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Pfizer is named after German-American cousins Charles Pfizer and Charles Erhardt (they were originally from Ludwigsburg, Germany) who launched a fine chemicals business, Charles Pfizer and Company, from a building at the intersection of Harrison Avenue and Bartlett Street in Williamsburg, Brooklyn in 1849. There, they produced an antiparasitic called santonin. This was an immediate success, although it was the production of citric acid that really kick-started Pfizer’s growth in the 1880s. Pfizer continued to buy property to expand its lab and factory on the block bounded by Bartlett Street; Harrison Avenue; Gerry Street; and Flushing Avenue. That facility was used by Pfizer until 2005, when Pfizer closed its original plant along with several others. Pfizer established its original administrative headquarters at 81 Maiden Lane in Manhattan. By 1906, sales totaled nearly $3 million. World War I caused a shortage of calcium citrate that Pfizer imported from Italy for the manufacture of citric acid, and the company began a search for an alternative supply. Pfizer chemists learned of a fungus that ferments sugar to citric acid and were able to commercialize production of citric acid from this source in 1919. As a result Pfizer developed expertise in fermentation technology. These skills were applied to the mass production of penicillin during World War II, in response to a need from the U.S. government. The antibiotic was needed to treat injured Allied soldiers. In fact, most of the penicillin that went ashore with the troops on DDay was made by Pfizer. Following the success of penicillin production in the 1940s, penicillin became very inexpensive and Pfizer made very little profit for its efforts. As a result, in the late 1940s Pfizer decided to search for new antibiotics with greater profit potential. The discovery and commercialization of Terramycin (oxytetracycline) by Pfizer in 1950 moved the company on the path of change from a manufacturer of fine chemicals to a researchbased pharmaceutical company. To augment
Type Founded Headquarters Key people
Public (NYSE: PFE) Brooklyn, NY, USA (1849) New York City, NY, USA Jeff Kindler, CEO David Shedlarz, VC Ian Read, Pres. of Pharma. Martin Mackay, Pres. of R&D Health Care Accupril Lipitor Viagra See complete products listing. ▲$48.418 billion USD (2007) ▲$8.144 billion USD (2007) 86,600 (2008) www.pfizer.com
Revenue Net income Employees Website
Pfizer Incorporated (NYSE: PFE) is a pharmaceutical company, ranking number one in sales in the world. The company is based in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut. It produces the Lipitor (atorvastatin, used to lower blood cholesterol); the neuropathic pain/fibromyalgia drug Lyrica (pregabalin); the oral antifungal medication Diflucan (fluconazole), antibiotic Zithromax (azithromycin), Viagra (sildenafil citrate), and the anti inflammatory Celebrex (celecoxib) (also known as Celebra in some countries outside USA and Canada, mainly in South America). Pfizer’s shares were made a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average on April 8, 2004. On January 26, 2009, Pfizer agreed to buy pharmaceutical giant Wyeth for US$68 billion, a deal financed with cash, shares and loans.
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its research in fermentation technology, Pfizer began a program to discover drugs through chemical synthesis. Pfizer also established an animal health division in 1959 with an 700-acre farm and research facility in Terre Haute, Indiana. By the 1950s, Pfizer was established in Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Iran, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Turkey and the United Kingdom. In 1960, the Company moved its medical research laboratory operations to a new facility in Groton, Connecticut. In 1980 Pfizer launched Feldene® (piroxicam), a prescription anti-inflammatory medication that became Pfizer’s first product to reach a total of a billion United States dollars in sales. During the 1980s and 1990s Pfizer underwent a period of growth sustained by the discovery and marketing of (Zoloft, Lipitor, Norvasc, Zithromax, Aricept, Diflucan, Viagra). Pfizer had recently grown by mergers, including those with Warner-Lambert (2000), with Pharmacia Corporation (2003), and an agreement to merge with Wyeth (2009).
• 2007 Pharmacist of the Year: Mike Militello, Pharm.D., BCPS Pfizer has four divisions: Human Health ($44.28B in 2005 sales), Consumer Healthcare ($3.87B in 2005 sales), Animal Health ($2.2B in 2005 sales), and Corporate Groups (which includes legal, finance, and HR). On June 26, 2006, Pfizer announced that it would sell its Consumer Healthcare unit (manufacturer of Listerine, Nicorette, Visine, Sudafed and Neosporin) to Johnson & Johnson for $16.6B.
