8Th Grade Writing Worksheets - PowerPoint by iwy12388

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```									PSSA Workshop

October 25, 2003
8:30 – 12:30
Agenda
• Introduction
• Multiple-Choice Items
• Open-Ended Items
• Rubrics & Revisions
• PSSA Scheduling
Introduction
The PSSA is
a team effort
Team Effort
•Review the PSSA practice test to
look for …
•Where are basic skills tested?
•What items are taught at the 8th
•In which 8th grade book are these
items taught?
Where do all the items on the

Number of       Percentage of
Elementary                   7              9.6%

Why does the “Percentage of Items” column add up to more than 100% ?
Where do all the items on the
2003 PSSA fit?...by standard

Standard                      Description                      Number of Items       Percentage of Items
2.1       Numbers                                                    11                   12.9%
2.2       Computation and Estimation                                 16                   18.8%
without calculator                                        7                  8.2%
with calculator                                           9                  10.6%
2.3        Measurement and Estimation                                 6                    7.1%
2.4        Reasoning and Connections                                  6                    7.1%
2.5        Problem Solving and Communications                         3                     ***
2.6        Statistics and Data                                        4                    4.7%
2.7        Probability and Predictions                                4                    4.7%
2.8        Algebra and Functions                                      17                    20%
2.9        Geometry                                                   14                   16.5%
2.10       Trigonometry                                               3                    3.5%
2.11       Calculus                                                   4                    4.7%
***NOTE: For Standard 2.5, there are 3 open-ended question that each receive 5 points.
How do the 2003 items compare
to the 2002 items?...by standard

Standard                      Description                          2002 Items             2003 Items
2.1       Numbers                                                7 (8.2%)              11 (12.9%)
2.2       Computation and Estimation                            10 (11.7%)             16 (18.8%)
without calculator                                   7 (8.2%)              7 (8.2%)
with calculator                                      3 (3.5%)              9 (10.6%)
2.3        Measurement and Estimation                            12 (14.1%)              6 (7.1%)
2.4        Reasoning and Connections                              4 (4.7%)               6 (7.1%)
2.5        Problem Solving and Communications                       3 ***                 3 ***
2.6        Statistics and Data                                    6 (7.1%)               4 (4.7%)
2.7        Probability and Predictions                            9 (10.6%)              4 (4.7%)
2.8        Algebra and Functions                                 20 (23.5%)              17 (20%)
2.9        Geometry                                               9 (10.6%)             14 (16.5%)
2.10       Trigonometry                                           4 (4.7%)               3 (3.5%)
2.11       Calculus                                               4 (4.7%)               4 (4.7%)
***NOTE: For Standard 2.5, there are 3 open-ended question that each receive 5 points.
Students need to be
taught to be
mathematical thinkers.
Multiple-Choice Items
Multiple-Choice Items
• What is a multiple-choice item and how is it
• What topics are in the PSSA toolkit and how are
they to be addressed in instruction
• Learn ways to address multiple-choice items in
• Learn ways to assign multiple-choice practice for
homework
• Learn strategies for answering multiple-choice
items
What Is a Multiple-Choice Item?

• A multiple-choice math item asks students
to choose the correct answer to a problem
from 4 choices.
PSSA

• Each student has 70 multiple-choice items
on the PSSA

• Each multiple-choice item has a value of 1
point.
Calculator Usage

• Students are not permitted to use a calculator
on the first 7 items.

• Calculators are allowed when working on the
remaining items.

