge construction, renovations and many other highway projects. As Jacksonville grew, toll plazas created bottlenecks and caused delays and accidents during rush hours. In 1988, Jacksonville voters chose to eliminate toll collection and replace the revenue with a ½ cent local sales tax increase. In 1989, the toll booths were removed. The Mayport Ferry connects the north and south ends of State Road A1A between Mayport and Fort George Island, and is the last active ferry in Florida.
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 "The Jacksonville Silent Film Museum at Norman Studios". http://www.normanstudios.org/. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  Jacksonville Real Estate website: Better Jacksonville Plan  "Climate Information for Jacksonville, Florida". ClimateZone.com. http://www.climate-zone.com/ climate/united-states/florida/jacksonville/. Retrieved on 2006-07-23.  NOAA/National Climatic Data Center: Table-Mean Number of Days With Minimum Temperature 32 Degrees F or Less  See List of snow events in Florida.  "Jacksonville,Florida’s history with tropical systems". HurricaneCity. http://www.hurricanecity.com/city/jacksonville.htm. Retrieved on 2006-07-23.  "Monthly Climate Info (Jacksonville)". http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jax/monnorm_jax.shtml. Retrieved on March 29 2009.  ^ "Bank of America Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=3823. Retrieved on 7-Dec-2008.  ^ "Bank of America Tower, Jacksonville Florida". Portfolio — Current Properties. Parameter Realty Partners. http://www.parmco.com/portfolio/ boa_tower.html. Retrieved on 7-Dec-2008.  Riverplace Tower, Jacksonville  Tallest Buildings in Jacksonville  Directory of Neighborhood Organizations  "Recreation and Community Services". http://www.coj.net/Departments/ Recreation+and+Community+Services/ Recreation+and+Community+Programming/ default.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-24.   Waymarking, Five Points Theater, Jacksonville   Five Points.com, So much history in one small place  Yahoo Travel: Jacksonville Beach-Players-By-TheSea  http://www.abettheatre.com/  http://www.opct.org/   CitySearch: Jacksonville-Stage Aurora Theatre   WJXT-TV, March 15, 2009-15K Take To Streets In 15K River Run  News4Jax.com: Mar 11, 2006-10,000 Participate; Keflezighi Wins Gate River Run  New York Times: February 25, 2000- Collecting; It’s The Stars’ Cars That Steal the Scene by Keith Martin  Superpages Travel reviews  Chapin, Veronica:  Florida Times-Union, May 27, 1998-Maritime museum on Web  INUSA tourguide: Jacksonville, Florida   Florida Division of Cultural Affairs, Univeristy and College Art Spaces
 Florida Times-Union: November 16, 2008-Remember when we all used to go to the Mall? by Diana Middleton  "Cox Radio’s Market Profile for Jacksonville, Florida". http://coxradio.com/includes/stations/ jacksonville.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  "Clear Channel Radio Station List for Jacksonville, Florida". http://www.clearchannel.com/Radio/ StationSearch.aspx?RadioSearch=Jacksonville. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  "Inside wokv.com". http://wokv.com/ads/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  Jacksonville city, Florida - Fact Sheet - American FactFinder  http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&tree_id=3307&redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&geo_id=16000US1235000&-format=&-_lang=en factfinder.census.gov  http://www.city-data.com/city/JacksonvilleFlorida.html city-data.com  "Modern Language Association Data Center Results of Jacksonville, FL". http://www.mla.org/ map_data_results&state_id=12&county_id=&mode=&zip=&plac Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  "Diocese of Saint Augustine Statistical Overview". http://www.dosafl.com/index.php?page=about/ statistics. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  "Unitarian Universalist Church of Jacksonville". http://www.uujax.org. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  "Chabad-Lubavitch Centers in Jacksonville, Florida". http://www.chabad.org/centers/ default.asp?q=9318_Jacksonville_Florida_USA__1. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Jacksonville, Florida". http://www.ldschurchnews.com/missions/110/ Florida-Jacksonville.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  "Islamic Center of Northeast Florida, Inc, as well as the Islamic Community of Bosniaks.". http://icnef.org/. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  "Jacksonville Bahá’í Community". http://www.bahaijax.org/. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  "Metro Area Membership Report for Jacksonville, Florida". http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/ reports/metro/3600_2000.asp. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  FBI 2006 Uniform Crime Report  Morgan Quitno rankings for the safest and most dangerous cities  Central Florida channel 13: Orlando Most Dangerous?
