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Persuasive Writing Multiple Choice Worksheet

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Persuasive Writing Multiple Choice Worksheet Powered By Docstoc
					                             Creative Writing

This creative writing class is taught in a 5-A high school in West Texas
where the composition is a class of no more than twenty primarily
monolingual students of a limited number of advanced LEP students. These
LEP students also receive English instruction from the creative writing
teacher so she is aware of their language proficiencies. Recent immigrants
are not enrolled in creative writing until their second year in the country.
The recent immigrant program on this campus includes a creative writing
class, which is designated for second-year English language learners and is
taught by one of the ESL-endorsed English teachers. On those campuses
where enrollment in this course cannot be delayed, the needs of beginning
language learners are addressed by appropriate modifications to the lesson
plans, thereby giving all students the opportunity to acquire the knowledge
and skills outlined in the TAKS and TEKS.

The time estimations for the lesson plans are for 90-minute classes on block
scheduling. The time frame will vary according to class composition: size,
language levels, and learning levels.




                                                                               1
                              Creative Writing
                       Persuasive Writing: Advertising




        Lesson                     TEKS                       TAKS

    Advertising and                                         Reading
                                   4A, 4B
    Its Components                                         Objective 3


      Creating an              1A, 1B, 1C, 1F
                                                  Writing
    Advertisement          2A, 2B, 2C, 2E, 2H, 2F
                                                    Objectives 4, 5, 6
    for Print Media              3A-D, 4B


      Creating               1A, 1B, 1C, 1F, 1G
                                                            Reading
  Travel Advertising                2A-I
                                                           Objective 3
                              3A, 3B, 3C, 3D
                                 4A, 4B, 4C

                           1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1F, 1G
      Creating an
                                    2A-I                     Writing
    Advertisement
                               3A, 3B, 3C, 3D            Objectives 4, 5, 6
 for Broadcast Media
                                   4B, 4C
                                                            Reading
   Advertising Unit                                        Objective 3
       Review                    4A, 4B, 4C                 Writing
   And Assessment                                          Objective 4


The above TEKS are specifically related to this unit, however there are on-
going TEKS that are utilized in spiraling the instruction.




                                                                              2
               Interdisciplinary Links for Creative Writing
                       Persuasive Unit: Advertising



English: The Odyssey

The advertising unit includes a lesson in which students create a travel
brochure or poster. In their study of The Odyssey, students in English class
also create a travel brochure for a fictional location as one of their projects.
A collaborative assignment would allow students to incorporate what they
have studied in each class and would reinforce the skills and content from
both units.



Social Studies: Migration Unit

One of the lessons in the advertising unit focuses on the study and creation
of print advertising. In the Migration Unit, students in social studies study
railroads and how the railroad companies attracted migrants by posting
advertisements. The teachers of both classes could coordinate their units
when presenting print advertising and its effect on targeted audiences.
Creating an ad for a railroad company would be an assignment that would
incorporate knowledge and skills from both units and show the historical
impact of persuasive writing.




                                                                                   3
                              Creative Writing

Unit
Persuasive Writing: Advertising

Lesson Plan
Advertising and its components

Content Objectives
The student will be introduced to advertising and the components of print
advertising.
The student will recognize propaganda techniques used in advertising.

SIOP Component(s):
In order for the LEP student to best understand the content objective, it is
essential that it be clearly stated in simple language. The objective should
be given both orally and in written form.


Language Objective
The student will understand key terminology and propaganda techniques:
      advertisement      print            requirements      signature
      commercial         specialty        headline          logo
      purpose            layout           copy              trademark
      media              components       illustrations     slogan
      broadcast          techniques       clip art          lines of force

SIOP Component(s):

It is important in the sheltered instruction setting to establish academic
language objectives. LEP students are not only learning content, but they
are also acquiring academic English skills in reading, writing, listening, and
speaking. Special emphasis is placed on development of content vocabulary.

Metacognitive Objectives
The student will complete a Venn Diagram or T-chart when comparing and
contrasting forms of advertising.



                                                                               4
SIOP Component(s):

Metacognitive strategies that students acquire will continue to help them
even when the teacher is not there to guide them. Strategies enable the
student to plan, monitor, and evaluate learning independently.


Materials
   Advertising handouts/transparencies of handouts
     ―Key Terminology: Advertising‖
     ―Introduction to Advertising‖
     ―Components of Advertising‖
   Local newspapers, magazines, circulars, brochures, direct mailings,
     etc.
   Transparencies of selected samples (selected & made by teacher)
   ―Analysis Worksheet‖
   ―Group Project: Teacher Guidelines and Expectations‖
   Blank paper, glue, pens or markers, highlighters, rulers
   ―Group Project: Teacher Guidelines and Expectations‖ handout

SIOP Component(s):

A variety of materials supports different learning styles. The LEP student
can hear, feel, perform, create, and participate to construct personal, relevant
meanings.

Procedure (Estimated Time: 2 - 3 days)
(1) The teacher will ask students to respond in their journals about their
     positive and negative reactions to nationally and locally produced
     broadcast or print advertising.
     Journal topic: Which ad or commercial do you really like? Why?
     Which ad or commercial do you not like? Why?

SIOP Component(s):

The teacher uses the journal to build background and increase student
understanding. Commercials may also include radio and magazines. A
resource box of magazines should be provided. Real-life objects enable
students to make connections to their own lives.
                                                                               5
(2)   Upon completion of the journal writing, the teacher will lead a class
      discussion about students’ entries.

      SIOP Component(s):

      Students from culturally diverse backgrounds will bring to the class a
      variety of background experiences. The teacher needs to be aware
      that the student may have a different but valid schemata.

      As individuals name their likes and dislikes, the teacher will write
      them on the board. Students are allowed to add their comments,
      whether in agreement or disagreement.

      SIOP Component(s):

      The student can sign his/her name next to the comment. This gives
      the student a great feeling of self-worth.

      Next, the class will discuss the effects of a viewer’s reactions to
      televised commercials. The class will then consider if published
      advertisements create the same degree of positive and negative
      responses. The teacher will finally ask students about the similarities
      and the differences in broadcast advertising and published advertising
      and will write (or have a student write) their observations on a T-chart
      or Venn diagram. The teacher will tell students that these
      observations will be kept and referred to later as the unit is studied.

      SIOP Component(s):

      During class discussion, the teacher can meet the critical needs of the
      LEP student with varied levels of questioning. Questioning should
      move from simple to complex. Very limited speakers will be more
      successful with knowledge level questions with a step-by-step
      progression to analysis and evaluation. The teacher should begin with
      the 5W’s and then move to compare and contrast, imagine if, etc. In
      this particular exercise, the teacher needs to be cautious about the
      wording of the journal topic, simplifying as needed for understanding.


                                                                               6
(3)      The teacher will distribute three advertising handouts which detail the
         following: Key Terminology: Advertising, Introduction to
         Advertising, Components of Print Advertising. A copy of a sample ad
         with areas numbered is also distributed as a reference when explaining
         and discussing the handouts.

         SIOP Component(s):

         The LEP student can first spend time working with a bilingual
         dictionary to define key terms. Bilingual peers can be paired with the
         LEP student. Handouts and notes should be printed rather than
         written in cursive. For note taking, the LEP student can be paired with
         the best note taker in class. The teacher should never assume this is
         an easy task. Before or during the lesson, the teacher can make a
         word wall of the key words in the lesson. The teacher may need to
         supplement the key terminology handout with an example of how the
         key words are used within the context of the lesson.