Warner-Lambert / Parke-Davis / Agouron
In 2000, Pfizer merged with Warner-Lambert and acquired full rights to Lipitor (atorvastatin), which was previously jointly marketed by Warner-Lambert and Pfizer. Warner-Lambert was based in Morris Plains, New Jersey, where former headquarters became a major base of operations for Pfizer. The majority of the facility, and Pfizer’s consumer healthcare department, was sold to Johnson and Johnson in 2006 for $16.6 billion. Parke-Davis was acquired by Warner-Lambert in 1970, which in turn was merged into Pfizer in 2000. The headquarters of ParkeDavis was sold several years ago. Pfizer sold the near-174-acre Parke-Davis research complex in Ann Arbor, Michigan to the University of Michigan in 2008 for $108 million. It would ’accelerate the expansion’ of the university’s research activities. Some renovations would be needed’ and create 2,000 new research jobs, the university said. Agouron Pharmaceuticals was acquired by Warner Lambert in 1999 and is now a subsidiary of Pfizer. Nelfinavir (Viracept), an antiretroviral drug used in the treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), was developed by Agouron Pharmaceuticals as part of a joint venture with Japan Tobacco, Inc.
Pfizer world headquarters Current members of the board of directors of Pfizer are: Michael S. Brown, M. Anthony Burns, Robert Burt, Don Cornwell, William H. Gray, Constance Horner, William R. Howell, Stanley Ikenberry, Jeff Kindler (chairman), George Lorch, Dana Mead, Ruth J. Simmons, and William Steere. • Chief Executive Officer (CEO): Jeff Kindler • Vice Chairman: David L. Shedlarz • President of Worldwide Pharmaceutical Operations: Ian Read • President of Global R&D: Martin Mackay
Pharmacia / Upjohn / Searle
Searle was founded in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1888. The founder was Gideon Daniel Searle. In 1908, the company was incorporated in Chicago. In 1941, the company established headquarters in Skokie, Illinois. It was acquired by the Monsanto company, headquartered in St. Louis, in 1985.
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The Upjohn Company was a pharmaceutical manufacturing firm founded in 1886 in Kalamazoo, Michigan by Dr. William E. Upjohn, an 1875 graduate of the University of Michigan medical school. The company was originally formed to make friable pills, which were specifically designed to be easily digested. In 1995, Upjohn merged with Pharmacia, to form Pharmacia & Upjohn. Pharmacia was created in April 2000 through the merger of Pharmacia & Upjohn with the Monsanto Company and its G.D. Searle unit. The merged company was based in Peapack, New Jersey. The agricultural division was spun off from Pharmacia, as Monsanto, in preparation for the close of the acquisition by Pfizer. In 2002, Pfizer merged with Pharmacia. The merger was again driven in part by the desire to acquire full rights to a product, this time Celebrex (celecoxib), the COX-2 selective inhibitor previously jointly marketed by Searle (acquired by Pharmacia) and Pfizer. In the ensuing years, Pfizer commenced with a massive restructuring resulting in numerous site closures and loss of jobs including: Terre Haute, IN; Holland, MI; Groton, CT; Brooklyn, NY; Sandwich, UK and Puerto Rico. In 2008, Pfizer announced 275 job cuts at the Kalamazoo manufacturing facility. Kalamazoo was previously the world headquarters for the Upjohn Company.
1999, Pharmacia advanced two of SUGEN’s lead compounds into clinical trials for colon cancer: SU5416 (Semaxanib) and SU6668; the trials were discontinued but a third and closely related compound named SU11248 was pursued. SUGEN’s laboratories were closed in 2003 as part of the reorganization following Pfizer’s purchase of Pharmacia. From the acquisition, SUGEN compounds SU11248 and SU14813 entered Pfizer’s pipeline. In January 2006, SU11248 was approved by the FDA for treatment of GIST and RCC, and it is now marketed as Sutent (sunitinib). Sutent is packed by Plant in Ascoli Piceno, Italy.
