Occupational Safety and Health--building services@ YEE PIN by black90star

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                                 BEC 206

                       BUILDING SERVICES

                           ASSIGNMENT 2

NAME                         TAN YEE PIN
OLD MATRIC NO                KI 091393
NEW MATRIC NO                092004913
SEMESTER                     BCE-4
DATE                         26.08.2010

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                 Page 1

In the context of Occupational Safety and Health,
a) Discuss why safety at the workplace is important and should be given priority by all the
   parties involved especially at a construction site.

b) Discuss examples of work-related accidents at a typical construction site (e.g. building and
   road construction) and explain how such accidents can be avoided or minimized.

c) Explain why we should identify „danger‟ at the work place. Your explanation shall cover
   the implication that may arise if you ignore such „danger‟ at the workplace.

d) With reference to the hand-out given on “Case study Chemical Company of Malaysia”.
   i. Discuss whether the company (i.e. CCM) has complied with the requirements of
       safety and health in the operation of its plant and list all the hazards present in the
       given hand-out.
  ii. If you are the plant manager of CCM, what suggestion or recommendations would
       you give to the Senior-Management in order to prevent or minimize the likelihood
       accidents or hazards at that factory.


No                                    Topics                                         Pages
   1. Question a) - The Important of Safety in The Workplace                          3-4
   2. Question b) –Work-Related Accidents at Typical Constructions                   5 - 13
   3. Question c) – “Danger” at Workplaces                                             14
   4. Question d) (i) – Hazards Present in CCM                                         15
   5. Question d) (ii) – Prevention & Minimization of Hazards Present               16 - 17
   6. References                                                                       18
   7. Appendix                                                                         19

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                      Page 2
Question a) - The Important of Safety in the Workplace
       The federal Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) were created to prevent
accidents in the workplace and safeguard employees' health. As an employer, you are
required to establish and enforce workplace safety and health regulations, provide safety
training and education, and keep records of work-related injuries and illnesses.

The important of safety in the workplace

                                                 There are many reasons why safety in the
                                         work place is very important. There are two major
                                         reasons that safety in the work place is very important.
                                         The first is about employees being comfortable and
                                         confident in their jobs. The second reason has to do
                                         with cost of work-related injuries and illness.

                                                 When a person goes in to work at a new job
                                         for the first time, they automatically assume there
work place is a safe environment. After they start working for the company and they find
unsafe working conditions this can cause employees to become reluctant of their jobs. People
always want to feel safe no matter what it is that they are doing, whether it is driving in their
car, walking down the street, or if they are at work. If an employee is constantly worried
about safety hazards when they are on the job, this will undoubtedly interrupt their work
performance. How can an employee concentrate and focus on their job when they are
thinking about falling off the ladder because the ground underneath of the ladder is so
unstable? If the employees are not comfortable and confident in their work environment there
will lose productivity.

       The cost of work place injury is no joke. A simple injury such as stitches can put a
nice dent in the bank account. If a person is seriously injured there are many things that will
cost money. If an employee must take time off from work because of work related injury,
there will be workman‟s compensation to pay for. The premiums for workman‟s
compensation will also go up. Other employees will have to pick up the extra work which
could result in overtime and more money lost. There is also possibility of further injury if

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                     Page 3
another employee has to fill the spot of the employee that was injured. The person taken the
other employees spot might not have time to receive the proper training needed. It will also
lose time and money filling out all the paperwork that goes a long with workplace injury. As
soon as the injured employee has recovered, get then back to work as soon as possible. The
faster they return to work the more money you will save. A lot of employers a reluctant after
a work-related injury to have the employee return again. They are afraid of repeat injury, but
don‟t be more than likely it won‟t happen again.

