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Convertible notebooks have a base body with an attached keyboard. They more closely resemble modern laptops, and are usually heavier and larger than slates. Typically, the base of a convertible attaches to the display at a single joint called a swivel hinge or rotating hinge. The joint allows the screen to rotate around 180° and fold down on top of the keyboard to provide a flat writing surface. This design, although the most common, creates a physical point of weakness on the notebook. Some manufacturers, however, have attempted to overcome these weak points. The Panasonic Toughbook 19, for example, is advertised as a more durable convertible notebook. One model by Acer has a sliding design in which the screen slides up from the slate-like position and locks into place to provide the laptop mode. Convertibles are by far the most popular form factor of tablet PCs, because for people who are unsure about the practicality of using the pen as the primary method of input, the convertibles still offer the keyboard and pointing device of older notebooks.
HP Compaq tablet PC with rotating/removable keyboard A tablet PC is a laptop or slate-shaped mobile computer, equipped with a touchscreen or graphics tablet/screen hybrid to operate the computer with a stylus or digital pen, or a fingertip, instead of a keyboard or mouse. This form factor offers a more mobile way to interact with a computer. Tablet PCs are often used where normal notebooks are impractical or unwieldy, or do not provide the needed functionality.
Hybrids, coined by users of the HP/Compaq TC1000 and TC1100 series, share the features of the slate and convertible by using a detachable keyboard which operates in a similar fashion to a convertible when attached. This is not to be confused with slate models that have a detachable keyboard—detachable keyboards for pure slate models do not rotate around to allow the tablet to rest on it like a convertible. Despite a loyal following of users, the hybrid form factor has not received any recent updates after the TC1100 was discontinued.
Slate computers, which resemble writing slates, are tablet PCs without a dedicated keyboard. For text input, users rely on handwriting recognition via active digitizer, touching the screen with a fingertip or stylus or by using an external keyboard can usually be attached via a wireless or USB connection. These tablet PCs typically incorporate small (8.4-14.1 inches/21–36 cm) LCD screens and have been popular for quite some time in vertical markets such as health care, education, and field work. Slate models are often designed with a focus on mobility and/or ruggedness, eliminating moving parts that could hinder these qualities.
• Before 1950 • 1888: U.S. Patent granted to Elisha Gray on electrical stylus device for capturing handwriting. • 1915: U.S. Patent on handwriting recognition user interface with a stylus. • 1942: U.S. Patent on touchscreen for handwriting input. • 1945: Vannevar Bush proposes the Memex, a data archiving device including handwriting input, in an essay As We May Think. • 1950s
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• Tom Dimond demonstrates the Styalator electronic tablet with pen for computer input and handwriting recognition. Early 1960s • RAND Tablet invented. Late 1960s • Alan Kay of Xerox PARC proposed a notebook using pen input called Dynabook: however device is never constructed. 1982 • Pencept of Waltham, Massachusetts markets a general-purpose computer terminal using a tablet and handwriting recognition instead of a keyboard and mouse. • Cadre System markets the Inforite point-of-sale terminal using handwriting recognition and a small electronic tablet and pen. 1985: • Pencept and CIC both offer PC computers for the consumer market using a tablet and handwriting recognition instead of a keyboard and mouse. Operating system is MS-DOS. 1989 • The first commercially available tablet-type portable computer was the GRiDPad from GRiD Systems, released in September. Its operating system was based on MS-DOS. • Wang Laboratories introduces Freestyle. Freestyle was an application that would do a screen capture from an MS-DOS application, and let the user add voice and handwriting annotations. It was a sophisticated predecessor to later note-taking applications for systems like the Tablet PC. The operating system was MS-DOS 1991 • The Momenta Pentop was released. • GO Corp announced a dedicated operating system, called PenPoint OS, featuring control of the operating system desktop via handwritten gesture shapes. • NCR released model 3125 pen computer running MS-DOS, Penpoint or Pen Windows. • The Apple Newton entered development; although it ultimately became a PDA, its original concept (which called for a larger screen and greater sketching capabilities) resembled that of a tablet PC. 1992 • GO Corp shipped PenPoint and IBM announced IBM 2125 pen computer (the first IBM model named "ThinkPad") in April. • Microsoft releases Windows for Pen Computing as a response to the PenPoint OS. 1993 • The IBM releases the ThinkPad, IBM’s first commercialized portable tablet computer product
available to the consumer market, as the IBM ThinkPad 750P and 360P • AT&T introduced the EO Personal Communicator combining PenPoint with wireless communications. 1999 • The "QBE" pen computer created by Aqcess Technologies wins Comdex Best of Show. 2000 • The "QBE Vivo" pen computer created by Aqcess Technologies ties for Comdex Best of Show. 2001 • Bill Gates of Microsoft demonstrates first public prototype of a Tablet PC (defined by Microsoft as a pen-enabled computer conforming to hardware specifications devised by Microsoft and running a licensed copy of the "Windows XP Tablet PC Edition" operating system) at Comdex. 2003 • Fingerworks  develops the touch technology and touch gestures later used in the Apple IPhone. 2006 • Windows Vista released for general availability. Vista included the functionality of the special Tablet PC edition of Windows XP. 2008 • In April 2008, as part of a larger federal court case, the gesture features of the Windows/Tablet PC operating system and hardware were found to infringe on a patent by GO Corp. concerning user interfaces for pen computer operating systems. • HP releases the second MultiTouch capable tablet: the HP TouchSmart tx2z. 2009 • Asus announced a tablet netbook. • Always Innovating announced a new tablet netbook with an ARM CPU. • Motion Computing launched the J3400.