On 26 January 2009, after more than a year of talks between the two companies, Pfizer agreed to buy pharmaceuticals rival Wyeth for a combined US$68 billion in cash, shares and loans, including some US$22.5 billion lent by five major Wall Street banks. This deal would cement Pfizer’s place as the largest pharmaceutical company in the world, with the merged company generating over US$20 billion in cash each year, and represents the largest corporate merger since AT&T and BellSouth’s US$70 billion deal in March 2006. Wyeth’s management team is expected to depart following the merger. The combined company could save US$4 billion annually through the streamlining of operations; however, as part of the deal, both companies must repatriate billions of dollars in revenue from foreign sources to the United States, which will result in higher tax costs.
SUGEN, customarily written with capital letters, was founded in 1991 in Redwood City, California, as a partnership between the laboratories of Joseph Schlessinger at New York University Medical School and Axel Ullrich at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, with Steven Evans-Freke as a third cofounder. The name, SUGEN, is derived from combining the first "S" in Schlessinger followed by the "U" in Ullrich with "GEN" - a commonly used suffix by biotech companies (short for "GENetics" or "GENesis"). The focus of the enterprise was to develop drugs targeting intracellular signaling pathways to treat cancer. Specifically, the company sought to discover competitive ATP small-molecule kinase inhibitors which block common cancer pathways. Pharmacia acquired SUGEN in 1999, which merged with the pharmaceutical division of Monsanto in 2000 and was purchased by Pfizer in 2003. In
Crtitics of the merger
The merger received a vast array of criticism. Harvard Business School’s Gary Pisano told the WSJ: "The record of big mergers and acquisitions in Big Pharma has just not been good. There’s just been an enormous amount of shareholder wealth destroyed." The Warner-Lambert and Pharmacia mergers do not appear to have achieved gains for shareholders so it is unclear who will benefit from the Wyeth-Pfizer merger to many critics.
Development of torcetrapib
Development of torcetrapib, a drug that increases production of HDL, or "good
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cholesterol", which reduces LDL thought to be correlated to heart disease, was cancelled on December 2, 2006. During a clinical trial test that involved 15,000 patients, more patients than expected died in the group that took the medicine. A 60% increase in deaths was observed among patients taking torcetrapib and Lipitor versus taking Lipitor alone; there was no suggestion that the results called into question the safety of Lipitor. Pfizer has lost nearly $1 billion in investments on the failed drug, and December has seen the stocks and market value of the company plummet.
• Geodon (ziprasidone) for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. • Inspra (eplerenone) for diuretics. • Lipitor (atorvastatin) for cholesterol. • Lyrica (pregabalin) for neuropathic pain. • Macugen (pegaptanib) for N/A • Norvasc (amlodipine) for hypertension • Neurontin (gabapentin) for neuropathic pain. • Rebif (interferon beta-1a) for Multiple Sclerosis • Relpax (eletriptan) for including the sulfonamide group of migrane . • Rescriptor (delavirdine) for HIV. • Selzentry (maraviroc) for HIV. • Somavert (pegvisomant) for Acromegaly. • Sutent (sunitinib) for cancer and chemotherapy drug. • Spiriva (tiotropium) for asthma. • Tikosyn (dofetilide) for atrial fibrillation and flutter. • Vfend (voriconazole) for antifungal drug. • Viagra (sildenafil) for erectile dysfunction. • Viracept (nelfinavir) for AIDS. • Xalatan (latanoprost) for glaucoma • Xalacom latanoprost and timolol Medication for glaucoma. • Xanax and Xanax XR (alprazolam) for anxiety and panic disorders. • Zoloft (sertraline) for an antidepressant. • Zyrtec (cetirizine) for allergies. • Zyvox (linezolid) for antibiotics.