        Injuries that occur over a long period of time can also be a real money drainer. When
employees are constantly doing the same repetitive motions injury can occur over a long
period of time, especially if safety precautions are not being taken. Two very common
problems that happen are back problems and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Always make sure the
employees have proper training and are executing the training correctly. Surgery and time off
for work for such things can be pretty costly. Always remember to keep a watchful eye for
safety hazards around your business. Things may seem fine but safety problems can appear
out of nowhere. If come across a safety hazard fix the problem immediately. The faster it is
fixed the less likely hood of injury and money lost. Remember when it comes to safety be a
perfect role model to the employees. If they see it is top priority, they will make it top priority
themselves. Workplace safety involves training
programs that are meant to teach the employees to
handle risks. The employees need to be trained to react
to impending dangers, if any; they should be trained to
face risks and deal with accidents at work. It is
important for the management of a company to heed the
safety needs of its employees through risk covers as
well as training programs intended to minimize the cost
of risks.

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                      Page 4
Question b) –Work-Related Accidents at Typical Constructions

       Unfortunately, accidents on building sites and construction site accidents occur all too
frequently and can have a devastating effect. Construction site
accidents at work can occur due to a variety of dangers,
including amongst others, inadequate training, including
defective scaffolding, falls from ladders, falls from roofs or
working at height, faulty work equipment and tools, poorly
trained workers, crane accidents, workplace injuries caused by
fork lift trucks and dumper trucks, chemical burns and faulty
safety harnesses.

       Often construction accidents that happen in the workplace could have been avoided if
employers and management had taken the necessary health and safety steps to protect their
employees. Employers owe a very high duty of care to ensure the site is safe and workers are
well trained. Employers also have to ensure that all construction site workers are provided
with the necessary protective clothing, safe tools, machinery and equipment and even ensure
that workers take regular breaks when using heavy duty equipment. Building site accidents
and construction accidents causing personal injury or serious head or spinal injury can occur
from many different factors, including

Examples of Construction Accidents:

      Construction machinery accidents                   Exposure to hazardous substances
      Crane accidents                                    Explosions
      Scaffolding accidents                              Defective construction devices
      Fall accidents                                     Structural collapses
      Motor-vehicle construction accidents               Falling objects
      Electrocution accidents                            Falling from Ladders
      Fire accidents                                     Fork Lift Trucks
      Trench collapses                                   Faulty Work Equipment
      Hazardous Substances Claims                        Lifting equipment failure
      Welding accidents                                  Electric Shock Injury
      Road Traffic Accident                              Compressed Gases Accidents
      Unsafe safety harnesses                            Power tool accidents
      Holes in flooring

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                  Page 5
Crane Accidents

         The creation and use of cranes have allowed humans to build structures our ancestors
could have never imagined. In densely populated areas where there is nowhere else to build
but up, cranes is everywhere and are relied upon to create residential and commercial
buildings. Although cranes have improved along with technology over the years, crane
accidents still occur that can result in injury or

         Crane-related accidents continue to be
one of the more common causes of
construction injuries. In many cases, a crane
making contact with a power line can result in
death. This is why it is so important that
safety measures are followed to prevent such a
dangerous work accident from happening. If a construction worker is lucky enough to survive
such a powerful electrical jolt, he or she may have to contend with cardiovascular injuries,
skin damage, respiratory damage, electrical burns, head injuries, spinal injuries, neurological
injuries, and musculoskeletal injuries. Electrocution accidents are not the only type of crane
accident that can cause injuries to crane workers. Rigging malfunctions, collapsed booms, fall
accidents, falling loads, and cranes that tip over can injure construction workers and others
who may be in the area. Hundreds of construction workers die every year because of crane
accidents. For many survivors of crane accidents, their injuries may be so severe that they can
never work again.

         According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administrator ("OSHA"),
attachments used with cranes should not exceed the weight capacity, rating, or scope
recommended by the manufacturer of the crane equipment. Following these precautions may
help ensure the safety of the employee handling the equipment, as well as employees in
surrounding areas.