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 http://www.bishopsnyder.org/ retrieved on May 12, 2007  ^ "Jacksonville Public Library: A History". http://jaxpubliclibrary.org/lib/history.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.  "Jacksonville Public Library: Profile". http://jaxpubliclibrary.org/lib/factsheet.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.  "The Better Jacksonville Plan". http://www.betterjax.com/. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  Clark, Hannah (2007-02-16). "Table: Best Cities for Jobs". Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/careers/ 2007/02/15/best-cities-jobs-leadershipcareers_cx_hc_0216cityjobs_table.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.  Woolsey, Matt (2007-10-31). "In Pictures: America’s Fastest-Growing Cities". Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/2007/10/31/property-citiesgrowth-forbeslifecx_mw_1031realestate_slide_11.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.   Fortune Magazine, March 25, 2009-Best Places For Business And Careers #161 Jacksonville FL  Bnet Business Network: Cities of the United States (2005)-Jacksonville: Economy  Gibbons, Timothy J.:  Jacksonville.com, January 15, 2009 - Mayport carrier decision made official  Bouchard4B website: Things I didn’t know about Jaxport   Florida Times-Union, May 12, 2009-City visitors left $1 billion here in ’08   Tax Exempt World, Organization Search by City, Jacksonville, Florida  The Florida Legislature Archive: BILL# HB945 RELATING TO the Jacksonville Seaport Authority  The Jacksonville Port Authority (JAXPORT)  "Jacksonville Sisters Cities Association". http://www.jsca.org. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
• Herman Mason, Jr., African-American Life in Jacksonville, Arcadia Publishing, 1997. • Joanelle Mulrain, Re-Rooting Life’s Journeys • Keeping the Faith: Race, Politics, and Social Development in Jacksonville, Florida, 1940–1970, Greenwood Publishing, 2000. • John Oehser, Jags to Riches: The Cinderella Season of the Jacksonville Jaguars, St. Martins Press, 1997. • Daniel Schaefer, From scratch pads and dreams: A ten year history of the University of North Florida, University of North Florida, 1982. • Jules Wagman, Jacksonville and Florida’s First Coast, Windsor Publishing, 1989. • Dr. Caroyln Williams, Historic Photos of Jacksonville, Turner Publishing Company, 2006. • 40 years ago this weekend, Jacksonville gave itself a national reputation for violence. The Florida TimesUnion. • Foley, Bill; Wood, Wayne (2001). The great fire of 1901 (1st ed.). Jacksonville, Florida: The Jacksonville Historical Society. ISBN 0-9710261-0-6
• Jacksonville & & the Beaches Convention and Visitors Bureau • Jacksonville Sisters Cities Association • City of Jacksonville Official Site • Clay County Chamber of Commerce • Duval County Schools • Jacksonville.com - Florida Times-Union • Ebook on President Grover Cleveland’s visit to the 1888 Sub-Tropical Expo • Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce • Jacksonville (Florida) at the Open Directory Project • Jacksonville Public Library • ‹The template WikiMapia is being considered for deletion.› • Jacksonville at WikiMapia • Jacksonville, Florida is at coordinates 30°19′10″N 81°39′36″W / 30.319406°N 81.659999°W / 30.319406; -81.659999 (Jacksonville, Florida)Coordinates: 30°19′10″N 81°39′36″W / 30.319406°N 81.659999°W / 30.319406; -81.659999 (Jacksonville, Florida)
• James B. Cooks, Jacksonville: The Consolidation Story, from Civil Rights to the Jaguars, University Press of Florida, 2004. • Greg Jenkins, Florida’s Ghostly Legends And Haunted Folklore: North Florida And St. Augustine, Pineapple Press, 2005. • Buddy Martin, The Boys from Old Florida: Inside Gator Nation, Sports Publishing, 2006
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacksonville,_Florida" Categories: Settlements established in 1791, 1832 establishments, Census balances in the United States, Cities in Duval County, Florida, County seats in Florida, Port settlements in Florida, Settlements on the St. Johns River, Greater Jacksonville, Jacksonville, Florida
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