The following is a list of key prescription pharmaceutical products. The names shown are all registered trademarks of Pfizer Inc. • Accupril (quinapril) for hypertension treatment. • Aricept (donepezil) for Alzheimer’s disease. • Aromasin (exemestane) for the prevension of breast cancer and the prevension of osteoporosis and menopause for women. • Bextra (Valdecoxib) for arthritis. • Ben-Gay a sports cream co marketed by Johnson and Johnson, and McNeil Laboratories. • Caduet (amlodipine) and (atorvastatin) for cholesterol and hypertension. • Camptosar (irinotecan) for cancer and Chemotherapeutic agents. • Celebrex (celecoxib) for arthritis. • Chantix (Varenicline) for Nicotinic agonists, and anti nicotine drugs. • Cefobid a cephalosporin antibiotic. • Depo-Medrol (methylprednisolone) for asthma. • Solu-Medrol (methylprednisolone) for asthma. • Depo Provera for birth control. • Detrol, and Detrol LA (tolterodine), for bladder control problems. • Diflucan (fluconazole) for antifungal drug. • Ellence (epirubicin) for cancer and chemotherapy drug. • Eraxis (anidulafungin) for antifungal drug. • Exubera (inhalable insulin) for diabetes, and insulin therapies. • Flagyl (metronidazole) for bacterial and protozoal infections. • Genotropin (Growth hormone) for N/A.
Animal health brands
The following is a partial list of Animal Health brands manufactured by Pfizer: • Bovi-Shield Gold • Cerenia • Convenia • Dectomax • Draxxin • Excede • Excenel • Inovocox • Mycitracin • Pirsue • A180 • Revolution Pet Medicine • Rimadyl • Simplicef • Slentrol • Solitude IGR • Spectramast • Stellamune • Stronghold
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with Pfizer in 2000, used activities not usually associated with sales promotion, including continuing medical education and research, sponsored articles about the drug for the medical literature, and alleged suppression of unfavorable study results, to promote gabapentin. Within 5 years the drug was being widely used for the off-label treatment of pain and psychiatric conditions. In 2004, Warner-Lambert admitted to charges that it violated FDA regulations by promoting the drug for pain, psychiatric conditions, migraine, and other unapproved uses, and paid $430 million to resolve criminal and civil health care liability charges. Today it is a mainstay drug for migraines, even though it was not approved for such use in 2004.
Legislation and litigation
Pfizer is party to a number of suits stemming from companies it has acquired or merged with, including asbestos litigation as well as litigation stemming from its medicinal products.
Pfizer’s interest in obtaining property in New London, Connecticut for expanded facilities led to the Kelo v. New London case before the U.S. Supreme Court.
Pfizer acquired Quigley in 1968, and the division sold asbestos-containing insulation products until the early 1970s. Asbestos victims and Pfizer have been negotiating a settlement deal which calls for Pfizer to pay $430 million to 80 percent of existing plaintiffs. It will also place an additional $535 million into an asbestos settlement trust that will compensate future plaintiffs as well as the remaining 20 percent of current plaintiffs with claims against Pfizer and Quigley. The compensation deal is worth $965 million all up.Of that $535 million, $405 million is in a 40-year note from Pfizer, while $100 million will come from insurance policies.
In 1996, an outbreak of measles, cholera, and bacterial meningitis occurred in Nigeria. Pfizer representatives traveled to Kano, Nigeria to assist in treating the affected population. An experimental antibiotic, trovafloxacin, was administered to approximately 200 children. Local Kano officials report that more than 50 children died from infection, while many others developed mental and physical deformities. In 2001, families of the children, as well as the governments of Kano and Nigeria, filed lawsuits regarding the treatment. According to the lawsuits, Pfizer administered the trovafloxacin (now marketed as Trovan) without parental consent. The lawsuits also accuse Pfizer of using the outbreak to perform unapproved human testing, as well as allegedly under-dosing a control group being treated with traditional antibiotics in order to skew the results of the trial in favor of Trovan. Pfizer denied these claims, and subsequently produced an approval letter for testing from the Nigerian Ethics Committee; the Nigerian government claims it is a fake. In 2007, Pfizer published a Statement of Defense letter. The letter makes several claims which deserve mention: 18 million in Nigerian Naira (NGN) in donations. The figure in NGN is approximately $216,000 in 1996 US dollars (USD).
Bjork-Shiley heart valve
Pfizer purchased Shiley in 1979 at the onset of its Convexo-Concave valve ordeal, involving the Bjork-Shiley heart valve. Approximately 500 people died when defective valves failed and, in 1994, the United States ruled against Pfizer for ~$200 million.