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                   Page 6
Forklift Accidents
        Forklifts are used at many work areas on a daily basis. This heavy piece of machinery
must be operated correctly and workers in the vicinity must be careful that they don‟t get in
its way. Unfortunately, forklift accidents are not uncommon and cause a number of worker
fatalities every year.

Some Common Kinds of Work Accidents Involving Forklifts:
        A worker gets hit by a forklift
        A forklift tips over to land on a worker
        A load that falls off a forklift lands on a
        The operator loses control of the
         forklift, which runs over another

Some Common Causes of Forklift Accidents:
        The operator does not know how to use a forklift correctly
        Improper safety procedures
        A forklift malfunction that was caused by poor maintenance or a part defect
        The operator loses control of the forklift
        Overloaded forklifts
        Inadequate operator training
        Lack of proper communication among workers and supervisors

Examples of Serious Injuries Caused by Forklift Accidents:
        Crush injuries
        Broken bones
        Spinal cord injuries
        Internal injuries

Construction Falls
        Fall accidents are the number one cause of
construction worker deaths. Common cause of
construction fall accidents includes:
       Holes in the floor
       Defective scaffolding
       Crane collapses
       Sides without protection
       Openings in walls

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                   Page 7
      Improperly secured ladders
      Roof falls
      Slip and fall accidents
      Improperly secured harnesses
      Inadequate fall protection

       Fall accidents can lead to serious injuries, including spinal cord injuries, traumatic
brain injuries, crushed or broken bones, internal injuries, and death. To prevent fall accidents,
construction supervisors are supposed to make sure that all safety precautions are followed on
the site and that workers use the proper safety equipment, such as fall arrest equipment,
perimeter protection and opening coverings, and harnesses.

Excavation Site Accidents
       Regardless of how much experience you have, working at an excavation site can lead
to serious work injuries if an accident occurs. Examples of excavation accidents that can
cause serious work injuries:
                  Cave-ins
                  Insufficient oxygen, which can cause asphyxiations
                  Drowning
                  Inhaling toxic fumes
                  Explosions
                  Electrocution accidents

Electrical Power Line Accidents

       Electrical power lines can be a cause of work injuries in the event that a worker comes
into contact with a live power line. Crane operators, painters, and construction workers are
just a few of the groups at risk of getting really hurt in an electrical power line accident. In
certain instances, the use of certain tools around power lines, such as metal ladders, scaffolds,
backhoes, cranes, aluminum paint holders, and concrete pumpers, can increase the chances of
an electrical accident happening on the job.

       It is estimated by OSHA that nearly 350 construction workers die every year from
electrical accidents. A few causes of these fatalities include electric shock, electrocutions,
steam accidents, and power line contact. The risks of these hazards are heightened for
workers who perform their jobs on scaffolding or in cranes near overhead power lines. In

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                      Page 8
addition to the aforementioned injuries one may suffer from electrical accidents, other risks
include burns and falls caused by contact with electrical energy. Because working with
electrical current is unavoidable and necessary, OSHA has created specific guidelines for
construction workers to follow when dealing with hazardous situations. Unfortunately, there
are times when these standards are not adhered to or situations where they are overlooked.
Consider the following electrical safety tips at workplace to avoid accidents caused by
     Install all appliances as per the manufacturer's guidelines. Avoid over loading
      electrical circuits as that may cause serious accidents.
     Clearly mark each fuse or electrical circuit breaker with the name of the electrical
      appliance served by the fuse.
     In case extension cords are being used, ensure that they are three-wire type with three
      prong plugs. Use non-conductive plugs. Make sure that the wire sizes of the extension
      cords are appropriate to be able to bear the electrical load. Extension wires should be
      used only temporarily. Permanent installations should not be compromised with
      extension wires.
     Ensure that all electrical appliances are properly grounded.
     Always get certified electricians to repair or lay down electrical wires or installations.
     Any damage in electrical wall outlets should be reported and repaired immediately.