         The Venn Diagram and T-chart will help the LEP student make
         relationships among key concepts and vocabulary.


      (4) The teacher will explain and discuss the handouts on key terms and
          introduction to advertising. Students will highlight key words and
          phrases and add notes as necessary. During the explanation and
          discussion, the teacher should point and refer to the appropriate
          transparency in order to focus attention and to guide highlighting and
          to provide notes as needed. As each is studied, the teacher will again
          clarify words, discuss, and label the sample ad as it relates to the term
          being studied.




                                                                                      7
SIOP Component(s):

Beginning English speakers may need the teacher to enunciate more
clearly and speak more slowly, but in a natural way. More repetition
will be needed for the beginner. The teacher should adjust speech as
the student becomes more proficient. Another possible way the
teacher can assist the LEP student is to have a tape of the lecture and a
copy of the lecture notes on hand to lend if necessary.

The teacher uses a variety of techniques to make content concepts
clear by introducing highlighting and note taking.

The handout on the components of print advertising should be
explained by the teacher and may be used later as an oral/written
review by all students and as a content translation extension for LEP
students with limited language proficiency. Discussion strategies may
include question/answer or, for students with lower language
proficiency or learning disabilities, identification by number of the
term being discussed. Depending on time, a second ad may be
quickly labeled and briefly explained by students who volunteer or are
called upon by the teacher.

SIOP Component(s):

Students with limited proficiency can provide a successful response
by identifying terms by number.

Refer to the earlier student lists and observations whenever possible to
connect, apply, and validate prior knowledge and understanding of the
components of advertising.

SIOP Component(s):

At this point, the language learners will benefit from a good
comprehensive review of key vocabulary. This can be as simple as a
flashcard review with the class or a game of vocabulary bingo.




                                                                        8
(5)   After the explanation/discussion of the terms, the class will be divided
      into groups of three or four to analyze and identify the components of
      an ad. Different levels of proficiency should be assigned within a
      group.

      SIOP Component(s):

      LEP students benefit from instruction that frequently includes
      multiple grouping configurations. Effective teachers with LEP
      students use a variety of configurations that includes individual work,
      partners, triads, small groups, cooperative learning groups, and whole-
      groups. Working in groups encourages the development of different
      perspectives and collaboration.

      The teacher will set the following guidelines, or expectations, for
      group participation. Refer to the handout ―Group Project: Teacher
      Guidelines and Expectations.‖
            The group will determine a leader, a secretary, and a facilitator.
            All participants will be expected to write personal responses
            before group discussion begins.
            Each participant will share his/her responses with the group
            before a final group decision is reached and recorded for
            presentation to the class.
      The teacher will monitor the groups for understanding, participation,
      and readiness for presentation.

      SIOP Component(s):
      It is important that the teacher provides constructive feedback
      throughout the lesson.

      The very beginning student can be designated as the facilitator.
      Teacher monitoring of the LEP student during group work is vital in
      order to keep all group members involved and on task.

(6)   After the groups have finished the written evaluation and labeling of
      their ad on a transparency, the presenter and the facilitator will present
      the group’s analysis/identification to the class.



                                                                                 9
(7)   Upon completion of the group presentations, the teacher will require
      students to select another ad for an individual written analysis and
      identification to be submitted for checking/grading as a daily class
      assignment or as homework. Students will cut out an ad and glue it to
      the back of the ―Analysis Worksheet.‖ Next, students will indicate
      each component of the ad by highlighting or drawing a line to or
      around the component and labeling appropriately. Students will then
      answer the questions on the ―Analysis Worksheet.‖ (Example
      attached.) NOTE: Advanced classes/students might incorporate
      digital cameras and power point presentation

      SIOP Component(s):

      The teacher’s scaffolding techniques move the LEP student to a stage
      of increased independence. In this lesson the teacher incorporates the
      learner in the whole and then small group collaboration before
      engaging the LEP student in an individual task. For the assignment,
      the teacher can accept shortened written responses. Also, ads in the
      LEP student’s native language can be used. The activities in this
      lesson integrate all language skills. Hands-on materials are provided
      for the learner to practice and apply the new content knowledge.
      Since this is the first lesson in the unit, the teacher can demonstrate
      how to make a personal word study bank for the students to use for
      later reference. The teacher along with the students can categorized
      the key vocabulary in a meaningful way.

Technology Applications
Students may access advertising from varied sources such as television,
radio, or the Internet. Power Point usage with possible incorporation of a
digital camera or scanner to reproduce ads or usage of special print programs
would enhance the quality of teacher and student presentations.

      SIOP Component(s):

      The teacher has effectively engaged LEP students throughout this
      lesson. The teacher has considered the students’ ability by
      appropriately pacing the lesson.



                                                                            10
Informal Assessment
Group analysis and identification of components of an ad

Formal Assessments
Group presentation
Individual written analysis

Extensions
Students, working with a partner or in a group, develop a survey to
determine the effects of advertising on the public and the public’s reaction to
various print and broadcast advertising. Students will interview people in
different age groups and then analyze and publish their results.




                                                                             11
                           Key Terminology: Adve rtising

1.    Adve rtising


      Adve rtisement/Ad/
      Commercial

2.    Advantages of advertising

3.    Purposes

4.    Media

5.    Broadcast

6.    Print

7.    Specialty

8.    Layout

9.    Components

10.   Techniques

11.   Requirements

12.   Headline

13.   Copy

14.   Illustrations

15.   Clip art

16.   Signature

17.   Logo

18.   Trademark

19.   Slogan

20.   Lines of force
                                                           12
                      Introduction to Advertising
                             (Marketing Essentials: Chapter 19)




Advertising is the nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods,
and services by business or institution. Advertising offers these six
advantages:

      (1) A large number of people usually see the message.
      (2) Costs per potential customer are usually low.
      (3) Businesses can choose the most appropriate media to
          advertise since there are many different ways available.
      (4) Businesses can control the content of an advertisement
          and adapt it to the medium and method of presentation.
      (5) Ads integrated into television shows, magazines, or
          newspapers are subject to repeat viewing. This fixes
          the message in people’s minds.
      (6) Ads can influence people to make up their minds about
           a purchase before they shop.


As important as the advantages are that advertising offers, it also has four
principal disadvantages:

      (1) Advertising cannot focus on individual needs because
           the message is the same for all customers.
      (2) Some forms of advertising, such as television, can be
           too expensive for many businesses.
      (3) In certain instances, advertising is wasteful and
            inefficient. Newspaper ads, for example, are seen only by people
            who read newspapers while television ads are seen only by
            viewers of specific shows.
      (4) Because of the cost and the need to attract and hold
          the attention of potential customers, advertisements must brief--
          too brief to inform in depth. Other forms of promotion--personal
          sales presentations, for example can be far more complete.




                                                                               13
                      Introduction to Advertising
                                (Marketing Essentials: Chapter 20)




Purpose/Motivation:           (1) To communicate with customers and
(main idea/issue/reasons)         future customers to increase sales

                              (2) To find out about products and services
                                  for possible purchase



Media/Presentation:           (1) Print: newspaper, magazine, direct
(audience)                        mail, outdoor, directory, transit

                              (2) Broadcast or viewed: television, radio,
                                  Internet, special monitors, or other
                                  visual presentations

                              (3) Specialty: printed items



Layout:                       (1) Headline: lettering, slogan, saying
(organization/introduction/
elaboration/conclusion)       (2) Copy: word choice, sentence
                                  structure, concrete or figurative
                                  language, sensual images, repetition

                              (3) Illustrations: visual representations,
                                  symbols

                              (4) Signature: logo, trademark, slogan,
                                  other information: address, phone
                                  number, business hours, web site




                                                                            14
                     Components of Print Advertising

Purposes:           (1) attract attention            (3) create desire
                    (2) arouse interest              (4) produce action


Components:         (1) headline                     (3) illustrations
                    (2) copy                         (4) signature


(1) Headline: the lettering, slogan, or saying that gets the readers’
    attention, arouses their interest, and leads them to read the rest
    of the ad. It should be appealing to the self interest of the
    potential customer; be short, light, and informational; and tell the
    reader just enough to entice him into reading the rest of the ad.

