8Th Grade Writing Worksheets - PowerPoint by iwy12388

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									PSSA Workshop

  October 25, 2003
    8:30 – 12:30
Agenda
• Introduction
• Multiple-Choice Items
• Open-Ended Items
• Rubrics & Revisions
• PSSA Scheduling
Introduction
The PSSA is
a team effort
 Team Effort
•Review the PSSA practice test to
 look for …
    •Where are basic skills tested?
    •What items are taught at the 8th
     grade level?
    •In which 8th grade book are these
     items taught?
     Where do all the items on the
     Practice Test fit?...by grade level


                               Number of       Percentage of
           Grade Level           Items             Items
       Elementary                   7              9.6%
       Grade 6                     31             42.5%
       Grade 7                     16             21.9%
       Grade 8                     40             54.8%

THINK ABOUT THIS!!!
Why does the “Percentage of Items” column add up to more than 100% ?
  Where do all the items on the
  2003 PSSA fit?...by standard

Standard                      Description                      Number of Items       Percentage of Items
  2.1       Numbers                                                    11                   12.9%
  2.2       Computation and Estimation                                 16                   18.8%
            without calculator                                        7                  8.2%
            with calculator                                           9                  10.6%
 2.3        Measurement and Estimation                                 6                    7.1%
 2.4        Reasoning and Connections                                  6                    7.1%
 2.5        Problem Solving and Communications                         3                     ***
 2.6        Statistics and Data                                        4                    4.7%
 2.7        Probability and Predictions                                4                    4.7%
 2.8        Algebra and Functions                                      17                    20%
 2.9        Geometry                                                   14                   16.5%
 2.10       Trigonometry                                               3                    3.5%
 2.11       Calculus                                                   4                    4.7%
           ***NOTE: For Standard 2.5, there are 3 open-ended question that each receive 5 points.
  How do the 2003 items compare
  to the 2002 items?...by standard

Standard                      Description                          2002 Items             2003 Items
  2.1       Numbers                                                7 (8.2%)              11 (12.9%)
  2.2       Computation and Estimation                            10 (11.7%)             16 (18.8%)
            without calculator                                   7 (8.2%)              7 (8.2%)
            with calculator                                      3 (3.5%)              9 (10.6%)
 2.3        Measurement and Estimation                            12 (14.1%)              6 (7.1%)
 2.4        Reasoning and Connections                              4 (4.7%)               6 (7.1%)
 2.5        Problem Solving and Communications                       3 ***                 3 ***
 2.6        Statistics and Data                                    6 (7.1%)               4 (4.7%)
 2.7        Probability and Predictions                            9 (10.6%)              4 (4.7%)
 2.8        Algebra and Functions                                 20 (23.5%)              17 (20%)
 2.9        Geometry                                               9 (10.6%)             14 (16.5%)
 2.10       Trigonometry                                           4 (4.7%)               3 (3.5%)
 2.11       Calculus                                               4 (4.7%)               4 (4.7%)
           ***NOTE: For Standard 2.5, there are 3 open-ended question that each receive 5 points.
 Students need to be
     taught to be
mathematical thinkers.
Multiple-Choice Items
Multiple-Choice Items
• What is a multiple-choice item and how is it
  addressed on the PSSA
• What topics are in the PSSA toolkit and how are
  they to be addressed in instruction
• Learn ways to address multiple-choice items in
  your classroom practices
• Learn ways to assign multiple-choice practice for
  homework
• Learn strategies for answering multiple-choice
  items
What Is a Multiple-Choice Item?




  • A multiple-choice math item asks students
    to choose the correct answer to a problem
    from 4 choices.
PSSA

• Each student has 70 multiple-choice items
  on the PSSA

• Each multiple-choice item has a value of 1
  point.
Calculator Usage

• Students are not permitted to use a calculator
  on the first 7 items.

• Calculators are allowed when working on the
  remaining items.