Trench Collapses
        The building of trenches is necessary for many construction tasks. They are present
wherever buried utilities are constructed or repaired. It is absolutely imperative that
appropriate safety measures are taken during the building process to ensure the safety of all
workers involved. A trench is narrow in length with its depth greater than its width. When
trenches are constructed they must have
safeguards in place to protect workers inside the
trench from a collapse. When a trench collapses
workers may easily become crushed under the
weight of heavy soil from above. One cubic yard
of soil weighs about as much as a mid-sized
automobile, and suffocation can occur with only
a couple feet of soil on top of the victim.

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                    Page 9
Fires and Explosions in Construction Site
       The Occupational Safety and Health
Administration have determined that workplace fires and
explosions kill 200 and injure more than 5,000 workers
each year. For these reasons, special safety guidelines
have been established to prevent construction accidents
arising from fires and explosions. A fire plan should exist
at construction sites so that workers can be safely
evacuated in the event of fires and explosions. These accidents can result in a great number of
injuries, including burns that can result in extensive pain and even death. Fires and explosions
are perhaps the most dynamic and tragic construction accidents that can occur.
Adhere to the following fire safety tips for a workplace:
    Install fire alarms at appropriate places throughout the workplace.
    Fire extinguishers should be installed within the reach of the employees.
    Every employee should be aware of the places where the fire extinguishers have been
     fixed and know how to use them.
    Hold fire drills periodically. Have fire safety experts supervise the drill.

Compressed Gas Explosion
     There are literally thousands of products in use that contain gases and mixtures of
gases that are stored under pressure. There are three types of compressed gases: liquefied,
non-liquefied, and dissolved gases. Some of these gases are flammable and extremely volatile.
Due to the dangers of compressed gases and the increased risk of explosion, it is essential for
employers to establish rules and guidelines for employees to follow when handling these
materials. Additionally, these rules must be enforced and communicated to construction
workers in a clear and concise manner to avoid tragic accidents.

Welding Accidents on a construction site
       Welding is a hazardous activity that requires experience and a strict adherence to
safety guidelines. Welding accidents can arise from welding fumes, UV light, sparks, noise,
or skin injury. Due to the wide range of accidents that may occur, healing times and other
circumstances are extremely dependent upon the individual. Welding accidents can run the
gamut of a wide variety of other serious construction-related mishaps. Welders can be
exposed to gases, electricity, toxic fumes, and high temperatures that can separately or in

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                  Page 10
combination pose significant health risks. It is important for safety precautions to be
established and in use by welders to avoid accidents.

Unsafe/faulty ladders
       A ladder is one of the most important types of
construction equipment, but one that is often taken for
granted. Ladders helped build the pyramids of Egypt,
construct the aqueducts of Rome, and helped build the
Sears Tower. Ladders remain a simple way to move from
one level to another, and these simple wooden or steel
frames are the bedrock upon which the construction
industry is built. Unfortunately because ladders are so simple they are often taken for granted.
Out of the 1,000 construction workers killed every year 300 of them are killed by falls, a
large number of which are because of damaged or defective ladders. These crucial pieces of
equipment often go overlooked during safety inspections, but without proper oversight these
accidents can be fatal.

Cutting Accidents
       During the construction process many materials need to be altered to fit specific needs.
It is very common for extensive cutting to take place at any worksite to ensure the proper fit
of building materials. Wood, concrete, glass, plastics, and metals must all be manipulated and
often the only tools that can perform this job are very sharp and dangerous to handle. Cutting
accidents are common, though they are usually preventable when effective safety procedures
are established and followed. Managers and supervisors have a responsibility to keep the
workplace safe, and one of the most obvious areas that require attention is cutting tools. In a
hazardous environment, injuries resulting in the loss of limbs or life may result.