      Techniques:         1.   Familiar sayings with a twist
                          2.   Use of opposites
                          3.   News and information
                          4.   Shock or surprise treatment
                          5.   Questioning
                          6.   Arousing curiosity

(2) Copy: the written message in an advertisement

      Requirements:       1. Directly expand on the information in
                             the headline
                          2. Stress the benefit of the product
                          3. Appeal to the senses
                          4. Ask for positive action

      Techniques:         1.   Conversation
                          2.   Information
                          3.   Description
                          4.   Testimonial
                          5.   Drama and emotion
                          6.   Humor
                          7.   Entertainment


                                                                           15
(3) Illustration: the photograph or drawing used in the ad to
    transmit a total message that would be hard to communicate
    with words alone. Illustrations should show:

            1.   the features of the product or service
            2.   how the product works or service benefits
            3.   the advantages of having the product or service
            4.   the safety features of the product or service
            5.   the possible uses of the product or service
            6.   the need for the product or service
            7.   an image associated with the product or service,
                 such as prestige, status, or leisure


(4) Signature: the distinctive and memorable identification
    symbol for a business

      National ad: the logo (the name of the firm) and possibly its
                   trademark and slogan

      Retail ad:    usually includes the business’s name, address,
                    telephone number, and sometimes the business
                    hours in addition to the logo, trademark, and
                    slogan (if there is one)




                                                                      16
                    Advertisement Analysis Worksheet

1. Purpose of ad: ______________________________________________________

   __________________________________________________________

2. Media category: _____________ Specific form: _________________

3. Headline: _________________________________________________

   _________________________________________________________

4. Techniques used in headline: _________________________________

   _________________________________________________________

5. Message (information) in copy: _______________________________

   _________________________________________________________

6. Techniques used to present message: ___________________________

   _________________________________________________________

   _________________________________________________________

7. Illustrations (describe): ______________________________________

   _________________________________________________________

8. Purpose(s) of illustrations: ___________________________________

   _________________________________________________________

9. Information in signature/logo: ________________________________

   _________________________________________________________

10. Rate effectiveness: 1 = very ineffective    10 = very effective _____
    Explain your rating on the back of this paper.
                                                                            17
          Group Project: Teacher Guidelines and Expectations

Guidelines:   (1) The group is limited to three or four participants.
              (2) Group of 3 options: a: leade r may also be presenter or
                                       b: secretary may also be presenter

Expectations of individual participants:

          Leader:    writes personal response(s) first
                     asks individuals for response(s) to required questions
                     contributes/explains personal response(s) after
                           questioning me mbers of group
                     questions/checks for understanding/re words response(s)
                          of individual’s response(s)
                     contributes to group’s discussion
                     asks for group’s opinion(s) afte r discussion
                     questions/rewords group’s response(s)
                     checks for accurate recording of group’s response(s)

          Secretary: writes personal response(s) first
                     contributes/explains personal response(s)
                     contributes to group’s discussion
                     questions/checks any wording of response(s) of
                        individuals and group
                     records response(s) as determined by the leader/group

          Presenter: writes personal response(s) first
                     contributes/explains personal response(s)
                     contributes to group’s discussion
                     questions/checks any wording of response(s) of
                           individuals and group
                     questions/checks any recording of response(s) of group
                     presents group’s response(s) to the class

          Facilitator: writes personal response(s) first
                       contributes/explains personal response(s)
                       contributes to group’s discussion
                       questions/checks any wording of response(s) of individuals
                              and group
                       aids teacher by handing out project paper(s) and
                              distributing necessary mate rials
                       aids in presentation of group’s responses to class by
                              holding up/pointing to necessary poster/paper
                              presentation or assisting in overhead projection
                              presentation


                                                                                    18
                              Creative Writing

Unit
Persuasive Writing: Advertising

Lesson Plan
Creating an advertisement for print media

Content Objectives
The student will review components of an advertisement.
The student will create an advertisement.

SIOP Component(s): Preparation

In order for the LEP student to best understand the content objective, it is
essential that it be clearly stated in simple language. The objective should
be given both orally and in written form.

Language Objective
The student will review key terminology from the introductory lesson.
The student will understand new terms in the ―Creating an Advertisement‖
notes: alliteration, paradox, rhyme, pun, play on words, word choice.

SIOP Component(s): Preparation

It is important in the sheltered instructional setting to establish academic
language objectives. LEP students are not only learning content, but they
are also acquiring academic English skills in reading, writing, listening, and
speaking. Special emphasis is placed on development of content vocabulary.

Metacognative Objective
The student will highlight key words and phrases on a handout of notes.

SIOP Component(s): Preparation

Metacognitive strategies that students acquire will continue to help them
even when the teacher is not there to guide them. Strategies enable the
student to plan, monitor, and evaluate learning independently.


                                                                               19
Materials
    ―Key Terminology: Advertising‖ handout/transparency previous
      lesson (#1)
    Short quiz for comprehension check (developed by teacher)
    ―Developing an Advertisement‖ handout/transparency (#2)
    ―Key Terminology: Developing an Advertisement‖
      handout/transparency (#3)
    Samples of ads from different media (provided by teacher/students)
    Transparencies of ads
    ―Ad Creation‖ worksheet/guidelines (#4)
    ―Peer Evaluation Checklist‖ handout (5)
    ―Teacher Evaluation Form: Creating an Advertisement‖ (#6)
    Supplies: Blank paper, glue, pens, pencils, markers, rulers

    SIOP Component(s): Preparation

    This variety of materials addresses different learning styles. They
    provide real-life learning activities that engage the learner in meaningful
    language experiences.

Procedure (Estimated Time: 2-3 days)

 (1) Orally review key terminology from previous lesson by pointing to
     the transparency of key terminology and asking students to explain,
     define, or give example to confirm understanding. Reword student
     responses as necessary.

    SIOP Component(s): Building Background

    By reviewing the terminology from the previous lesson, the teacher
    links the new lesson to past learning. The teacher can reword the
    student responses as well as his/her own to aid in making the delivery
    of the lesson more clear. The previous lesson vocabulary can be
    recorded on a word wall or in a personal student dictionary. These
    vocabulary strategies can provide valuable resources for the LEP
    student.




                                                                             20
(2) Give a short written quiz to assess understanding of vocabulary and
    recognition of components of advertising. Students will identify
    answers by numbering or circling response choices. After checking
    over the quiz, the teacher will either reteach or continue the lesson.

    SIOP Component(s): Strategies

    The teacher might consider giving LEP students an open-note quiz.
    The teacher can adapt the activity depending on the student’s English
    proficiency. By responding with numbering or circling, the teacher
    offers support to the student at a basic level. The teacher will move
    the student to a higher level of understanding with good pacing and
    well thought-out activities.

