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Trusted Computing Group

Trusted Computing Group
Trusted Computing Group

Type Founded Founder(s) Headquarters Website

Consortium 2003[1] AMD, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Microsoft, Sun Microsystems Beaverton, Oregon[2], USA

The Trusted Computing Group (TCG), successor to the Trusted Computing Platform Alliance (TCPA), is an initiative started by AMD, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems to implement Trusted Computing. Many others followed.

around these restrictions would not work. While there is legitimate concern that OS vendors could use these capabilities to restrict what software would load under their OS (hurting small software companies or open source/ shareware/freeware providers, and causing vendor lock-in for some data formats), no OS vendor has yet suggested that this is planned. Furthermore, since restrictions would be a function of the operating system, TPMs could in no way restrict alternative operating systems from running , including free or open source operating systems. There are several projects which are experimenting with TPM support in free operating systems - examples of such projects include a TPM device driver for Linux[5], an open source implementation of the TCG’s Trusted Software Stack called TrouSerS[6], a Java interface to TPM capabilities called TPM/J[7], and a TPM-supporting version of the Grub bootloader called TrustedGrub.[8]

Related projects
The TPM 1.1 specification envisioned a standard PC platform equipped with a TPM chip. In this scenario, the TPM chip can serve as a hardware key storage. Additionally, it can keep track of so-called measurements of the platform (i.e. hashes of various software) and be able to produce signed statements about the running software chain. Particularly the latter mode of operation proved unfeasible in practice, since the amount of software that has to be measured and trusted is very large - it includes (in addition to the system firmware) the operating system, drivers and application programs. Therefore numerous other TPM-related projects are in progress, the purpose of which is to make it possible to launch and measure a trusted subenvironment from within an untrusted environment. The TPM specification 1.2 has been enhanced to accommodate this mode of operation. Additionally, hardware changes are required in the CPU and chipset (note that this should not be confused with the inclusion of TPM functionality into the chipset even though this is a possibility too). Intel’s approach is called Trusted Execution Technology (TXT). Many of Intel’s Core 2 Duo CPUs are advertised to support these extensions. However, chipset support is required for the extensions to be operational. Currently, Intel’s chipset Q35 Express supports TXT. In addition to chipset support, the mainboard must also feature a TPM 1.2 chip. Intel currently advertises DQ35MP and DQ35JO as being compliant with the technology. The first application of the technology will be a set of manageability enhancements under

TCG’s original goal was the development of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM), a semiconductor intellectual property core or integrated circuit that conforms to the trusted platform module specification put forward by the Trusted Computing Group and is to be included with computers to enable trusted computing features. TCGcompliant functionality has since been integrated directly into certain mass-market chipsets. TCG also recently released the first version of their Trusted Network Connect ("TNC") protocol specification, based on the principles of AAA, but adding the ability to authorize network clients on the basis of hardware configuration, BIOS, kernel version, and which updates that have been applied to the OS and anti-virus software, etc.[3] Seagate has also developed a Full Disk encryption drive which can use the ability of the TPM to secure the key within the hardware chip. The owner of a TPM-enabled system has complete control over what software does and doesn’t run on their system [4] This does include the possibility that a system owner would choose to run a version of an operating system that refuses to load unsigned or unlicensed software, but those restrictions would have to be enforced by the operating system and not by the TCG technology. What a TPM does provide in this case is the capability for the OS to lock software to specific machine configurations, meaning that "hacked" versions of the OS designed to get


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the brand name vPro. AMD’s platform is called Secure Execution Mode.[9] In 2002-2003, Microsoft announced an initiative called Next-Generation Secure Computing Base (formerly Palladium). This was basically a vision of how a TPM 1.2 chip, CPU, chipset and software could provide an environment and a software ecosystem in which trusted applications (launched from within "regular" Windows) could be developed. Intel’s TXT and AMD’s SEM can be seen as realizations of the hardware side of the NGSCB vision. Owing to significant difficulties in creating a working implementation that third-party developers were interested in using and in unavailability of the enhancements to CPU and chipset, NGSCB was not included with Microsoft’s newest major operating system release, Windows Vista. Instead, Vista ships with a few technologies that can make use of a subset of the functions of the TPM chip (but not of Intel’s TXT or AMD’s SEM), such as BitLocker Drive Encryption, and a new version of the Microsoft Cryptography API.[10]

Trusted Computing Group
a single user or platform, while still being able to identify rogue TPMs.

ISO Standardization efforts
Some efforts exist to have the Trusted computing specifications standardized by ISO. This was active for a first part in October 2007 and member states of the ISO/DIS JTC1 are expected to send their opinion to ISO by July 24 2008. The concerned documents are referred to as • ISO/IEC DIS 11889-1 Trusted Platform Module -Part 1: Overview • ISO/IEC DIS 11889-2 Trusted Platform Module -Part 2: Design principles • ISO/IEC DIS 11889-3 Trusted Platform Module -Part 3: Structures • ISO/IEC DIS 11889-4 - Trusted Platform Module -Part 4: Commands

For more, see Trusted Computing#Criticism. The group has faced widescale opposition from the free software community on the grounds that the technology they are developing has a negative impact on the users’ privacy and can create customer lock-in, especially if it is used to create DRM applications. It has received criticism from the GNU/Linux and FreeBSD communities, as well as the software development community in general. Significant backlash amongst the Trusted Computing Group was present during Richard Stallman’s speech at the Hackers on Planet Earth conference in July 2006, in New York. Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have also criticized the group publicly in other speeches. The criticism calls Trusted Computing "Treacherous Computing" instead and warns that vendors can lock out software that is not officially signed by specific vendors, rendering it unusable. Privacy concerns with the TCG revolve around the fact that each TPM has a unique keypair, called the "endorsement key", that identifies the platform. In initial versions of the TPM (version 1.1), the TCG addressed privacy concerns by suggesting the use of a "Privacy CA" that could certify pseudonymous machine credentials. By having separate credentials for interacting with different parties, actions could not be linked, and so some level of privacy is provided. However, this requires trust in the Privacy CA, who could still link pseudonyms to the common, identifying machine credential. Since this left unresolved privacy concerns, version 1.2 of the TPM specification introduced "Direct anonymous attestation": a protocol based on the idea of a zero-knowledge proof which allows a TPM user to receive a certification in such a way that the Privacy CA would not be able to link requests to