The operating system on which most tablet PCs used to run was Windows XP Tablet PC Edition. Tablet PC Edition is a superset of Windows XP Professional, the difference being tablet functionality, including alternate text input (Tablet PC Input Panel) and basic drivers for support of tablet PC specific hardware. Requirements to install Tablet PC Edition include a tablet digitizer or touchscreen device, and hardware control buttons including a Ctrl-Alt-Delete shortcut button, scrolling buttons, and at least one user-configurable application button. Service Pack 2 for Windows XP includes Tablet PC Edition 2005 and is a free upgrade. This version brought improved handwriting recognition and improved the Input
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Panel, allowing it to be used in almost every application. The Input Panel was also revised to extend speech recognition services (input and correction) to other applications. With the sucession of Windows Vista, the Tablet PC functionality no longer required a separate edition. Tablet PC support is built into all editions of Windows Vista with the exception of Home Basic and Starter editions. This extends the handwriting recognition, ink collection, and additional input methods to any computer running Vista even if the input device is an external digitizer, a touch screen, or even a regular mouse. Vista also supports MultiTouch functions and gestures (originally developed for the Microsoft Surface version of Vista) and is now usable by the public with the release of MultiTouch tablets. Windows Vista also significantly improved handwriting recognition functionality with the introduction a handwriting recognition personalization tool as well as an automatic handwriting learning tool.
Education Pack • Ink Flash Cards: an application designed to assist memorization by using a flash card approach, enabling the user to handwrite their own flash cards and display them back in a slideshow. • Equation Writer: a recognition tool specializing in converting handwritten mathematical equations to a computer-generated image for pasting into other documents. • GoBinder Lite: an organization and note-taking application developed by Agilix Labs. • Hexic Deluxe: a game with a tablet PC specific gesture enabled for easier use with the tablet and better
Running Linux on tablet PCs is as practical as on conventional notebooks. More recently, tablet PCs may also be configured with Linux pre-installed. One early implementation of a Linux tablet was the ProGear by FrontPath. The ProGear used a Transmeta chip and a resistive digitizer. The ProGear initially came with a version of Slackware Linux, but could later be bought with Windows 98. Because these computers are general purpose IBM PC compatible machines, they can run many different operating systems. Xorg now supports screen rotation and tablet input through Wacom drivers, and handwriting recognition software from both the Qt-based Qtopia and GTK+-based Internet Tablet OS provide promising free and open source systems for future development. However, little mature desktop-oriented software of the sort has arisen, leading many users to rely on onscreen keyboards and alternative text input methods like Dasher. TabletKiosk currently offers a hybrid digitizer / touch device running SUSE Linux. It is the first device with this feature to support Linux.
There are many operating systems in use on devices marketed as tablets. Note that most tablet PC software is targeted particularly for the Microsoft Tablet PC API, and will not run on devices without Windows Vista or Windows XP Tablet PC Edition. Care should be taken when researching a tablet system or any device or software that claims to be designed for tablet PCs, as the phrase does not guarantee compatibility. Applications developed for the tablet PC cater to the form factor and functionality available on the platform. Many forms of applications incorporate a pen-friendly user interface and/or the ability to handwrite directly in the document or interface. A brief description of the applications included follows: Experience Pack • Ink Desktop: an Active Desktop control designed to run in the background and allow the user to write directly on the desktop. • Snipping Tool: a screen capture application which allows the tablet pen to be used to select a portion of the screen and then annotate it and save as a file or send in an email. • Ink Art: a painting application developed by Ambient Design originally as ArtRage, licensed to Microsoft for release to Tablet PC users. • Ink Crossword: a crossword application developed to mirror the experience of a paper crossword puzzle on a tablet PC. • Media Transfer: a synchronization utility designed to download music, pictures, and videos off of computers in the same network.
