Science Skills Worksheets - PDF

					                                                             2001 Mississippi Science Framework

                      SCIENCE SKILLS AND REASONING
                                      - one credit -

     This course is not a required prerequisite for Biology I; however, if selected as a
science elective, Science Skills and Reasoning should not be taken after successful
completion of Biology I. This course will provide students with an overview of basic
Biology with an emphasis on organizational skills, critical thinking, reasoning skills, and
methods of science. Students will be introduced to the laboratory and scientific
literature as investigative tools of science with an emphasis on critical analysis and
concept comprehension. Students will learn to effectively interpret and communicate
results of experiments and research in a variety of formats including written and oral
presentations, graphs, charts, diagrams, multimedia presentations, etc. Concepts
covered in this course include scientific problem solving, research, experimental
design, laboratory safety, measurement, graphing, characteristics of life, cell structure
and function, energy transfer in biological systems, genetics, and diversity of life.
         The competencies are printed in bold face type and are required to be taught.
Content strands include Life Science, Physical Science and Earth and Space
Science competencies. Process Strands, which should be incorporated into all content
strands are: Unifying Concepts and Processes, Science as Inquiry, Science and
Technology, Science in Personal and Social Perspectives, and the History and
Nature of Science. Emphasis is on developing the ability to ask questions, to observe,
to experiment, to measure, to use computers and calculators, to problem solve/reason,
to use tools of science, to gather data, and to communicate findings.                   The
competencies may relate to one, many or all the science curriculum strands and may
be combined and taught with other competencies throughout the school year.
Competencies are not listed in order of importance, rather the sequence of
competencies relates to the broader K-12 framework. Competencies provide a general
guideline of ongoing instruction, not isolated units, activities or skills.
        The suggested teaching objectives are optional. Objectives indicate concepts
that enable the fulfillment of competencies, describe competencies in further detail, or
show the progression of concepts throughout the grades. School districts may adopt or
modify the objectives and are encouraged to write their own objectives to meet the
needs of students in their school district. Through actively investigating and discussing
scientific ideas using a variety of tools, students will become confident scientific
        The framework introduction, materials and equipment lists, technology and
literature connections, and a glossary and reference section that are also a part of this
document are available online at

                                                           2001 Mississippi Science Framework



       Life Science (L)                 Earth and Space Science (E)
       Physical Science (P)

COMPETENCIES and Suggested Teaching Objectives:

1. Observe and practice safe procedures in the classroom and laboratory.
   (L, E, P)

   a. Demonstrate knowledge of safety rules before working in the laboratory and
      model all safety rules in each lab activity.
   b. Demonstrate proper use and care of scientific equipment to include the
      compound light microscope.
   c. Demonstrate accuracy and precision when using scientific equipment.

2. Utilize critical thinking and scientific problem solving in designing and
   performing scientific research and experimentation. (L, E, P)

   a. Identify and use the SI units of length, capacity/volume, mass/weight and
   b. Research and critically analyze current investigations/problems using
      periodicals (newspapers, magazines and science journals).
   c. Demonstrate an ability to record and organize data from a variety of sources
      (scientific articles, magazines, and journals).
   d. Identify and apply the components of scientific methods in classroom and
      laboratory investigations using the processes of predicting, observing, gathering
      data, and drawing conclusions.

3. Interpret and communicate results of scientific investigations in oral, written,
   and graphic form. (L, E, P)

   a. Demonstrate graphing techniques: plotting points, labeling x- and y-axis, title,
      and legends for pie, bar, and line graphs.
   b. Generate and interpret graphs from classroom experiments.
   c. Draw conclusions about current scientific issues using graphs found in scientific
   d. Communicate the results of classroom experiments using lab reports and oral

                                                              2001 Mississippi Science Framework

4. Investigate the chemical basis of life. (L, P)

   a. Describe differences among atoms, elements, ions, molecules and compounds.
   b. Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonding.
   c. Identify the chemical symbols of elements needed for life.
   d. Identify the components of a chemical reaction (reactant, product, equation).
   e. Identify properties of acids and bases and use pH to classify substances as
      basic, acidic, or neutral.
   f. Identify the functions of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids in living
      organisms with examples of each.

5. Investigate cell structures, functions, and methods of reproduction. (L)

   a. Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
   b. Distinguish between plant and animal eukaryotic cell structures.
   c. Identify and describe the structure and basic functions of the major eukaryotic
   d. Explain the differences among tissues, organs, and organ systems.
   e. Describe the structure and function of a selectively permeable membrane and its
      role in diffusion and osmosis.
   f. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis emphasizing the differences in
      resulting chromosome number.
   g. Identify and distinguish among forms of asexual and sexual reproduction.

6. Investigate energy use in living organisms. (L)

   a. Explain the differences between autotrophs and heterotrophs.
   b. Compare and contrast the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.

7. Relate the structure and function of nucleic acids in the principles and
   mechanisms of genetics. (L, P)

   a. Describe the basic structure and function of DNA and RNA.
   b. Describe how DNA copies itself and the results of mistakes in this process.
   c. Utilize genetic terminology and apply genetic principles to solve simple
      Mendelian crosses.

