Dover Beach Dover’s White Cliffs Dover Beach in 1830 Matthew Arnold Grave in Middlesex, England Matthew Arnold 1822 - 1888 Son of influential Dr. Thomas Arnold, Liberal Clergyman at Oxford Univ. 1851: Inspector of Schools Arnold holds the position for 35 yrs. Advocate for educational reform for the middle-classes in Britain Professor of Poetry at Oxford: 1857 Social and literary critic who argues that the middle-classes are educable Arnold: Critic of Orthodox Religion (esp. middle-class Protestants) On Christianity, Arnold argued that two things “surely must be clear to anybody with eyes in his head. One is, that men cannot do without it; the other that they cannot do with it as it is.” Arnold’s “Dover Beach” Preserves the structure of the Romantic Lyric (Descriptive- Meditative-Descriptive) Decay of orthodox religious beliefs “Let us be true to one another”: Emphasizes personal connection Subverts Romantic View of Nature Pathetic Fallacy Any literary description that projects human emotions, capabilities, and sensations onto inanimate natural objects. A logical fallacy that positions beauty over truth, even more deceptively than personification Pathetic Fallacy SeeRuskin (P. 1430 – 1432) and the “Spirit of Truth” Critique of Romantic method description: “falseness in Ruskin’s our impressions of external things” Is Arnold’s “Dover Beach” guilty of a pathetic fallacy or does Arnold, like Ruskin, reject the poet’s impulse to project upon the landscape? Gerard Manley Hopkins Hopkins (1844 – 1889) Not published until 1918 (29 yrs. After Hopkins’s death) The problem of classification Like Arnold, he was an Oxford student but in the 1860s, Arnold was already Professor of Poetry Student of Walter Pater at Oxford Biography of Hopkins At Oxford, he converts from Anglicanism to Catholicism in 1866 Depressed by Parents’ Letters Becomes a Jesuit Priest in 1867 Worked in Liverpool slums Sought the perfect alignment between his deep faith & poetry Innovator in Poetic Form/Meter Sprung Rhythm Invented by Hopkins, sprung rhythm is a form of strong-stress meter which places most of its weight on stressed syllables Iamb (standard feet) versus Spondee (non-standard) Sprung Rhythm: Compound spondees Highly unconventional irregular rhythm Scansion of The Windhover See page 1650 The Windhover 2 More Metrical Terms Enjambment: Inscape: As opposed to an end- Hopkins’ religious stopped line, belief in the unique this is a run-on line in design of every which the previous individual entity; verse-line ends mid- sentence Thus, to embody inscape is to enact your own See Hopkins special, dynamic Page 1653 distinctiveness Inscape or Creative Uniqueness (Hopkins’ & God’s?) See “God’s Grandeur” (Page 1651) & “Pied Beauty” Characteristically Hopkins Compound Assonance/Alliteration Repetition Use of apostrophes (a figure of speech, meaning a formal or exclamatory address: Oh! Hark! You there! or “Thou still unravished bride of quietness”) Simultaneity of Form & Function Religious Doubt / Victorian Despair “Felix Randal” FromThe Terrible Sonnets “Thou Art Indeed Just, Lord” Tomorrow: Oscar Wilde Howare Victorian sensibilities ruffled by Wilde in his satirical play? How do characters invent new identities? Personae?
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