Victorian Poets Arnold and Hopki

Document Sample
Victorian Poets Arnold and Hopki Powered By Docstoc
					Dover Beach
Dover’s White Cliffs
Dover Beach in 1830
Matthew Arnold




       Grave in Middlesex, England
           Matthew Arnold
            1822 - 1888
 Son  of influential Dr. Thomas Arnold,
  Liberal Clergyman at Oxford Univ.
 1851: Inspector of Schools
  Arnold holds the position for 35 yrs.
 Advocate for educational reform for
  the middle-classes in Britain
 Professor of Poetry at Oxford: 1857
 Social and literary critic who argues
  that the middle-classes are educable
Arnold: Critic of Orthodox Religion
 (esp. middle-class Protestants)
On Christianity, Arnold argued that
two things “surely must be clear to
anybody with eyes in his head. One
is, that men cannot do without it;
the other that they cannot do with it
as it is.”
     Arnold’s “Dover Beach”
 Preserves the structure of the
  Romantic Lyric (Descriptive-
  Meditative-Descriptive)
 Decay of orthodox religious beliefs

 “Let us be true to one another”:
  Emphasizes personal connection
 Subverts Romantic View of Nature
        Pathetic Fallacy
Any literary description that projects
human emotions, capabilities, and
sensations onto inanimate natural
objects.

A logical fallacy that positions beauty
over truth, even more deceptively
than personification
             Pathetic Fallacy

 SeeRuskin (P. 1430 – 1432)
 and the “Spirit of Truth”

 Critique   of Romantic method

         description: “falseness in
 Ruskin’s
 our impressions of external things”
   Is Arnold’s “Dover Beach”
   guilty of a pathetic fallacy
  or does Arnold, like Ruskin,
    reject the poet’s impulse
to project upon the landscape?
Gerard Manley Hopkins
        Hopkins (1844 – 1889)
 Not published until 1918
  (29 yrs. After Hopkins’s death)
 The problem of classification

 Like Arnold, he was an Oxford
  student but in the 1860s, Arnold was
  already Professor of Poetry
 Student of Walter Pater at Oxford
       Biography of Hopkins
 At Oxford, he converts from
  Anglicanism to Catholicism in 1866
 Depressed by Parents’ Letters

 Becomes a Jesuit Priest in 1867

 Worked in Liverpool slums

 Sought the perfect alignment
  between his deep faith & poetry
 Innovator in Poetic Form/Meter
         Sprung Rhythm
Invented by Hopkins, sprung rhythm is a
form of strong-stress meter which places
most of its weight on stressed syllables

Iamb (standard feet) versus
Spondee (non-standard)

Sprung Rhythm: Compound spondees
Highly unconventional irregular rhythm
  Scansion of The Windhover
 See   page 1650
The Windhover
          2 More Metrical Terms
   Enjambment:                  Inscape:
    As opposed to an end-      Hopkins’ religious
    stopped line,              belief in the unique
    this is a run-on line in   design of every
    which the previous         individual entity;
    verse-line ends mid-
    sentence                   Thus, to embody inscape
                               is to enact your own
    See Hopkins                special, dynamic
    Page 1653                  distinctiveness
Inscape or Creative Uniqueness
      (Hopkins’ & God’s?)

     See “God’s Grandeur”
         (Page 1651)

       & “Pied Beauty”
    Characteristically Hopkins
 Compound     Assonance/Alliteration
 Repetition

 Use  of apostrophes
  (a figure of speech, meaning a
  formal or exclamatory address:
  Oh! Hark! You there! or “Thou still
  unravished bride of quietness”)
 Simultaneity of Form & Function
Religious Doubt / Victorian Despair
 “Felix   Randal”

 FromThe Terrible Sonnets
 “Thou Art Indeed Just, Lord”
    Tomorrow: Oscar Wilde

 Howare Victorian sensibilities ruffled
 by Wilde in his satirical play?

 How do characters invent new
 identities? Personae?

				
DOCUMENT INFO