8. Apply concepts of natural selection as they relate to classification. (L)

   a. Explain the importance of variations in organisms.
   b. Describe how the need for adaptation leads to formation of new species.
   c. Classify organisms into the major kingdoms based upon their characteristics.

                                                                           2001 Mississippi Science Framework

9. Investigate how organisms interact with their environment. (L, E)

   a. Identify biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem.
   b. Explain the levels of biological organization (i.e., population, community,
      ecosystem, biosphere).
   c. Identify the types of relationships that occur among populations.
   d. Explain how energy flows through ecosystems.
   e. Describe the cycling of matter through ecosystems.
   f. Compare and contrast the adaptations of plants and animals found in the major

Process Strands:
Unifying Concepts     Science               Science And      Science In              History And
And Processes         As Inquiry            Technology       Personal And            Nature Of Science
                                                             Social Perspectives
Systems, order, and   Abilities necessary   Abilities of                             Science as
organization          to do scientific      technological    Personal and            a human
                      inquiry               design           community health        endeavor
Evidence, models,
and explanation       Understandings        Understandings   Population growth       Nature of scientific
                      about scientific      about science                            knowledge
Change, constancy     inquiry               and technology   Natural resources
and measurement                                                                      Historical
                                                             Environmental quality   perspectives
Evolution and
equilibrium                                                  Natural and human-
                                                             induced hazards
Form and function
                                                             Science and
                                                             technology in local,
                                                             national, and global

*Reprinted with permission from the National Science Education Standards, 1996

                                                                 2001 Mississippi Science Framework

Course: Science Skills and Reasoning

Comp.    Obj.                    Suggested                               Suggested
                             Teaching Strategies                        Assessment

  1       a     • Review safety rules with students; watch lab    • Signed contracts
                  safety video and complete safety contracts.

                • Prepare a drawing or skit to demonstrate a      • Oral or Written
                  safety rule and/or lab procedure.                 presentation

  1       b     • Label a diagram of the microscope; student      • Performance
                  should demonstrate successful wet mount           assessment; quiz
                  slide preparation.
                                                                  • Performance
  1       c     • Review laboratory equipment and uses with         assessment
                  students; set up lab practical or                 checklist
                  measurement where they must individually
                  demonstrate proper use.

  2       d     • Let students design and carry out original      • Rubric and checklist
                  experiments using seeds, plants, simple
                  animals, etc. Also give student experiment
                  scenarios and let them pick out variables,
                  controls, write hypothesis, etc.
  2       e     • Let students measure pH of household            • Report and chart
                  substances using pH paper and identify
                  each substance as an acid or a base.
  3      a,d    • Let students collect data from experiments,     • Rubric and checklist
                  summarize and graph the data, and make a        • Graded test
                  presentation to the class.
  3       c
                • Students can interpret graphs from current      • Student Work
                  scientific journals, magazines, and/or
  4       b
                • Let students draw or build models of each       • Student Product
                  type of bond.
  4       f
                • Run chemical tests identifying organic          • Report and chart
  5     a,b,c
                • Make a labeled drawing of different types of    • Rubric and report
  5       c
                • Write analogies comparing cellular              • Rubric
                  organelle functions to household items.
  5       d
                • Design an experiment to observe                 • Oral and written
                  differences in cells of each part of an           report
                  organism (green onion)

                                                                   2001 Mississippi Science Framework

Comp.   Obj.                    Suggested                                  Suggested
                            Teaching Strategies                           Assessment

  5      e     • Compare the effects of plain and salt water        • Lab report
                 on equal sized potato slices.

  5      f     • Make models of mitosis using pipe                  • Student work

  6      b     • Make a drawing and chart the differences           • Rubric
                 between the reactants and the products of
                 photosynthesis and respiration.

  7      a     • Build paper models of DNA and RNA and              • Rubric and student
                 identify and summarize the differences.              questions

  7      c     • Use cooperative learning groups to solve           • Rubric and graded
                 different sets of genetic problems. Let each         work
                 group present their solutions to the class.
  8      a     • Design an experiment to collect data about         • Written and oral
                 variations in a seed population.                     report
  8      b     • Let students compare pictures of bird beaks        • Evaluation questions
                 and feet as to similarities and differences        • Written Report
                 and relate structure to environment.
  8      c
               • Let students classify nuts and bolts,              • Student Product
                 different shaped pasta, etc. and create their
                 own dichotomous key.

               • Let students use a dichotomous key to              • Student Work
                 classify a group of living organisms such as
                 fish, cats, leaves, or sharks.
  9      a
               • Have students sort through various soil            • Lab Report
                 samples to separate biotic and abiotic

               • Design an experiment that demonstrates             • Lab Report
                 whether or not a specific abiotic factor limits
                 the germination of bean seeds.
  9      c
               • Make food chain/web mobiles and/or do              • Rubric
                 food chain/web role-play activities.
  9      e
               • Students work in small groups to explain           • Oral and written
                 their assigned “cycle”to the remainder of            report
                 the class.

  9      f     • Let students build a biome in a box and            • Presentation rubric
                 draw an imaginary animal that could live in
                 that biome explaining all the adaptations
                 that animal would need to survive.

     2001 Mississippi Science Framework


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