Victorian Poets Arnold and Hopki by fjwuxn


									Dover Beach
Dover’s White Cliffs
Dover Beach in 1830
Matthew Arnold

       Grave in Middlesex, England
           Matthew Arnold
            1822 - 1888
 Son  of influential Dr. Thomas Arnold,
  Liberal Clergyman at Oxford Univ.
 1851: Inspector of Schools
  Arnold holds the position for 35 yrs.
 Advocate for educational reform for
  the middle-classes in Britain
 Professor of Poetry at Oxford: 1857
 Social and literary critic who argues
  that the middle-classes are educable
Arnold: Critic of Orthodox Religion
 (esp. middle-class Protestants)
On Christianity, Arnold argued that
two things “surely must be clear to
anybody with eyes in his head. One
is, that men cannot do without it;
the other that they cannot do with it
as it is.”
     Arnold’s “Dover Beach”
 Preserves the structure of the
  Romantic Lyric (Descriptive-
 Decay of orthodox religious beliefs

 “Let us be true to one another”:
  Emphasizes personal connection
 Subverts Romantic View of Nature
        Pathetic Fallacy
Any literary description that projects
human emotions, capabilities, and
sensations onto inanimate natural

A logical fallacy that positions beauty
over truth, even more deceptively
than personification
             Pathetic Fallacy

 SeeRuskin (P. 1430 – 1432)
 and the “Spirit of Truth”

 Critique   of Romantic method

         description: “falseness in
 Ruskin’s
 our impressions of external things”
   Is Arnold’s “Dover Beach”
   guilty of a pathetic fallacy
  or does Arnold, like Ruskin,
    reject the poet’s impulse
to project upon the landscape?
Gerard Manley Hopkins
        Hopkins (1844 – 1889)
 Not published until 1918
  (29 yrs. After Hopkins’s death)
 The problem of classification

 Like Arnold, he was an Oxford
  student but in the 1860s, Arnold was
  already Professor of Poetry
 Student of Walter Pater at Oxford
       Biography of Hopkins
 At Oxford, he converts from
  Anglicanism to Catholicism in 1866
 Depressed by Parents’ Letters

 Becomes a Jesuit Priest in 1867

 Worked in Liverpool slums

 Sought the perfect alignment
  between his deep faith & poetry
 Innovator in Poetic Form/Meter
         Sprung Rhythm
Invented by Hopkins, sprung rhythm is a
form of strong-stress meter which places
most of its weight on stressed syllables

Iamb (standard feet) versus
Spondee (non-standard)

Sprung Rhythm: Compound spondees
Highly unconventional irregular rhythm
  Scansion of The Windhover
 See   page 1650
The Windhover
          2 More Metrical Terms
   Enjambment:                  Inscape:
    As opposed to an end-      Hopkins’ religious
    stopped line,              belief in the unique
    this is a run-on line in   design of every
    which the previous         individual entity;
    verse-line ends mid-
    sentence                   Thus, to embody inscape
                               is to enact your own
    See Hopkins                special, dynamic
    Page 1653                  distinctiveness
Inscape or Creative Uniqueness
      (Hopkins’ & God’s?)

     See “God’s Grandeur”
         (Page 1651)

       & “Pied Beauty”
    Characteristically Hopkins
 Compound     Assonance/Alliteration
 Repetition

 Use  of apostrophes
  (a figure of speech, meaning a
  formal or exclamatory address:
  Oh! Hark! You there! or “Thou still
  unravished bride of quietness”)
 Simultaneity of Form & Function
Religious Doubt / Victorian Despair
 “Felix   Randal”

 FromThe Terrible Sonnets
 “Thou Art Indeed Just, Lord”
    Tomorrow: Oscar Wilde

 Howare Victorian sensibilities ruffled
 by Wilde in his satirical play?

 How do characters invent new
 identities? Personae?

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