(3) Distribute the ―Developing an Advertisement‖ handout and the ―Key
    Terminology: Developing an Advertisement‖ handout. With a
    partner, students will define/identify/explain terminology in words or
    language which they will understand and remember. Examples will
    be added during class discussion. (Students will use the handout
    ―Developing an Advertisement‖ and/or appropriate dictionary to
    complete terminology worksheet.)

    SIOP Component(s): Interaction

    Working with a partner provides the LEP learner with an opportunity
    to interact with a classmate. Examples could be displayed visually in
    the classroom.

(4) To begin the presentation of the handout ―Developing an
   Advertisement‖, the teacher will ask students/partners to
   explain/express in their own words the concepts. The teacher will then
   add to the explanation/discussion and question students to check for
   understanding. Students will then need to add to their definitions/
   explanations on Key Terminology worksheet as necessary.




                                                                             21
   SIOP Component(s): Building Background, Comprehensible
   Input, Review/Evaluation

   LEP students can continue to add to their personal word study list,
   which can be used for reference later in the unit.
   Continuous feedback and monitoring from the teacher plays a vital part
   of the LEP student’s success. In this lesson, the teacher has given
   ample opportunities for students to clarify the key concepts. At any
   point in the lesson the teacher may see that s/he needs to reteach or
   arrange peer tutoring for the struggling LEP student.

   Before continuing, the teacher may give a review of key concepts and
   words up to this point. Early second language learners could make
   flashcards and pair up to review. A quiz could be given in the form of a
   cloze exercise with a word bank to assist.

(5) The teacher will lead the class in creating an ad layout. Follow the
    guidelines and suggestions on the handout. The class, as a unit, will
    create an ad. Utilize student volunteers whenever possible to add
    headline, copy, illustrations, and signature to layout. Upon
    completion, list simplified steps of ad creation on the board; check
    partners for understanding.

    SIOP Component(s): Practice

    The students now have the opportunity to use the hands-on materials
    to apply the concepts they have learned. The class, crating the ad as a
    whole group, gives the student support that will lead to independence
    on the learner’s part. Students with technology skills in word
    processing and clip art might be paired with the LEP student with
    little or no computer experience. The steps of ad creation can be
    presented in the form of a flow chart for the language learner.
    Students also learn from bad examples that do not follow the given ad
    guidelines. Student could work in pairs to discuss these examples and
    report back to the class.




                                                                            22
(6) The teacher will assign a project: create an advertisement for a
    product or service. The teacher must approve the selected product or
    service before beginning the layout. Students will follow ―Ad
    Creation‖ worksheet/guidelines.

   SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Lesson Delivery

   The teacher should encourage LEP students to write notes in the
   margins of the handouts. Very limited English students can even draw
   pictures in the margins to enhance comprehension. These are both
   good metacognitive strategies that clearly support the objective.

   Underlining key words on a handout is a strategy that helps the
   language learner to conceptualize the assignment.

   The teacher will provide materials and computer access as needed. The
   teacher will closely monitor individual progress and assist students as
   needed to ensure success. Students will display or orally present their
   product to the class for a written evaluation. The students will then
   turn in the final product to the teacher for grading. Students will be
   given an opportunity to improve their ad before final teacher
   evaluation.

    SIOP Component(s): Lesson Delivery, Review/Evaluation

    The teacher has used scaffolding techniques in that the previous
    activities involved the class working as a whole. Throughout the
    lesson the student has been an active learner. The teacher effectively
    paced the lesson with consideration on the students’ abilities. The
    final project encourages the student to work on a more independent
    level. The LEP student could work with a partner on this product.

    The objectives have been clearly supported with ample opportunities
    for a variety of interaction, practice, and application for the LEP
    student.




                                                                             23
Technology Applications
     Use of digital camera
     Use of computer to develop ad
     Use of Internet to find illustrations/clip art

Formal Assessments
    Short written quiz/limited responses
    Teacher evaluation of finished product using ―Teacher Evaluation
    Form‖

Informal Assessments
     Journal entry
     Oral check for understanding
     Teacher observation/monitoring
     Peer evaluation of finished project using a ―Peer Checklist Form‖

SIOP Component(s): Practice, Review/Evaluation

A peer evaluation before turning in the finished assignment allows the
student to make improvements in his/her work before being graded by the
teacher. This step in the writing process helps reduce the student’s level of
stress, improves his/her sense of accomplishment, and increases self-esteem
which is sometimes minimal in LEP students.


Extensions
Arrange for students to interview people involved in print advertising.

Arrange for a guest speaker from a newspaper advertising department or an
ad agency. Consider a guest speaker who would discuss career possibilities
related to advertising.




                                                                             24
                       Key Terminology: Advertising

1.    Adve rtising

      Adve rtisement/Ad/
      Commercial

2.    Advantages of advertising

3.    Purposes

4.    Media

5.    Broadcast

6.    Print

7.    Specialty

8.    Layout

9.    Components

10.   Techniques

11.   Requirements

12.   Headline

13.   Copy

14.   Illustrations

15.   Clip art

16.   Signature

17.   Logo

18.   Trademark

19.   Slogan

20.   Lines of force


                                                      25
                       Developing an Advertisement
                          (from Marketing Essentials: Chapter 21)



A headline stresses one primary benefit of a product or service. Because
more than 80 percent of the people who look at an ad just read the headline,
you want it to be powerful enough to draw potential customers into reading
the entire copy.
      Guidelines:        (1) Should have a single focus or main idea
                         (2) Should be brief because most people can’t
                             take in more than seven words at one time
                         (3) Should be easy to understand to avoid the
                             reader’s mistrust and mis unde rstanding
                         (4) Should be powerful or surprising
                         (5) Should give the reader a very good reason
                             to read the copy

      Techniques:        (1) Alliteration - repeating initial consonant
                             Ex: “Ruffles Have Ridges”
                         (2) Paradox - a seeming contradiction that could be
                             true
                             Ex: “You’re Not Getting Olde r, You’re Getting
                             Better”
                         (3) Rhyme - syllables of two or more words sound
                             alike
                             Ex: “Bounty…The Quicke r Picker Uppe r”
                         (4) Pun - a humorous use of a word that suggests
                             two or more of its meanings or the meaning of
                             another word similar in sound
                             Ex: “Every Litter Bit Hurts”
                         (5) Play on Words - Use of the same word in more
                             than one way
                             Ex: “For Soft Babies and Baby Soft Hands”

      Suggestions:       (1) Use three of the most powerful key words in
                             advertising: new, now, and free.
                         (2) Make your headline long enough to feature one
                             product benefit, but short enough (seven words
                             or less) to encourage people to read all of the ad.
                         (3) Arouse reader curiosity by promising something--
                             free ___, better ___, more ___, less ___,
                             fewer ___ (key words)



                                                                                   26
The copy, which is the selling message, stresses the secondary benefits of
the product or service.


      Guidelines:        (1) Should be simple and direct
                         (2) Should establish contact with the reader
                         (3) Should arouse interest
                         (4) Should create awareness and desire
                         (5) Should explain the benefits and features of the
                             product or service
                         (6) Should build preference for the product or service
                         (7) Should ask for action in the last line


      Techniques:        (1) Use keys words, such as compare, introduce,
                             now, price, save, and easy to establish
                             immediate contact with the reader.
                         (2) Use short sentences that repeat key words.
                         (3) Use many adjectives.
                         (4) Provide specific information, such as the who,
                             what, where, when, why, and how of your product
                             or service.
                         (5) Use facts about your product or service (case
                             histories, statistics, performance figures, dates,
                             and quotes from experts) because they are more
                             powe rful than claims.
                         (6) Write in the active voice.
                         (7) Use warm, pe rsonal language and expressions
                             familiar to your target audience.
                         (8) Use key words such as today, now, before it’s too
                             late, and without delay to help create action.
                             It helps to include a penalty for not acting now.