The aftermarketer Axiotron has introduced aftermarket, heavily modified Apple MacBooks called Modbooks, a Mac OS X-based tablet computer. It uses Apple’s Inkwell for handwriting and gesture recognition and bundles additional digitization software from Wacom. While Apple Inc. legally forbids and doesn’t sanction running their operating system Mac OS X on non-Apple hardware, there are a large number of computer enthusiasts who are running slightly modified copies of Mac OS X on various x86 architecture PC models, among them Tablet PC computers. To get Mac OS X to talk to the digitizer on Tablet PC systems they use a free open source driver named TabletMagic originally written to support serial tablets for which Wacom no longer supplies Mac drivers.
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• Sunlight readable displays (800 nit display) are clearly readable even in bright and direct sunlight. • Docking station can improve the extensibility of tablet PC such as:battery ,Keyboard, USB, RS232, LAN and VGA.It usually design for using tablet PC as desktop computer.
Tablets vs. traditional notebooks
The advantages and disadvantages of tablet PCs are highly subjective measures. What appeals to one user may be exactly what disappoints another. The following are commonly cited opinions of the tablet PC platform:
• The ability to use in environments not conducive to a keyboard and mouse such as lying in bed, low lighting when a lighted screen is the input source, standing or with one hand. • Recording non-character based information such as diagrams and mathematical notation and symbols. • Lighter weight, lower power models can function similarly to dedicated reading devices like the Amazon Kindle.
Further information: Comparison of tablet PCs Major tablet PC Manufacturers include Acer, Asus, Bosanova, Fujitsu, Gateway, Inc.,G-NET, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Lenovo Group, LG Electronics, NEC, TabletKiosk, Quaduro-Systems, Motion Computing, Panasonic, and Toshiba. Popular models include:
• • • • • • • • PaceBlade SlimBook 200 Quadpad Slate Style Tablet PC Fujitsu Stylistic ST5010 Fujitsu Stylistic ST6012 Electrovaya Scribbler SC4000 series (older: SC2000, SC3000, SC3100) G-NET Rugged Tablet PC MobileDemand xTablet T8600 Rugged Tablet PC Motion M1200, M1300, M1400, LE-Series, C5, LS800, LE 1700 and C5 which is targeted towards the healthcare industry JLT8404 Field Tablet PC Panasonic Toughbook 08 TabletKiosk Sahara i400 series Samsung Q1 (Q1 Ultra) Xplore Technologies COWON Q5W Axiotron Modbook
• Higher cost — convertible tablet PCs can cost significantly more than their non-tablet counterparts although this premium has been predicted to fall. • Input speed — handwriting can be significantly slower than peak typing speeds which can be as high as 50-150 WPM, though Swype and other technologies provide alternate, speedier methods of input. • Screen damage risk - Tablet PCs are handled more than conventional laptops yet built on the same frames and since their screens also serve as input devices (like PDAs) they run a higher risk of screen damage.
Designing around disadvantages
Manufacturers can design additional durability into the displays of tablets to effectively reduce screen damage risk, hinge failure, and screen size limitations. The use of scissor shock absorbers mounted to the screen, flexible connectors for data cables, molded magnesium alloy screen casing, durable and replaceable screen overlayments, and purpose built convertible hinges impact reliability.
• • • • • • •
• • • • • • • Acer TravelMate C100/C300/C310 Asus R1F Asus R1E Averatec C3500 Series Dialogue Flybook V5 Dell Latitude XT/XT2 Fujitsu LifeBook P1610/P1620/P1630(Slim, Ultraportable, Small) /T4020, /T4210, /T4220 /T2010, /T5010 /T1010 (Latest) Gateway C-140X (aka S-7235/E-295C) Gateway C-120X (aka S-7125C/E-155C) HP TC4200/TC4400 HP Compaq 2710p HP Compaq EliteBook 2730p HP Pavilion tx1000z HP Pavilion tx2000z HP Pavilion tx2500z HP TouchSmart tx2z
New Tablet PCs may have: • Capacitive technology, which senses touch of finger with no pressure required for system to recognize input. • Digital palm recognition technology prevents inadvertent contact from disrupting pen input. • Multi-touch recognizes multiple simultaneous touches, allowing for enhanced manipulation of onscreen objects.