As of May 2008[11], about 130 enterprises are promoters of, contributors to, or adopters of TCG specifications. Membership fees vary by level. Promoters pay annual membership fees of $55,000, contributors pay $16,500, and depending upon company size, adopters pay annual membership fees of either $1,000 or $8,250.[12]


American Megatrends, Inc. Aruba Networks Atmel AuthenTec, Inc. Broadcom Corporation Certicom Corp. Citrix Systems, Inc Decru Dell, Inc. DPHI, Inc. Emulex Corporation Enterasys Networks Ericsson Mobile Platforms AB ETRI Extreme Networks Freescale Semiconductor 17. Fujitsu Siemens Computers 18. Gemalto NV

1. Apani Networks 2. ArcSight, Inc. 3. AUCONET GmbH 4. Avenda Systems 5. Bigfix 6. Bioscrypt Inc. 7. Bit9, Inc. 8. Blue Ridge Networks 9. BlueCat Networks 10. BlueRISC, Inc. 11. Bradford Networks 12. CMS Products 13. ConSentry Networks 14. CPR Tools, Inc. 15. Credant Technologies 16. Cryptomathic Ltd.

1. AMD 1. 2. Fujitsu 3. Hewlett2. Packard 3. 4. IBM 4. 5. Infineon 5. 6. Intel Corporation 6. 7. Lenovo 7. Holdings 8. Limited 9. 8. Microsoft 10. 9. Sun 11. Microsystems, Inc. 12. 10. Seagate 11. Wave 13. Systems Corp 14. 15. 16.


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19. General Dynamics 17. C4 Systems 20. Giesecke & Devrient 18. 21. Green Hills Software, Inc. 19. 22. HID Global 23. Hitachi, Ltd. 20. 24. Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 25. Identity Engines 21. 26. Infoblox 27. Insyde Software 22. Corp. 28. InterDigital 23. Communications, 24. LLC 29. ITE Tech Inc. 30. Juniper Networks, 25. Inc. 31. Lancope, Inc. 26. 32. Lexar Media, Inc. 33. Lexmark 27. International 34. LSI Logic 28. 35. Marvell 29. Semiconductor, Inc. 30. 36. McAfee, Inc. 31. 37. Mobile Armor, Inc. 38. NEC 32. 39. Nokia 33. 40. Nokia Siemens Networks GmbH & Co. KG 41. Nortel 34. 42. NTRU 35. Cryptosystems, 36. Inc. 37. 43. NVIDIA 38. 44. NXP Semiconductors 45. Oxford 39. Semiconductor 40. 46. Panasonic Corporation 47. Phoenix 41. 48. PMC-Sierra 49. Renesas 42. Technology Corp. 43. 50. Ricoh Company LTD 44. 51. RSA, The Security 45. Division of EMC

Trusted Computing Group
CryptoMill 52. Samsung 46. The Boeing Technologies Electronics Co. Company LTD 53. SanDisk 47. Trust Digital ForeScout Corporation 48. UNETsystem Technologies 54. Seagate 49. Valicore Great Bay Technology Technologies, Software, Inc 55. Siemens AG Inc. Hangzhou 56. SMSC 50. ViaSat, Inc. Synochip 57. Sony Corporation 51. Vormetric Inc. Technology 58. Spansion LLC 52. Winbond Co., Ltd. 59. StillSecure Electronics High Density 60. STMicroelectronics Corporation Devices 61. Symantec ICT Economic 62. Symbian Ltd Impact, Ltd. 63. Toshiba IDEX ASA Corporation Insight 64. Trapeze Networks, International Inc. Corp 65. Unisys Link-A-Media 66. UPEK, Inc. Devices 67. Utimaco Safeware Lockdown AG Networks 68. VMware, Inc. Lumeta 69. Vodafone Group Corporation Services LTD Mazu Networks 70. Wave Systems Mirage 71. Western Digital Networks MoSys, Inc. Nanjing Byosoft, Ltd. • Consumer Broadband and Digital Television nSolutions, Inc. Promotion Act Penza Research Electrotechnical Institute (FGUP "PNIEI") [1] Trusted Computing Group: FAQs [2] Trusted Computing Group: Contact Us Q1 Labs [3] Rohati Systems specifications/TNC_Architecture_v1_0_r4.pdf SafeBoot Safend LTD.[4] The Trusted Platform Module FAQ from the TCG website Shavlik [5] Linux TPM Device Driver Technologies, [6] TrouSerS - The open-source TCG Software Stack LLC [7] SignaCert, Inc. TPM/J Java-based API for the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) Sirrix AG [8] TrustedGRUB Security [9] AMD Platform for Trustworthy Computing Technologies SkyRecon [10] Windows Vista Technical Library Roadmap [11] TCG Current Members from the TCG website Systems Softex, Inc. [12] Trusted Computing Group: Levels of Membership Stonewood Electronics Ltd. TELUS • TCG website, with a blog Thales • Communication "Can you trust your computer?" by Richard Stallman, from the GNU Project website

See also


External links


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Trusted Computing FAQ by Ross Anderson

Trusted Computing Group

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