                                                                                  27
Illustrations are the photographs, drawings, or clip art used in the
advertisement. They determine the image that the business or service
projects to the public.


      Photographs should be used when a sense of reality is necessary,
      such as what the product looks like or how it is used. Photos should
      be sharp and clear with good contrast between light and dark areas.

      Drawings can be used to show a part of a product that would not
      normally be seen, such as cut-away drawings, to show important
      features not visible in a photo.

      Clip art is ready for production and printing and is inexpensive, quick,
      and easy to use.


      Guidelines:            (1) Should draw attention to the subject
                             (2) Should show the main benefits of the product
                                 or service
                             (3) Should tie into the headline and copy
                             (4) Should contain lines of force that guide the
                                 reader to the copy through the illustrations
                                 (line of force – photo or drawing is directed
                                 or positioned so as to guide the reader to
                                 the copy of the ad, not pointed away from
                                 the copy)


The signature (logo), which is the name of the product and/or
business, may also include any or all of the following:

                slogan                      telephone number
                trade mark                  business hours
                illustrations               web site
                address                     e-mail address


      Guidelines:   (1)   Should be distinctive
                    (2)   Should be me morable
                    (3)   Should be easily read/understood
                    (4)   Trademark and slogan should attract attention




                                                                                 28
An ad layout is a rough draft that shows the general arrangement and
appearance of a finished ad. It clearly indicates the position of the headline,
illustration, copy, and signature.

      Guidelines:         (1) Should be prepared in exactly the same size as
                              the final ad
                          (2) Should be large enough to show all product
                              features
                          (3) Should make generous use of white space for an
                              uncluttered look
                          (4) Should be an image appropriate for the target
                              audience
                          (5) Should have typeface (style of printing type) and
                              size that is easy to read and appropriate for the
                              target audience



      Suggestions:        (1) Color makes advertisement stand out and draws
                              a higher response rate than black-and-white ads
                          (2) Use a larger, simpler type and a good,
                              uncluttered design
                          (3) Use one typeface for headlines and another
                              typeface for copy
                          (4) Add variety and emphasis by using diffe rent sizes,
                              italics, and boldface versions of the two basic
                              typefaces selected for the advertisement
                          (5) Check accuracy and s pelling



      Final Evaluation:   (1) Is the ad bold enough to stand out on a page,
                              even if it is placed next to other ads?
                          (2) Does the headline arouse interest and attract
                              attention?
                          (3) Use the illustration large enough and done well
                              enough to highlight the product or service?
                          (4) Is the signature plate apparent and distinctive?
                          (5) Is the copy simple, direct, and unde rstandable?
                          (6) Does the layout guide the reade r to and through
                              the copy?
                          (7) Are the typefaces and type sizes easy to read?




                                                                                    29
Key Terminology: Developing and Advertisement


    Alliteration - repeating initial consonant
           Ex: “Ruffles Have Ridges”

    Paradox - a seeming contradiction that could be true
           Ex: “You’re Not Getting Olde r, You’re Getting Better”

    Rhyme - syllables of two or more words sound alike
           Ex: “Bounty…The Quicke r Picker Uppe r”

    Pun - a humorous use of a word that suggests two or more of
           of its meanings or the meaning of another word similar
           in sound

           Ex: “Every Litter Bit Hurts”

    Play on Words - Use of the same word in more
           than one word

           Ex: “For Soft Babies and Baby Soft Hands”




                                                                    30
                                          Ad Creation
                                    Worksheet & Guidelines

Refer to your ―Creating an Advertisement‖ handout as necessary.
NOTE: It is sometimes easier to create a large copy first and then reduce to fit your ad layout.


1. Describe and name product or service or company as chosen or assigned:

    _____________________________________________________

2. Write your slogan. (Your slogan will become part of your copy or your
   signature.)

    _____________________________________________________________

3. Decide on and write the wording of your headline.

   _____________________________________________________________

4. Following the copy guidelines and suggestions, write the message (words,
   phrases, and/or sentences) that you plan to use. (May include slogan.)

   _____________________________________________________________

   _____________________________________________________________

   _____________________________________________________________

   _____________________________________________________________

   _____________________________________________________________

5. Create or find the illustrations you will use in your copy and/or signature.

6. Create or design your trade mark/logo for your product and/or company on a
   separate sheet of paper.

7. Create your signature. Refer to your handout for what you need to have and
   for what you may choose to include.

8. Decide on your layout of the above and create your advertisement. Use a
   computer and/or supplied materials to produce your ad.



                                                                                                   31
Name_________________________



                            Teacher Evaluation Form
                           Creating an Advertisement

               Crite ria                               Points

1. Appeal/effectiveness/creativity: 0 - 20 pts         _____

2. Slogan: 0 - 10 pts                                  _____

3. Headline: 0 - 10 pts                                _____

4. Copy: 0 - 20 pts                                    _____

5. Illustrations: 0 - 10 pts                           _____

6. Trademark/logo: 0 - 10 pts                          _____

7. Signature: 0 - 10 pts                               _____

8. Layout: 0 - 10 pts                                  _____



      TOTAL NUMBER OF POINTS = GRADE                   _____




                                                                32
Name_________________________

                          Peer Evaluation Form
                        Creating an Advertisement

          Criteria                     Rating


1. Appeal/effectiveness/creativity        1     2   3   4   5

      Comments:

2. Slogan                                 1     2   3   4   5

      Comments:

3. Headline                               1     2   3   4   5

      Comments:

4. Copy                                   1     2   3   4   5

      Comments:

5. Illustrations                          1     2   3   4   5

      Comments:

6. Trademark/logo                         1     2   3   4   5

      Comments:

7. Signature                              1     2   3   4   5

      Comments:

8. Layout                                 1     2   3   4   5

      Comments :


                                                                33
                              Creative Writing

Unit
Persuasive Writing: Advertising

Lesson Plan
Reading, analyzing, evaluating, and producing informative and expressive
text and visual representations in travel advertising

Content Objectives
The student will read, analyze, and evaluate informative and expressive text
and visual representations in various travel brochures/pamphlets.

The student will write informative and expressive text and create visual
representations on a travel poster proposing a dream vacation.

SIOP Component(s): Preparation

In order for the LEP student to best understand the content objective, it is
essential that it be clearly stated in simple language. The objective should
be given both orally and in written form.

Language Objectives
The student will understand and be able to incorporate travel-related
vocabulary.

The student will recall and use expressive vocabulary (learned in a previous
expressive writing unit) such as concrete images, figurative language, and
sensory observation to enhance meaning and create mood and tone.

SIOP Component(s): Preparation

It is important in the sheltered instructional setting to establish academic
language objectives. LEP students are not only learning content, but they
are also acquiring academic English skills in reading, writing, listening, and
speaking. Special emphasis is placed on development of content vocabulary.




                                                                               34
Metacognitive Objectives
The student will complete a graphic organizer to brainstorm descriptions and
travel details related to a selected location.

The student will utilize technology and supplied materials to create chart/
schedule, itinerary, and visual representations with appropriate expressive
and informative notes.

SIOP Component(s): Preparation

Metacognitive strategies that students acquire will continue to help them
even when the teacher is not there to guide them. Strategies enable the
student to plan, monitor, and evaluate learning independently.