Tort reform legislation contributions
Pfizer proposed a ban on all lawsuits against manufacturers of body implant parts which was proposed in the United States Congress as part of tort reform legislation.
Off-label promotional practices
Access to pharmaceutical industry documents has revealed marketing strategies used to promote Neurontin for off-label use. In 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved gabapentin (Neurontin, Pfizer) only for treatment of seizures. Warner-Lambert, which merged
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The drug’s oral form was presented as safer and easier to administer. The more likely reason for Pfizer’s insistence on the oral form is the result of testing trovafloxacin intravenously in 1995, which found that the drug precipitated in saline, making it ineffective in patients receiving IV fluids. This is inferred from an FDA communication to ex-CEO William C. Steere, regarding Trovan’s compatibility with saline etc., which was omitted from Trovan’s labeling until January 1999. The administration of Trovan saved lives. According to the figures given by their own defense, 94.4% of patients receiving Trovan survived, while only 89.3% of untreated Nigerians survived. This is not a statistically significant difference, i.e. the success of the drug was negligible and possibly circumstantial. No unusual side effects, unrelated to meningitis, were observed after 4 weeks. In June 1999, the FDA released a public health statement warning against the use of Trovan except in life-or-death situations, due to high risk of liver failure. In some cases, liver damage occurred after only two days of treatment.
$300-million dollar Michigan facility, which had seen millions of dollars of expansion in recent years. On June 18, 2007 Pfizer announced it will move the Sandwich, England Animal Health Research (VMRD) division to Kalamazoo, Michigan.
According to the EPA, Pfizer is among the top ten companies in America with the most numerous emissions sources. Their 70-acre (280,000 m2) plant in Groton, Connecticut, is home to a 20-acre (81,000 m2) landfill and two wastewater lagoons, adding to pollution in the area.  According to the EPA, Pfizer is a main threat to the health of the residents and the environment of the New London area because of its toxic emissions into the air and water.  The EPA has cited Pfizer on multiple occasions for illegal discharges into the Thames River and for hazardous waste violations on site.  In addition, in June 2002, Pfizer was responsible for a chemical explosion that injured seven people and caused the evacuation of over 100 homes in the surrounding area.   Pfizer has also provided funding to the controversial Competitive Enterprise Institute who have been criticized for releasing misleading advertisements claiming that global warming is not a problem.
Research and development
Pfizer’s human research and development organization is headquartered in New London, CT while their animal health research and development organization is headquartered in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The company has R&D labs in the following locations: Groton, Connecticut; Sandwich, England; Nagoya, Japan; Amboise, France; La Jolla, California; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Kalamazoo, Michigan; St. Louis, Missouri. Spending $8.1 billion in research & development (R&D) in 2007, Pfizer has the industry’s largest pharmaceutical R&D organization: Pfizer Global Research and Development. In 2007, Pfizer announced plans to close or sell on the Loughbeg API facility, located at Loughbeg, Ringaskiddy Co.Cork Ireland by mid to end of 2008 In 2007, Pfizer announced plans to completely close the Ann Arbor, Nagoya and Amboise Research facilities by the end of 2008, eliminating 2,160 jobs and idling the
Employment and diversity
Pfizer received a 100% rating on the Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign starting in 2004, the third year of the report. In 2007, Pfizer’s Canadian division was named one of Canada’s Top 100 Employers, as published in Maclean’s magazine, the only research-based pharmaceutical company to receive this honor. In 2008, there was controversy, including inquiries from members of Congress, around Pfizer’s practice of replacing US workers with H-1b guest workers
Pfizer has been involved in controversies over the medicine Diflucan (generic name fluconazole). In 1998, a campaign by Thai
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public health groups led to the elimination of the Pfizer monopoly on selling fluconazole in Thailand, and the price of the antifungal drug decreased from 200 baht to 6.5 baht in nine months, vastly expanding access to the medicine for AIDS patients. Faced with pressure for compulsory licenses to the Pfizer patent on this drug, Pfizer later established a program for limited access to the medicine in Africa. "In the United States, 46 percent of all new HIV/AIDS cases occur in the South. From 2003–2006 the Pfizer Foundation has funded 23 innovative HIV/AIDS prevention programs and strengthened the capacity of community-based organizations to reach and serve their communities." Since 2003, Pfizer has committed a $3 Million grant toward supporting the Southern HIV/AIDS Prevention Initiative. However, there are criticisms of the way Pfizer is testing its AIDS drug. "The European AIDS Treatment Group (EATG), collection of activists from 31 European Countries, said the design of the trial for Pfizer’s CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc (previously known as UK-427,857) is putting people with HIV infection at unnecessary risk of developing AIDS." On June 20, 2007, Maraviroc received an approvable letter from the FDA advisory board. The letter was a product of expedited review of the novel HIV compound. In 2001, Pfizer asked the U.S. government to pressure the Brazilian government against issuing compulsory licenses for the patents on the AIDS drug nelfinavir.