• • • • • • • • •
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• Lenovo ThinkPad X41 Tablet • Lenovo ThinkPad X60 Tablet (known popularly as "X60t") • Lenovo ThinkPad X61 Tablet (12.1" MultiView/ MultiTouch XGA (1024x768) TFT) • Lenovo ThinkPad X200 Tablet (12.1" WXGA (1280 x 800)) Released September 2008 • LG XNote C1 • LG XNote P100(C1 Upgrade Model) • LG LT-20-47CE • Panasonic Toughbook 19 • Toshiba Portégé 3500/3505 • Toshiba Portégé M200 • Toshiba Portégé M400/405/700/750 • Toshiba Portégé R400/405 • Toshiba Satellite R10/R15/R20/R25 • Toshiba Tecra M4/M7 • • • • • • • • • MIL-STD-810F standard. Mobile Internet Device (MID) Nettop Numeric keypad RJ45 Solid-state drive (SSD). USB WiFi V12
  Gray (1888-07-31), Telautograph, United States Patent 386,815, http://rwservices.no-ip.info:81/ pens/biblio70.html#Gray1888b Gray, Elisha (1888-07-31), Telautograph, United States Patent 386,815 (full image), http://www.freepatentsonline.com/386815.pdf Goldberg, H.E. (1915-12-28), Controller, United States Patent 1,117,184, http://users.erols.com/ rwservices/pens/biblio70.html#GoldbergHE15 Goldberg, H.E. (1915-12-28), Controller, United States Patent 1,117,184 (full image), http://www.freepatentsonline.com/1117184.pdf Moodey, H.C. (1942-12-27), Telautograph System, United States Patent 2,269,599, http://users.erols.com/rwservices/pens/ biblio70.html#Moodey40 Moodey, H.C. (1942-12-27), Telautograph System, United States Patent 2,269,599 (full image), http://www.freepatentsonline.com/2269599.pdf Bush, Vannevar (1945-07-15), As We May Think, The Atlantic Monthly, http://rwservices.noip.info:81/pens/biblio70.html#BushV45 Dimond, Tom (1957-12-01), Devices for reading handwritten characters, Proceedings of Eastern Joint Computer Conference, pp. 232–237, http://rwservices.no-ip.info:81/pens/ biblio70.html#Dimond57, retrieved on 2008-08-23 RAND Tablet, 1961-09-01, http://users.erols.com/ rwservices/pens/biblio70.html#RAND61 50 Years of Looking Forward, RAND Corporation, 1998-09-01, http://www.rand.org/publications/ randreview/issues/rr.fall.98/50.html Pencept Penpad (TM) 200 Product Literature, Pencept, Inc., 1982-08-15, http://rwservices.noip.info:81/pens/biblio83.html#Pencept83 Inforite Hand Character Recognition Terminal, Cadre Systems Limited, England, 1982-08-15, http://rwservices.no-ip.info:81/pens/ biblio83.html#Inforite82 Users Manual for Penpad 320, Pencept, Inc., 1984-06-15, http://users.erols.com/rwservices/pens/ biblio85.html#Pencept84d Handwriter (R) GrafText (TM) System Model GT-5000, Communication Intelligence Corporation,
• Compaq TC1000 • HP Compaq TC1100 • Tatung Tangy
• Comfort On-Screen Keyboard - advanced on-screen keyboard for Tablet PC • Microsoft Windows Journal • Microsoft Office OneNote • Einstein Technologies Tablet Enhancements for Outlook • GO Corporation • Agilix GoBinder • Mobilis - Protectis Range • EverNote • InkSeine • IHMC CmapTools - a free concept mapping application • Xournal - a linux notetaking application • Ergo from Invu - a search, clustering, visualization and annotation application from YourErgo • OnSite Companion Construction Software for Tablet PC • MusicPad Pro: MusicReader - Electronic Music Stand - sheet music display on Tablet PC • Documentor: A Documentation Engine for Health Care Professionals
• • • • • • Pen computing Graphics tablet 802.11b/g Bluetooth CrunchPad HSPA 
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1985-01-15, http://rwservices.no-ip.info:81/pens/ biblio05.html#Microsoft04a, retrieved on biblio85.html#CIC85 2008-09-04 The BYTE Awards: GRiD System’s GRiDPad, BYTE  Windows XP Tablet PC Edition: Tablet PC: An Magazine, Vol 15. No 1, 1990-01-12, pp. 285, Overview, Microsoft, 2002-06-01, http://rwservices.no-ip.info:81/pens/ http://www.itxcgc.com/images/Brochures/Microsoft/ biblio90.html#GridPad90a TabletPCOverview.pdf, retrieved on 2008-09-04 WANG Freestyle demo, Wang Laboratories, 1989,  MSDN Ink collection http://rwservices.no-ip.info:81/pens/  Convertibles: The new laptop bling? - CNET images.html#WangFreestyle, retrieved on News.com 2008-09-22  ^ Tablet PC offers capacitive touch sensing Lempesis, Bill (1990-05), What’s New in Laptops capability., Dell, Inc and Pen Computing, Flat Panel Display News,  jkOnTheRun:So what is multi-touch? http://rwservices.no-ip.info:81/pens/  Rugged PC Review.com - Rugged Tablet PCs: biblio90.html#Momenta90 Getac E100 Agulnick, Todd (1994-09-13), Control of a computer  Configuring Your Tablet PC for Business Success through a position-sensed stylus, United States Patent 5,347,295, http://users.erols.com/rwservices/ pens/biblio95.html#Agulnick94 • Microsoft Tablet PCs FAQ Agulnick, Todd (1994-09-13), Control of a computer • DIY (touchscreen-equipped) Tablet PC through a position-sensed stylus, United States • Jeff Han Talks About Touch-Driven Computer Patent 5,347,295 (full image), Screens at HowStuffWorks http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5347295.pdf Scholar search) NCR announces pen-based • Annotated bibliography of references to handwriting (– recognition and pen computing computer press release, http://findarticles.com/p/ • Notes on the unknown history of Pen Computing -articles/mi_m0NEW/is_1991_June_24/ through 1992 ai_10957018, retrieved on 2007-04-20 Scholar search) Penpoint OS shipping press • How does Tablet PC’s digitizer work? (– • MobilePCWiki - Tablet PC, UMPC wiki release, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/ • Current list of convertible tablets mi_m0NEW/is_1992_April_17/ai_12165379, Tablet PCs in healthcare retrieved on 2007-04-20 • Tablet PC: Moving Queensland Health towards a Lenovo - The history of ThinkPad paperless future (Microsoft). Trends at COMDEX Event 1999, • The Case for the Tablet PC in Health Care (HP, Based http://www.guiart.fi/gobr01en.htm, retrieved on on a Microsoft White Paper). 2008-08-11 • Tablet PCs in Health Care. Microsoft (2005), Windows XP Tablet PC Edition • Documentor: A Documentation Engine for Health 2005 Hardware Requirements, www.microsoft.com, Care Professionals http://users.erols.com/rwservices/pens/ Tablet PCs in education biblio10.html#Microsoft06i, retrieved on • College of Engineering announces alliance with 2009-03-14 Fujitsu and Microsoft — News article from Virginia Fingerworks, Inc. (2003), iGesture Game Mode Tech Guide, www.fingerworks.com, http://rwservices.no• UW Classroom Presenter — Software designed at the ip.info:81/pens/biblio05.html#Fingerworks03, University of Washington to provide a unique retrieved on 2009-04030 presentation environment utilizing the technology of Mintz, Jessica (2008-04-04), Microsoft to Appeal Tablet PCs. $367M Patent Ruling, The Associated Press, • Ubiquitous Presenter — Outgrowth of University of http://www.usatoday.com/tech/products/ Washington’s Classroom Presenter (CP), a program 2008-04-04-2507619152_x.htm, retrieved on that uses Tablet PC ink to allow instructors to 2008-09-04 annotate pre-prepared slides and students to create HP TouchSmart tx2z, HP, submissions for in-class activities. http://www.shopping.hp.com/webapp/shopping/ • Linux on Tablet computer_can_series.do?storeName=computer_store&category=notebooks&a1=Category&v1=Mobility&series_name=tx2z_se • Linux on Thinkpad X41 Tablet retrieved on 2008-11-28 • Microsoft Center for Research on Pen-Centric MSDN: Windows XP Tablet PC Edition: Tablet PC: Computing An Overview, Microsoft, 2004-08-24, • Open Slate Project — Hardware, software, and course http://users.erols.com/rwservices/pens/ content built using open-source principles.
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• UofL Student Tablet Users Group - Student group at the University of Louisville promoting the Tablet PC Program instituted there. • Wesley College, Melbourne - First educational institution in Australia to use tablet styled PC’s (Fujitsu T4220)
Tablet PCs in construction • Tablet PC Site Progress Management/Workflow Management software for construction • Lily Homes, using Tablet PCs to manage home building • McDonald Jones Homes using Tablet PCs in the field for workflow management and Email • Fujitsu PC Australia construction industry case study