Materials
   Travel brochures/pamphlets from local travel agency
   Travel magazines, state-provided materials, hotel/motel pamphlets
   Graphic organizer (―The ABC’s of It All‖) - handout #1
   "Common and Useful Travel Vocabulary" - handout #2
   ―Evaluation Form: Travel Brochure/Pamphlet‖ - handout #3
   ―Project: Dream Vacation Proposal‖ - handout #4
   ―Evaluation Form: Dream Vacation Proposal‖ - handout #5
   Supplies: poster boards, markers, glue, scissors, rulers, blank paper

SIOP Component(s): Preparation

Travel brochures, pamphlets, and magazines enable the students to make
connections to their own lives.

 Procedure (Estimated Time: 3 - 4 days)
 (1) Students will complete a graphic organizer ―The ABC’S of It All,‖
     which relates to the following topic: What would be your dream
     travel destination? Students will brainstorm in order to complete the
     boxes with words that reflect reasons for traveling to the location,
     places of interest, words describing the locale, transportation options,
     accommodation options, possible activities, weather considerations,
     clothing guidelines, and time frame. Upon completion of the activity,
     students will share their responses in a small group. Sharing may
     prompt additional thoughts that a student may want to include in his
     or her reflections.
                                                                              35
     SIOP Component(s): Building Background, Strategies

     The teacher connects the activity to the students’ personal background
     experiences.

     This brainstorming graphic organizer is a visualization tool that helps
     the students to organize their thoughts in a meaningful way.

(2) Distribute the handout ―Common and Useful Travel-Related
    Vocabulary.‖ Students will work with a partner to help each
    other understand/translate the vocabulary they already know. The
    teacher will go over the list aloud with the students, helping them to
    jigsaw the list as some students will know the words while others may
    not. The teacher will then involve the students in a game such as
    vocabulary bingo to follow-up.

     SIOP Component(s): Strategies

     The teacher can give support to the LEP learner with supplementary
     vocabulary activities. Seek and find puzzles can easily be generated
     by the teacher using puzzle websites. Students can be paired for
     vocabulary bingo. With this particular vocabulary travel list, the
     teacher can help the student to categorize the vocabulary. Exercises
     with word families can help students to better understand and use the
     new vocabulary correctly. An exercise as easy as scrambled words
     can give the student the extra drill needed to reinforce the key
     vocabulary.

     The teacher will distribute travel brochures to each student in the
     class. Every student needs a brochure as he/she will be answering
     questions based on the content of his/her brochure. Hand out the
     "Travel Brochure Evaluation Form.‖ The teacher will ask students to
     provide their interpretation of the questions on the evaluation form. If
     students seem hesitant or unsure, the teacher should simplify
     questions and then ask for examples based on the students’ travel
     experiences or the places where they or their family and friends have
     lived or visited.


                                                                           36
      SIOP Component(s): Preparation, Comprehensible Input,
      Interaction

      The teacher can adapt this first handout for the LEP student with an
      evaluation that is in a checklist form. The beginning student may
      need to do this activity with a partner.

(3)   Next, as students individually read, analyze, and evaluate their
      brochures, they are to complete the evaluation form. The teacher
      should carefully monitor students, stopping to assist any student who
      seems to be having difficulty completing the assignment. Upon
      completion of the evaluation, two students will share their brochure
      and their evaluations. Students should help each other to expand their
      partner’s evaluation by asking questions or making personal
      comments which can then be added to the form.

      SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Practice

      The vocabulary handout includes reinforcement of vocabulary from
      the previous advertising lessons. The teacher connects past learning
      to the new activity and concepts. This lesson provides the student
      with the opportunity to use a variety of thinking strategies.

(4)   The teacher will assign the following travel project: ―Dream Vacation
      Proposal.‖ The dream vacation is based on the student’s choice as
      described in his/her journal entry. The proposal will include
      information and description of the location, pictures or photographs,
      travel arrangements and accommodations, itinerary, and projected
      cost. The student will create a poster on which all the required
      inclusions are displayed. Both sides of the poster may be used for the
      layout; however, a second poster may be used (dependent on
      teacher/student budget considerations). Students should incorporate
      all the components of advertising as previously studied in lessons 1
      and 2. Students should proofread and edit as needed before creating
      their final proposal on their posters.




                                                                             37
      SIOP Component(s): Comprehensible Input, Interaction,
      Practice, Review/Evaluation

      The teacher should provide a clear student-made example for the LEP
      student. Project requirements again can be presented to the beginning
      language learner in the form of a simple task list. This could be a
      partner project with the teacher helping to divide the tasks equally for
      the LEP learners. The peer evaluation of the final product gives the
      opportunity for all students to interact with each other. This activity
      not only integrates all language but also considers the different
      learning styles.

 (5) The teacher will decide if the proposal is displayed and/or presented
     orally for evaluation. Class members and a panel of teacher
     colleagues will rate the display/presentation according to the ―Dream
     Vacation Proposal‖ evaluation form. The evaluations will be
     tabulated, and the top three will receive an award or reward
     determined by the teacher. The teacher has the option of tabulating
     class and teachers’ evaluations separately, which would possibly allow
     for more awards or rewards to be given.

      SIOP Component(s): Lesson Delivery

      Displaying work in itself is very rewarding for the LEP student. The
      student will gain self worth even without being the student who has
      won the prize! Students of other cultures appreciate and enjoy the
      opportunity to view other classmates’ work.

      The teacher has met the lesson objectives by delivering a lesson that is
      clear and focused. The variety of activities engaged students in active
      learning. Appropriate pacing is critical for LEP students.

Technology Applications
Students should have access to available technology: computer, digital
camera, scanner, Internet, relevant computer programs, etc.




                                                                             38
Formal Assessment
Project Evaluation (average of teacher colleagues’ evaluations)

Informal Assessments

SIOP Component(s): Practice, Review/Evaluation

The student can meet with the teacher to explain orally how the project was
done as well as to summarize what he/she learned about the chosen dream
vacation spot. Students can develop quizzes based on a brochure. Students
exchange brochures and quizzes. (True/false, fact/opinion, detail, etc.

Extensions

SIOP Component(s): Practice, Review/Evaluation

Students can write an article for the travel section of the newspaper. The
student might design a t-shirt for his/her designated vacation spot.

Expressive Unit
All of these lessons can actively involve the LEP student:
 -Make a postcard. Illustrate it and write a message to a friend.
 -Draw a filmstrip. Slides can illustrate activities from the trip. Captions
   underneath describe what is happening in the slide.
 -Make a scrapbook. Illustrate with your own drawings or use magazine
   cutouts. Write a description for each picture.
 -Write a ―how to.‖ (How to organize a trip!)
 -The teacher and students together make adjective charts. Charts are
   displayed and used as references for all trip activities.




                                                                               39
                 The ABC’S of It All

     A   B   C              D          E   F




     G   H                             I   J
                      What is it?