Building Collapse on construction site
       Building collapse can be caused by bad
design, faulty construction, foundation failure,
extraordinary loads, unexpected failure, or any
combination of these causes. A construction
worker's worst nightmares are realized if he or she                                          is

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                    Page 11
in a building during its collapse. Victims may be injured, crushed or killed as debris and
materials fall down around them. Most structures are built properly and to code, diminishing
the possibility of building collapse. However, when a collapse takes place it is a failure of
many and a manifestation of irresponsibility and incompetence. Architects and designers
have an obligation to the safety of the public, and when this obligation is not met
consequences can be tragic.

Nail gun Accidents
       Nail guns have proven to be useful tools at the worksite and have replaced hammers
for many construction workers. Their power allows them to drive nails into the hardest of
surfaces, including concrete and steel. Because of this, nail guns command respect from their
users and the people around them. A lack of safety around a nail gun can result in very
serious consequences. When nail guns malfunction or are used hastily, people can be injured
or killed. Nails that enter the body may cause infection. A common nail gun injury is the
penetration of the no dominant hand, but soft tissue injuries account for the majority of nail
gun accidents. There have been cases of nails penetrating the brain, spine, and mouth of
victims in nail gun accidents.

Compressor Accidents
       Compressors are used at construction sites to provide power for many of the tools and
utilities used by workers. Air compressors and gas compressors are very common, and with
their use is an accompanying increased risk to workers. Employees must exercise special
caution when working with or around compressors of any kind. OSHA has established
guidelines for construction workers and supervisors to follow when using compressors.
Compressor accidents can result in serious injury and even death. However, with proper care
and attention these mishaps are entirely preventable. When supervisors and workers lapse in
their vigilance, compressor accidents can be fatal.

                         Highway Construction Accidents

                                  Ideally, a highway construction site will be properly set up
                         to minimize injuries to workers. However, merely placing this type
                         of work area on a road can create a hazardous situation for both
highway construction workers and motorists. Common causes of injuries to highway workers:

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                   Page 12
        Motor vehicle accidents
         involving passing traffic.
        Construction accidents
         involving construction
         equipment and work vehicles.
        Inadequate safety measures or
         lack of the proper safety gear
         to protect workers.
        Road debris
        Inadequate warning signs
        Cones that are placed in the
         wrong spots
        Crane accidents

Steps motorists can take to keep work zone workers safe:
        Pay attention to the roads and signs letting you know that you are in a work zones.
        Turn on your headlights so that drivers and workers can see you.
        Don‟t tailgate.
        Don‟t speed.
        Slow down and obey posted speed limits.
        Make sure you are keeping up with the pace of traffic flow.
        Don‟t change lanes when you are driving through a work zone.
        Keep a close watch in case construction machinery or workers suddenly appear.
        Although there may be delays when driving in a work zone, practice patience and
         know that the workers are there to make your roads safer.

        The workplace should be kept in a safe and tidy condition. Suitable workstations and
chairs should be provided to employees and floors and corridors should be clean and free
from hazards as well as doors and gates, nothing should become an unnecessary obstruction
in the workplace that could become a danger to the employees that work there. All employers
are required by law to be provided with any safety wear they require to complete their jobs,
such as goggles, hard hats, ear guards, dust masks, safety gloves, safety boots or high-
visibility jackets.

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                     Page 13
Question c) – “Danger” at Workplaces
       We should identify “danger” at the workplace because these measures can also help
employees to feel more confident and secure when they are at work. Even employees who are
naturally nervous or anxious will feel able to concentrate on doing their jobs. This becomes
more important in companies with shift system with workers having to work in evening and
night shifts. Besides that, it also increases the sense of safety at workplace which the
employers and employees know the hazards that present at the workplace and know the way
of handling it. Identify “danger” at workplace also helps reduce the risk of damage to the
premises, equipment and litigation from the employees. Biological, chemical, physical,
radiological and other hazards pose danger to member of many occupations which the
employers need to identify well.