• Students need to be familiar with using the
specific calculator before the test!
PSSA Toolkit

• Topics covered:
–   Percent of Increase and Decrease
–   Data Distribution
–   Inequalities
–   Geometry
–   Order of Operations
–   Transforming Coordinates
–   Scientific Notation
Tips from Teachers

• Warm Ups

• Classroom Practices

• Jeopardy

• Homework

• Strategies for Multiple Choice Items

• What other strategies do you currently
implement with your students with which
you have found success?
Conclusion

• A large portion of the PSSA consists of
multiple-choice items. Drilling skills and
relying on PSSA coach books is not the
answer. Using these tools effectively in your
classroom is a step towards the answer.
Students need to be taught to be mathematical
thinkers who feel confident to attack 20
different problems that could cover 20
different topics on all 11 standards.
Open-Ended Items
Open-Ended Items
• What is an open-ended item and how is
• Analyze past PSSA results for open-
ended items
• Learn tips on solving open-ended items
• Learn where to find open-ended items
or how to create your own
• Learn ways to use open-ended items in
What Is an Open-Ended Item?

• An open-ended math item asks students to
solve a multi-step problem and explain
WHY they chose each step.
PSSA

• Each student has 4 open ended items on the
PSSA

– 3 on the common form
– 1 on the matrix form
PSSA

• Each open-ended item has a maximum value of 5
points.

• Therefore, open-ended items account for
approximately 18% of the student‟s PSSA score.

• Responses to open-ended items are graded using a
rubric.
The PSSA Rubric

• To earn all 5 points, students need to show
each step of their work, and explain WHY
they chose each of their steps.

• They can earn at least 1 point by showing a
correct step toward solving the problem.
Calculator Usage

• Calculators can be used for all open-ended
items on the PSSA

• Students need to be familiar with using the
specific calculator before the test!
Open-ended Results From
2000-2001
percent

0
5
10
15
20
25
30

7

4 satisf

3 almost                      11

6
satis

2 partial
20

scores
1 minimal
26

0 no
26

underst
4

Blank
State ave
• Four members of the Johnson family took a trip
from Pittsburgh to Harrisburg, a distance of 221
miles. It took them 4 hours and 15 minutes to
make the trip. The car required 13 gallons of
gasoline at \$1.25 per gallon. The turnpike toll was
\$6.50, and they spent \$12.84 for food. What was
the average cost per mile based on the total
expenses of gas, food and tolls for this trip?
(Standards 2.2 & 2.5)
The Directions
•   For full credit, you must do the following:

1. Show OR describe each step of your work, even
used a calculator,

2. Write an explanation stating the mathematical
reason(s) why you chose each of your steps.
The Work

1) \$1.25 X 13 gal = \$16.25

2) \$16.25 + \$6.50 + \$12.84 = \$35.59

3) \$35.59  221 mi  \$0.1610407

4) \$0.16 per mile
Tips for Solving from Teachers
• Use SPEAK UP
–   S…State the objective
–   P…Provide background information
–   E…Explain your strategy without math
–   K…Key in on the results
–   U…Use the rubric as a guide
–   P…Provide the standards
Tips for Solving from Teachers
• Make 2 columns
– Put “work” on the left
– Put “explanation” on the right

work                explanation
Solving Tips from Teachers
• Show and number each step of the work

– Even/especially if the work was done in the
Explanation Tips

• Encourage students to EXPLAIN their work
- not DESCRIBE it
– Description:
“I multiplied \$1.25 and 13 and got \$16.25”
– Explanation
“I multiplied the price of gas per gallon and the
number of gallons to get the price for the gas
used.”
Explanation Tips from Teachers

•    Make sure ALL steps are explained in
words.

•    Encourage students not to use numbers in
their explanations – this will stop them
from describing their work.
Explanation Tips from Teachers

• Use “magic words”* in the explanation.

• These are words that gear students to
„explain‟ their work rather than „describe‟
it.

* Article on “Magic Words” can be found in the math assessment handbook
What are the Magic Words?

•   To find
•   To get
•   To figure out
•   To show
•   Because
•   Since
•   Therefore…….
Explanation Tips from Teachers

NOT to use the words

The words “the answer” do not explain
The Explanation

1) I multiplied the price of gas and the number of gallons
TO GET the total cost of gas.

2) I added the cost of gas, food and tolls together TO FIND
the total cost of the trip.