     K   L                             M   N




     O   P   Q              R          S   T




     U   V   W              X          Y   Z




40
      Common and Useful Travel-Related Vocabulary

1.    accommodations               34.   fee
2.    amenities                    35.   first class
3.    arrival                      36.   flight
4.    attire                       37.   gratuity
5.    baggage/luggage              38.   guest
6.    balcony                      39.   inclusion, inclusive
7.    bon voyage                   40.   itinerary
8.    book                         41.   lodge
9.    buffet                       42.   luxury
10.   cabin                        43.   non-refundable
11.   cancellation                 44.   package
12.   carryon                      45.   port
13.   charter                      46.   port of call
14.   coach                        47.   refundable
15.   confirmation                 48.   reservation
16.   continental breakfast        49.   resort
17.   cruise                       50.   room service
18.   cuisine                      51.   round trip
19.   culinary                     52.   sightseeing
20.   currency                     53.   standard
21.   customs                      54.   standby
22.   deck                         55.   stateroom
23.   deluxe                       56.   suite
24.   departure                    57.   surcharge
25.   deposit                      58.   tariff
26.   destination                  59.   ticket
27.   dining                       60.   tour
28.   discount                     61.   tourist
29.   disembarcation/debarcation   62.   travel agency
30.   excursion                    63.   travel agent
31.   exclusion, exclusive         64.   upgrade
32.   fare                         65.   vacation



                                                                41
Name_________________________


                          Travel Brochure/Pamphlet
                              Evaluation Form

              Crite ria                              Points

1. Appeal/effectiveness/creativity: 0 - 20 pts       _____

2. Slogan: 0 - 10 pts                                _____

3. Headline: 0 - 10 pts                              _____

4. Copy: 0 - 20 pts                                  _____

5. Illustrations: 0 - 10 pts                         _____

6. Trademark/logo: 0 - 10 pts                        _____

7. Signature: 0 - 10 pts                             _____

8. Layout: 0 - 10 pts                                _____



      TOTAL NUMBER OF POINTS = GRADE                 _____




                                                              42
                   Project: Dream Vacation Proposal

1. Research the country/location that you wrote about in your journal.

2. Take notes of interesting facts and places of interest. Include
   descriptions. Use expressive language and sensory observation.

3. Select photographs and pictures from available sources. Print,
   copy, cut out, or use original illustrations. Write a description of
   your selected illustrations. Descriptive writing may be words,
   phrases, or sentences.

4. Determine the length of your proposed trip.

5. Determine and specifically name/describe travel arrangements
   and accommodations. You will probably want to include company
   logos in your final layout. (May be needed for #8)

6. Create an itinerary of places and activities. Include a time frame.

7. Draft a projected cost. Include the following in your projection:
   transportation fare, accommodations cost, estimated dining costs,
   and fees/charges for planned/unplanned activities and excursions.
   Also include a statement about individual’s personal budget:
   souvenirs, medical emergencies, upgrades, etc.

8. Type or handwrite the text that you want to use on your poster.
   Remember to vary font and font sizes to create interest and attract
   attention. Text includes headline, copy, and signature/logo.

9. Plan your layout. Really work with placement, wording, font, and
   font sizes to create the most appealing poster. Illustrations,
   informative and expressive text (copy), and headline should be
   laid out on the front of the poster. Signatures/logos may also be
   included in this layout. Itinerary, cost projection chart, and any
   other schedules may be displayed on the back of the poster or on
   another poster.

10. Create your final project.

                                                                          43
Name_________________________



                          Dream Vacation Proposal
                             Evaluation Form

              Crite ria                             Points

1. Appeal/effectiveness/creativity: 0 - 20 pts      _____

2. Slogan: 0 - 10 pts                               _____

3. Headline: 0 - 10 pts                             _____

4. Copy: 0 - 20 pts                                 _____

5. Illustrations: 0 - 10 pts                        _____

6. Trademark/logo: 0 - 10 pts                       _____

7. Signature: 0 - 10 pts                            _____

8. Layout: 0 - 10 pts                               _____



      TOTAL NUMBER OF POINTS = GRADE                _____




                                                             44
                               Creative Writing
Unit
Persuasive Writing: Advertising

Lesson Plan
Creating an advertisement for broadcast media
Content Objectives
The student will learn the similarities and differences of print and broadcast
advertising.
The student will create broadcast advertising.

SIOP Component(s): Preparation

In order for the LEP student to best understand the content objective, it is
essential that it be clearly stated in simple language. The objective should
be given both orally and in written form. Limiting the content objectives to
one or two per lesson reduces the complexity of the task for the second
language learner.

Language Objectives
The student will review key terminology of advertising from lessons 1 and 2.
The student will understand the following key terminology related to
broadcast advertising: audio, backdrop, broadcast media, commercial,
concise language, dialect, dialogue, intonation, pausing, prop, propaganda
techniques, script, set, sound effects, staging, staging directions, target
audience, timing, video, visual appeal.

SIOP Component(s): Preparation

It is important in the sheltered instructional setting to establish academic
language objectives. LEP students are not only learning content, but they
are also acquiring academic English skill in reading, writing, listening, and
speaking. Special emphasis is placed on development of content vocabulary.
This language objective focuses on the reinforcement and learning of the
new advertising vocabulary. The teacher should plan for the students’
different levels of language proficiency.



                                                                             45
Metacognitive Objectives
The student will make a chart or Venn diagram of the similarities and
differences of print and broadcast advertising.
The student will use available resources (computer, video camera, cassette
player, etc.) to create broadcast advertising.

SIOP Component(s): Preparation

Metacognitive strategies that students acquire will continue to help them
even when the teacher is not there to guide them. Strategies enable the
student to plan, monitor, and evaluate learning independently. This teacher
has planned meaningful activities with ample opportunity for practice in
reading, writing, listening, and speaking.


Materials
   ―Key Terminology: Broadcast Advertising‖ - handout/transparency
   ―Print and Broadcast Advertising: Similarities and Differences‖
           Blank chart – handout/transparency
           Blank Venn Diagram – handout/transparency
   Video clips of television commercials
   Audio of radio commercials
   ―Broadcast Advertising Information‖ – handout
   ―Evaluation of Broadcast Advertising‖ – handout
   ―Broadcast Advertising: Project Guidelines‖ – handout
   ―Broadcast Advertising: Project Evaluation ‖ – handout
   Supplies: blank paper, video camera, cassette player, CD player

SIOP Component(s): Preparation

This variety of material supports different learning styles. The language
learner can use all of his/her senses in making connections and building
relevant personal meaning.




                                                                              46
Procedure (Estimated Time: 3 – 4 days)
(1) The students will respond in their journals to the following questions:
     What do you notice first when a commercial is played on television
     the people or the product? Are you ever influenced by advertisements
     that are shown on the television or that you hear on the radio? Why or
     why not? Which influences you more—advertising or broadcast
     advertising? Why?


      SIOP Component(s): Comprehensible Input

      The teacher links the student’s background to the new concepts that
      he/she is about to introduce. Journal writing is essential for the
      development of second language writing skills. Students can share
      writing in small groups, or the teacher can later collect and provide
      written comments.

(2)   The teacher will discuss students’ responses and note opinions on the
      board or on wall charts. These ideas should help students to better
      understand the similarities and differences in media advertising.

      SIOP Component(s): Comprehensible Input, Strategies

      A graphic organizer as simple as a T-chart or skeleton outline provides
      the LEP student with visual support.

(3)   Before the teacher introduces advertising in broadcast media, the
      teacher will review basic terminology and writing processes of print
      advertising. The teacher will refer to previous transparencies (lessons
      1 and 2) to focus attention on prior knowledge and to improve recall
      of the ad creation process. The teacher will give the students the list
      of ―Key Terminology.‖ Students will write definitions/
      explanations/examples on their papers as vocabulary is discussed and
      clarified.




                                                                              47
      SIOP Component(s): Building Background, Comprehensible
      Input, Strategies

      At the beginning of this activity, the teacher links past learning to the
      new vocabulary.