23/ap4565943.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-14.  "Company Profile for Pfizer Inc (PFE)". http://zenobank.com/ index.php?symbol=PFE&page=quotesearch. Retrieved on 2008-10-01.  Andrew Ross Sorkin and Duff Wilson (January 26, 2009). "Pfizer Agrees to Pay $68 Billion for Rival Drug Maker Wyeth". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/26/ business/26drug.html.  ^ Kenneth T. Jackson: The Encyclopedia of New York City: The New York Historical Society; Yale University Press; 1995. P. 895.  "Johnson & Johnson to Buy Pfizer Unit". MoneyNews.com. June 26, 2006. http://www.newsmax.com/money/ archives/articles/2006/6/26/082230.cfm. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.  U-M to buy Pfizer’s former Ann Arbor property, University of Michigan press release, 18 December 2008. Accessed 25 February 2009.  Pfizer (2003). Annual Review 2003. Annual Report.  Schlessinger, Joseph (2005). "SU11248: Genesis of a New Cancer Drug". The Scientist 19(7):17-24. (subscription required)  http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/26/ business/26drug.html  http://industry.bnet.com/pharma/ 1000627/the-pfizer-wyeth-deal-worstcase-scenario/  New York Times report  Berenson, Alex (December 3, 2006). "Pfizer Ends Studies on Drug for Heart Diseas". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/03/ health/ 03pfizer.html?_r=1&th&emc=th&oref=slogin. Retrieved on 2006-12-03.  Theresa Agovino (Associated Press) (December 3, 2006). "Pfizer ends cholesterol drug development". Yahoo! News. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/ 20061203/ap_on_he_me/ pfizer_cholesterol_drug_5&printer=1. Retrieved on 2006-12-03. Each study arm (torcetrapib + Lipitor vs. Lipitor alone) had 7500 patients enrolled; 51 deaths were observed in the Lipitor alone arm, while 82 deaths occurred in the torcetrapib + Lipitor arm.
AIDS drugs manufactured by Pfizer
• Viracept (nelfinavir mesylate) • Selzentry/Celsentri (maraviroc) • Rescriptor (delavirdine mesylate)
• Peter Rost • Viking Bjork
Notes and references
 "Pfizer 4Q Profit Falls but Beats View". Forbes. January 23, 2009. http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2008/01/
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October 207. http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/ • Philanthropy info. 20070930/bs_nm/ • Yahoo! - Pfizer Inc Company Profile pfizer_nigeria_dc;_ylt=A9G_R3Hh_f9GI7QAUgCyBhIF and Drugs - article by Gunjan Sinha • Bugs • “Pfizer Statement Concerning 1996 • Boston Globe "Pfizer Offers Discounts for Nigerian Clinical Study” Pfizer. the Uninsured" http://www.pfizer.co.za/RunTime/ • Pfizer Settlement Clears Asbestos POPContentRun.aspx?pageidref=1874 Litigation Law.com • Pfizer’s savings program for people without prescription drug coverage Pfizer Helpful Answers • Pfizer Company Website - UK corporate • Pfizer 4Q06 Earnings Press Release site • Barry Yeoman, Putting Science in the • Pfizer Company Website - U.S. corporate Dock, The Nation site • GlaxoSmithKline will overtake Pfizer to • Company history become world’s largest pharmaceutical • Full product list company by 2012 URCH Publishing (Press • Investor relations Release) • Corporate governance