• Students need to be familiar with using the
  specific calculator before the test!
PSSA Toolkit

• Topics covered:
  –   Percent of Increase and Decrease
  –   Data Distribution
  –   Inequalities
  –   Geometry
  –   Order of Operations
  –   Transforming Coordinates
  –   Scientific Notation
Tips from Teachers

  • Warm Ups

  • Classroom Practices

  • Jeopardy

  • Homework

  • Strategies for Multiple Choice Items
Time to Share your Tips


  • What other strategies do you currently
    implement with your students with which
    you have found success?
 Conclusion

• A large portion of the PSSA consists of
  multiple-choice items. Drilling skills and
  relying on PSSA coach books is not the
  answer. Using these tools effectively in your
  classroom is a step towards the answer.
  Students need to be taught to be mathematical
  thinkers who feel confident to attack 20
  different problems that could cover 20
  different topics on all 11 standards.
Open-Ended Items
Open-Ended Items
 • What is an open-ended item and how is
   it addressed on the PSSA
 • Analyze past PSSA results for open-
   ended items
 • Learn tips on solving open-ended items
 • Learn where to find open-ended items
   or how to create your own
 • Learn ways to use open-ended items in
   your classroom/curriculum
What Is an Open-Ended Item?




• An open-ended math item asks students to
  solve a multi-step problem and explain
  WHY they chose each step.
PSSA


• Each student has 4 open ended items on the
  PSSA

  – 3 on the common form
  – 1 on the matrix form
PSSA

• Each open-ended item has a maximum value of 5
  points.

• Therefore, open-ended items account for
  approximately 18% of the student‟s PSSA score.

• Responses to open-ended items are graded using a
  rubric.
The PSSA Rubric

• To earn all 5 points, students need to show
  each step of their work, and explain WHY
  they chose each of their steps.

• They can earn at least 1 point by showing a
  correct step toward solving the problem.
Calculator Usage

• Calculators can be used for all open-ended
  items on the PSSA

• Students need to be familiar with using the
  specific calculator before the test!
Open-ended Results From
      2000-2001
                                         percent




                        0
                            5
                                    10
                                              15
                                                      20
                                                                25
                                                                          30




                                7
         5 Advanced
                                                                               Grade 8


            4 satisf


           3 almost                      11

                                6
             satis


            2 partial
                                                           20




scores
          1 minimal
                                                                     26




             0 no
                                                                     26




            underst
                            4




              Blank
                                          State ave
  Sample 8th Grade Question
• Four members of the Johnson family took a trip
  from Pittsburgh to Harrisburg, a distance of 221
  miles. It took them 4 hours and 15 minutes to
  make the trip. The car required 13 gallons of
  gasoline at $1.25 per gallon. The turnpike toll was
  $6.50, and they spent $12.84 for food. What was
  the average cost per mile based on the total
  expenses of gas, food and tolls for this trip?
  (Standards 2.2 & 2.5)
             The Directions
•   For full credit, you must do the following:

1. Show OR describe each step of your work, even
   if you did it in your head (“mental math”) or
   used a calculator,

2. Write an explanation stating the mathematical
   reason(s) why you chose each of your steps.
The Work

1) $1.25 X 13 gal = $16.25

2) $16.25 + $6.50 + $12.84 = $35.59

3) $35.59  221 mi  $0.1610407

4) $0.16 per mile
Tips for Solving from Teachers
• Use SPEAK UP
  –   S…State the objective
  –   P…Provide background information
  –   E…Explain your strategy without math
  –   A…Add in the math
  –   K…Key in on the results
  –   U…Use the rubric as a guide
  –   P…Provide the standards
Tips for Solving from Teachers
 • Make 2 columns
   – Put “work” on the left
   – Put “explanation” on the right


          work                explanation
Solving Tips from Teachers
• Show and number each step of the work

  – Even/especially if the work was done in the
    student‟s head or calculator.
Explanation Tips

• Encourage students to EXPLAIN their work
  - not DESCRIBE it
  – Description:
    “I multiplied $1.25 and 13 and got $16.25”
  – Explanation
    “I multiplied the price of gas per gallon and the
    number of gallons to get the price for the gas
    used.”
    Explanation Tips from Teachers

•    Make sure ALL steps are explained in
     words.

•    Encourage students not to use numbers in
     their explanations – this will stop them
     from describing their work.
   Explanation Tips from Teachers

• Use “magic words”* in the explanation.

• These are words that gear students to
  „explain‟ their work rather than „describe‟
  it.


* Article on “Magic Words” can be found in the math assessment handbook
What are the Magic Words?

                •   To find
                •   To get
                •   To figure out
                •   To show
                •   Because
                •   Since
                •   Therefore…….
Explanation Tips from Teachers

       Encourage your students
        NOT to use the words
       “to find THE ANSWER”

 The words “the answer” do not explain
      what the answer represents.
The Explanation

1) I multiplied the price of gas and the number of gallons
     TO GET the total cost of gas.

2) I added the cost of gas, food and tolls together TO FIND
     the total cost of the trip.