       In workplaces where people are constantly afraid and insecure, employees are at risk
of "numbing out" to protect them. The very mechanism which allows a person to survive an
emotionally painful environment also makes it difficult for them to respond sensitively and
empathetically to others. The organizational conflict and customer service consequences of
this are obviously very costly. This numbing process affects far more than the interpersonal
realm of organizational performance. It affects all aspects of decision-making, innovation,
and safety. With their thinking impaired, people are at greater risk of causing serious
mistakes and accidents. They are also obviously less likely to make wise decisions and create
process improvements. Hence, it is necessary to identify “danger” at workplace. If we did
not identify “danger” at workplace well, it is dangerous and will cause some work related
disease. The examples of work related disease are:
      Certain poisonings
      Stress and loss of creativity
      Some skin diseases such as occupational dermatitis, skin cancer, chrome ulcer, oil
    Lung diseases including occupational asthma, farmers lung, pneumoconiosis,
       asbestosis, mesothelioma
    Infections such as leptospirosis, hepatitis, tuberculosis, anthrax, legionellosis and
Other conditions such as; occupation cancer, certain musculoskeletal disorders,
decompressions illness and hand-arm vibration syndrome

       To create a high performance organization at the workplace, the employers of an
organization which brings out the best in its people, we need to understand how danger at
workplace affects people's intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal functioning.

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                     Page 14
Question d) (i) – Hazards Present in CCM
       A hazard is anything (including work practices or procedures) that has the potential to
harm the health or safety of a person. The Chemical Company of Malaysia did not comply
with the requirements of safety and health in the operation of its Plant because it has brought
pain, suffering and misery to the 20000 residents living in that area.

       Besides that, a worker and two colleagues rushed to the hospital after inhaling
chlorine fumes from a leaking gas valve in the chemical factory which the Senior-
management should take action according the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Another
case, the worker are collapsed at the worker changing room after an asthmatic attack which
the employer do not keep under review the measures taken to ensure the safety and health of
persons at the place of work. Because of the gaseous heavy mist caused by chemical fumes,
the residents in Padang Jawa have encountered breathing difficulties and smarting of the eyes
and the workers inside the factory get stronger doses of the hazardous effect which will affect
their health at any time.

       Also, the company manufactures the hazards product such as phosphate which
produces dust and deafening noise, paraquat for killing weeds which will injurious to health,
liquefied chlorine subjected to gas leaks when it is heated. The worker also claim that the
factory are poor working conditions, occupational hazards and health risk place which the
employer need to establish and enforce workplace safety and health regulations. The
Chemical Company of Malaysia also do not provide a proper way for the handling of hazards
chemical which result the 822 students there have to endure the discomfort of dust, smoke
and smell of gases when the factory in its operation, fish and prawn in the Klang river have
all gone due to the chemical waste from the factory flowing in the river.
The hazard present at Chemical Company of Malaysia
    Ammonia
    Paraquat
    Liquefied Chlorine
    Caustic soda
    Nitric acid
    Fertilizers
    Phosphate
    Chemical waste
    Poor working conditions for workers
    Discomfort of dust, smoke and smell of gases

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                   Page 15
Question d) (ii) – Prevention & Minimization of Hazards Present

      If I am the Plant Manager of Chemical Company of Malaysia, I will suggest my Senior-
Management to do the process hazard analysis in order to prevent or minimize the likelihood
of accidents or hazards at that factory.

      A process hazard analysis (PHA), sometimes
called a process hazard evaluation, is one of the most
important elements of the process safety
management program. A PHA is an organized and
systematic effort to identify and analyze the
significance of potential hazards associated with the processing or handling of highly
hazardous chemicals. A PHA provides information which will assist employers and
employees in making decisions for improving safety and reducing the consequences of
unwanted or unplanned releases of hazardous chemicals. A PHA is directed toward analyzing
potential causes and consequences of fires, explosions, releases of toxic or flammable
chemicals and major spills of hazardous chemicals. The PHA focuses on equipment,
instrumentation, utilities, human actions (routine and no routine), and external factors that
might impact the process. These considerations assist in determining the hazards and
potential failure points or failure modes in a process.