3) I divided the total cost of the trip by the number of miles
and I FOUND the cost per mile.

4) SINCE I had many decimal places, I rounded to the
hundredth BECAUSE I wanted money.
The Final Product
Work                             Explanation

1) \$1.25 X 13 gal = \$16.25   1) I multiplied the price of gas and the
number of gallons TO GET the total
cost of gas.
2) \$16.25 + \$12.84 + \$6.50
2) I added the cost of gas, food and tolls
= \$35.59                     together TO FIND the total cost of
the trip.

3) \$35.59  221mi           3) I divided the total cost of the trip by
the number of miles and I FOUND
\$0.161041                    the cost per mile.

4) SINCE I had many decimal places, I
4) \$0.16 per mile                rounded to the hundredth BECAUSE
I wanted money.
Where to Find Open-Ended Problems

• ACE Questions from Connected Math

• Mathematics assessment handbook
www.pde.psu.edu/pssa/mathbook.pdf

• Released Items handbook
www.pde.psu.edu/pssa/mathrelitems.pdf

• PSSA Practice Tests
Options for Schools with Money to Spend

• “Measuring Up” books
1-800-822-1080 or www.patesthelp.com
• “PSSA Mathematics Coach” books
1-800-221-9372 or www.educationaldesign.com
• “Continental Press PAM Prep”
1-800-233-0759
• “Exemplars”
www.exemplars.com
Hints to Creating Your Own Open-
Ended Problems

• Make sure problems address a standard at or near

• Make sure all problems require more than 1 step
to solve.

• Use your students‟ names, other teachers‟ names
and your school‟s name to make the problems
Hints to Creating Your Own Open-
Ended Problems

• Use the same directions that the PSSA uses at

• Use a specific rubric for each of your problems
that is based on the general rubric in the handbook

• Have students use calculators so they can focus
more on the explanation and less on the number
crunching.
Ways to Use Open-Ended Items in Your
Classroom

•   Put a problem on every test or quiz
•   Homework
•   Math journal
•   Open-ended portfolio…..

• DO NOT use only as extra credit
Practice, Practice, Practice
• Practice should occur the entire year

once a week

• Incorporate these types of questions into ALL

• Open-ended questions are an integrated part of the
math curriculum at ALL grade levels
Curriculum
– Open-ended items should become a
• NOT just an added activity to do if you
have time at the end of the chapter or on
days before vacation!
Tips for Teachers

• Insist that students use correct mathematical
vocabulary in their explanations (when
developmentally appropriate)
• Refer to the “Terms to Know” in the math
• Review the formula sheet before taking the
PSSA
Tips for Beginners

• Provide time for students to solve problems
individually

• Share answers/ideas with partners or in
small groups

• Discuss as a class
Conclusion
• Teaching the adopted curriculum as
intended will not only help improve your
PSSA scores, but will also help improve
ability to communicate that
understanding.
Rubrics & Revisions
Proficiency Level Handbook

• Use as a tool to work towards proficiency
• Give students specific details of the
different expectations for the different
performance levels
PSSA General Rubric

• How can this tool be used in your class?

• How can this tool be adapted for better use

• How can this tool be used as a model for the
creation of other materials?
Introduction to Rubrics

• This introduction is a process.

• Possible activities:
– students can rewrite a rubric in kid-friendly
terms
– students can create a rubric for a problem
– students can score each other‟s work
Evaluation & Revision Process

• Who should do the evaluation?
Teacher     Peers     Self

• What evaluation format will provide the
most valuable feedback to the student?

• How does the teacher manage the revision
process?
Rubric for “Taking the PSSA”

• What is expected behavior?

• Is this an observable behavior?

• How will the student‟s PSSA results benefit
from this behavior?
PSSA Scheduling
PSSA Scheduling

• It is never too early to plan.
• Considerations when creating your school‟s
testing schedule:
– How many students, teachers, rooms and calculators does your
school have?
– What has been done in the past? Did it work?
– What are your current priorities?