3) I divided the total cost of the trip by the number of miles
     and I FOUND the cost per mile.

4) SINCE I had many decimal places, I rounded to the
    hundredth BECAUSE I wanted money.
           The Final Product
           Work                             Explanation

1) $1.25 X 13 gal = $16.25   1) I multiplied the price of gas and the
                                 number of gallons TO GET the total
                                 cost of gas.
2) $16.25 + $12.84 + $6.50
                             2) I added the cost of gas, food and tolls
    = $35.59                     together TO FIND the total cost of
                                 the trip.

3) $35.59  221mi           3) I divided the total cost of the trip by
                                 the number of miles and I FOUND
    $0.161041                    the cost per mile.

                             4) SINCE I had many decimal places, I
4) $0.16 per mile                rounded to the hundredth BECAUSE
                                 I wanted money.
Where to Find Open-Ended Problems

• ACE Questions from Connected Math

• Mathematics assessment handbook
  www.pde.psu.edu/pssa/mathbook.pdf

• Released Items handbook
  www.pde.psu.edu/pssa/mathrelitems.pdf

• PSSA Practice Tests
Options for Schools with Money to Spend

• “Measuring Up” books
  1-800-822-1080 or www.patesthelp.com
• “PSSA Mathematics Coach” books
  1-800-221-9372 or www.educationaldesign.com
• “Continental Press PAM Prep”
  1-800-233-0759
• “Exemplars”
  www.exemplars.com
   Hints to Creating Your Own Open-
            Ended Problems


• Make sure problems address a standard at or near
  your grade level.

• Make sure all problems require more than 1 step
  to solve.

• Use your students‟ names, other teachers‟ names
  and your school‟s name to make the problems
  more interesting to your students.
   Hints to Creating Your Own Open-
            Ended Problems


• Use the same directions that the PSSA uses at
  your level (show/describe AND explain)

• Use a specific rubric for each of your problems
  that is based on the general rubric in the handbook

• Have students use calculators so they can focus
  more on the explanation and less on the number
  crunching.
Ways to Use Open-Ended Items in Your
             Classroom

•   Put a problem on every test or quiz
•   Homework
•   Math journal
•   Open-ended portfolio…..

• DO NOT use only as extra credit
   Practice, Practice, Practice
• Practice should occur the entire year

• Open-ended questions should be addressed about
  once a week

• Incorporate these types of questions into ALL
  grade levels

• Open-ended questions are an integrated part of the
  math curriculum at ALL grade levels
Curriculum
 • Your Goal:
   – Open-ended items should become a
     part of your classroom instruction!
     • NOT just an added activity to do if you
       have time at the end of the chapter or on
       days before vacation!
Tips for Teachers

• Insist that students use correct mathematical
  vocabulary in their explanations (when
  developmentally appropriate)
• Refer to the “Terms to Know” in the math
  standards (all grade levels)
• Review the formula sheet before taking the
  PSSA
Tips for Beginners

• Provide time for students to solve problems
  individually

• Share answers/ideas with partners or in
  small groups

• Discuss as a class
Conclusion
• Teaching the adopted curriculum as
  intended will not only help improve your
  PSSA scores, but will also help improve
  your students‟ understanding and the
  ability to communicate that
  understanding.
Rubrics & Revisions
Proficiency Level Handbook

• Use as a tool to work towards proficiency
• Give students specific details of the
  different expectations for the different
  performance levels
PSSA General Rubric

• How can this tool be used in your class?

• How can this tool be adapted for better use
  in your class?

• How can this tool be used as a model for the
  creation of other materials?
Introduction to Rubrics

• This introduction is a process.

• Possible activities:
  – students can rewrite a rubric in kid-friendly
    terms
  – students can create a rubric for a problem
  – students can score each other‟s work
Evaluation & Revision Process

• Who should do the evaluation?
         Teacher     Peers     Self

• What evaluation format will provide the
  most valuable feedback to the student?

• How does the teacher manage the revision
  process?
Rubric for “Taking the PSSA”

• What is expected behavior?

• Is this an observable behavior?

• How will the student‟s PSSA results benefit
  from this behavior?
PSSA Scheduling
   PSSA Scheduling

• It is never too early to plan.
• Considerations when creating your school‟s
  testing schedule:
  – How many students, teachers, rooms and calculators does your
    school have?
  – What has been done in the past? Did it work?
  – What are your current priorities?
  – How do you create a schedule that addresses your priorities?
  – Are your priorities worth fighting for?

								
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