      Beside that, all employees, including maintenance and contractor employees, involved
with highly hazardous chemicals need to fully understand the safety and health hazards of the
chemicals and processes they work with for the protection of themselves, their fellow
                                 employees and the citizens of nearby communities. Training
                                 conducted in compliance with 1910.1200, the Hazard
                                 Communication standard, will help employees to be more
                                 knowledgeable about the chemicals they work with as well as
                                 familiarize them with reading and understanding MSDS.

      Senior-Management who use contractors to perform work in and around processes
which involve highly hazardous chemicals, will need to establish a screening process so that
they hire and use contractors who accomplish the desired job tasks without compromising the

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                   Page 16
safety and health of employees at a facility. For contractors, whose safety performance on the
job is not known to the hiring employer, the Senior-Management will need to obtain
information on injury and illness rates and experience and should obtain contractor references.
Additionally, the Senior-Management must assure that the contractor has the appropriate job
skills, knowledge and certifications. Contractor work methods and experiences should be

      Additionally, Senior-Management must address what actions employees are to take
when there is an unwanted release of highly hazardous chemicals. Emergency preparedness
or the employer's tertiary (third) lines of defense are those that will be relied on along with
the secondary lines of defense when the primary lines of defense which are used to prevent an
unwanted release fail to stop the release. Senior-Management will need to decide if they want
employees to handle and stop small or minor incidental releases. Whether they wish to
mobilize the available resources at the plant and have them brought to bear on a more
significant release. Or whether employers want their employees to evacuate the danger area
and promptly escape to a preplanned safe zone area, and allow the local community
emergency response organizations to handle the release. Or whether the employer wants to
use some combination of these actions. Senior-
Management will need to select how many different
emergency preparedness or tertiary lines of defense they
plan to have and then develop the necessary plans and
procedures, and appropriately train employees in their
emergency duties and responsibilities and then
implement these lines of defense.

      Senior-Management at a minimum must have an emergency action plan which will
facilitate the prompt evacuation of employees when an unwanted release of highly hazardous
chemical. This means that the employer will have a plan that will be activated by an alarm
system to alert employees when to evacuate and, that employees who are physically impaired,
will have the necessary support and assistance to get them to the safe zone as well. The intent
of these requirements is to alert and move employees to a safe zone quickly.

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                                    Page 17
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupational_safety_and_health#Common_workplace_ha
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    http://www.jobsdb.com/MY/EN/V6HTML/JobSeeker/handbook/regulation-of-
    http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3021.pdf
    http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3148.pdf
    http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&
    http://www.constructionmanagementschools.net/blog/2010/20-crane-accidents-on-
    http://www.freeclaim.co.uk/personal-injury-solicitors/accidents-at-work/building-
    http://www.articlesbase.com/law-articles/construction-accidents-255037.html
    http://www.cellinoandbarnes.com/Personal_Injury_Practice_Areas/Construction_Scaff
    http://www.resource4constructionsiteaccidents.com/topics/typesofconstructionsiteaccid
    http://workplace-safetytips.com/why-is-safety-in-the-workplace-important/
    http://www.hrdirect.com/info/be-wise-with-OSHA-rules/default.aspx
    http://www.buzzle.com/articles/workplace-safety-facts.html
    http://www.buzzle.com/articles/workplace-safety-tips.html
    http://www.terrarrg.com/images/pdfs/DangerintheTrenches.pdf
    http://www.des.umd.edu/hw/rest/ehs.html
    http://www.ccm.com.my/mediaCentre/bursa_arc.asp?intRecordID=118
    http://safetyandworkplace.com/
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupational_safety_and_health
    http://www.humannatureatwork.com/Workplace-Stress-2.htm
    http://www.insiderreports.com/storypage.asp?StoryID=20024406
    http://www.constructionsafetyplan.co.uk/blog/uncategorized/risk-assessment/

ASSIGNMENT 2-BEC 206 BUILDING SERVICES                                             Page 18
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