      Additional vocabulary activities assist the language learner to better
      learn the key words for the lesson. With something as simple as a
      folder with extra homemade pockets, the student can keep old and
      new vocabulary words in an organized visual way for future reference.
      The previous lesson’s vocabulary should be displayed on word walls
      in the classroom.

      The teacher should not forget that LEP students need to see how the
      new words are used in the context of the lesson. Sentences embedded
      with the key term provide meaningful vocabulary development.

(4)   The teacher will also distribute the ―Broadcast Advertising
      Information.‖ The teacher will discuss the importance of each term as
      it relates to the writing and production of a commercial. Students will
      then add notes to their handout.

      SIOP Component(s): Comprehensible Input

      Depending on the student’s proficiency in English, the teacher may
      need to slow down his/her speech and to be sure to enunciate clearly.
      The more advanced student should hear normal speech.

      The video clip will be replayed and rewound. Students will then be
      asked to associate the vocabulary word or element of broadcast
      advertising to the commercial viewed by using the remote and pausing
      on a section of the commercial that represents the word or element
      being studied. Each student will then explain his/her choice of that
      spot as an example of the target term or component. The class as a
      unit will evaluate the commercial. The teacher will post comments on
      the evaluation sheet ―Evaluation of Broadcast Advertising.‖


                                                                              48
      SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Interaction

      Scaffolding is effectively used in this lesson. The teacher may
      verbally scaffold by paraphrasing. By teaching, modeling, and
      supplying lots of practice for the student, the teacher uses instructional
      scaffolding to assist the language learner.
      This activity promotes student discussion and interaction.

      SIOP Component(s): Review/Evaluation

      The evaluation sheet provides solid feedback for the students.
      Assessment for the English learner needs to be an ongoing process.



(5)    After the review and introduction to broadcast advertising, the teacher
      will hand out the blank T-chart and Venn diagram. After viewing a
      clip of a television commercial, the teacher will lead the class in an
      analysis of the commercial, being sure to bring out the similarities and
      differences between print and broadcast advertising. The teacher will
      fill in the Venn diagram transparency during discussion; students will
      copy the information on their Venn diagram handout. The students
      will listen to a radio commercial. With a partner, students will
      complete a Venn diagram. The teacher will monitor to make sure that
      all students have completed their diagrams. Upon completion of the
      two Venn diagrams, the teacher will ask a student to reword/explain
      what the diagrams represent. The teacher will extend the student’s
      explanation as necessary.




                                                                              49
      SIOP Component(s): Comprehensible Input, Strategies

      In this activity, the teacher has moved the students toward independent
      functioning with less support.

      The teacher first models the Venn diagram. Working with a partner
      gives the student the additional support that leads to increased learning
      independence. When the teacher asks the student to reword/explain
      what the diagrams represent, the students use higher-level thinking
      skills. The rewording/explaining exercise can be a written or verbal
      response.

(6)   Teacher option: This assignment may be daily practice, homework, or
      an extension activity. Since some students may relate better and more
      quickly to a chart format, the teacher will tell students to transfer the
      information from the Venn diagram to a chart. Additionally, students
      will write an example from the TV and radio commercials that relate
      to each entry.

      SIOP Component(s): Lesson Delivery

      The students are actively engaged throughout this lesson. At this point
      in the lesson, the teacher may give a comprehension review of the key
      vocabulary of the lesson. It is important to remember that review and
      monitoring should not be separate elements but should continually be
      part of each lesson.

(7)   The teacher will assign the project for this lesson: creating a broadcast
      commercial for television. The teacher may determine that students
      with limited oral language skills or with learning disabilities affecting
      speech may create a written radio commercial as an alternate
      assignment. The teacher will go over and clarify the ―Project
      Guidelines.‖ The teacher will also give students ―Project Evaluation‖
      so that they will be aware of the assessment criteria. The teacher will
      monitor progress throughout the creation of the commercial.




                                                                             50
      SIOP Component(s): Comprehensible Input, Strategies, Practice,
      Review/Evaluation

      The teacher’s monitoring of each group is essential in providing
      feedback. Group members can do a self-evaluation as a form of
      assessment.

      The end product is the student’s creation of his/her own broadcast
      commercial. Application is the final step in effective scaffolding.

      Directions for projects and more challenging tasks can be written in
      the student’s first language.

      A very limited English student could cut out examples of magazine
      commercials and write simple sentences, telling what he/she thinks
      the advertiser wants us to think.

Technological Applications
Students will use available technology (computer, scanner, video camera,
audio equipment, etc.) to produce a broadcast commercial.

Formal Assessment
Teacher and class evaluation using ―Project Evaluation‖ form (handout #7)

Informal Assessments
Teacher monitoring during class discussions
Teacher check of Venn diagrams and/or chart

Extensions
The students will compare and contrast print, broadcast/TV, broadcast/radio,
and specialty advertising on a more advanced Venn diagram.

When possible, the teacher will set up a field trip to a local company (TV
station, radio station, ad agency) to witness broadcast commercial
production.




                                                                             51
                    Key Terminology: Broadcast Advertising
(1)    audio

(2)    backdrop

(3)    broadcast media

(4)    comme rcial

(5)    concise language

(6)    dialect

(7)    dialogue

(8)    intonation

(9)    pausing

(10)   prop

(11)   propaganda techniques

(12) script

(13) set

(14) sound effects

(15) staging

(16) staging directions

(17) target audience

(18) timing

(19) video

(20) visual appeal




                                                             52
Venn Diagram




               53
                  Broadcast Advertising Information

Most common media utilized:       television and radio
Target audience:                         juvenile
                                         teenager
                                         young adult
                                         mature adult
                                         senior adult
Propaganda technique/s:

Audio components of production:
     concise language

     dialect

     dialogue

     intonation

     pausing

     script

     sound effects

     timing

Video components of production:
     backdrop

     prop

     set

     staging/staging directions

     timing

     visual appeal
                                                         54
                 Evaluation of Broadcast Advertising

Commercial sponsor:

Media:

Propaganda technique(s):

Target audience:

Analysis of audio component (script):

      dialogue

      dialect

      intonation

      pausing

      timing

      sound effects

Analysis of video component (visual appeal):

      backdrop or set

      props

      staging

      timing

Effectiveness:




                                                       55
              Broadcast Advertising: Project Guidelines
                       Television Commercial


Each student will write the script for a TV commercial and
turn it in to the teacher for evaluation.

1. Determine the product, service, or company to be advertised.

2. Identify the target audience.

3. Write the script. (Refer to “Broadc ast Advertising Information” handout.)
   (Note: limit the characters to two)

    a. Be sure to include the audio components.
    b. Be sure to include the video components.


Students will divide into groups of three or four.

1. Members of the group will analyze the individual scripts and
   select one to produce.

2. Identify participants:

     a. two actors
     b. video operator/director
     c. cue cards/director

3. Practice performance.

4. Videotape commercial. (Commercial may be presented live if
   no video camera is available.)

Students will present their productions to the class for
assessment by the teacher and classmates. Refer to the
evaluation form for criteria to be used in the evaluation.

                                                                                56
           Broadcast Advertising: Project Evaluation


1. Product/Service/Company clearly identified        (1 – 5 pts)

2. Target audience appropriately addressed       (1 – 10 pts)


3. Effectiveness of script – audio components incorporated         (1 – 30 pts)


      Comments:



4. Effectiveness of script – video components incorporated         (1 – 30 pts)


      Comments:



5. Overall appeal of the commercial   (1 – 25 pts)



                     POINTS AWARDED

                  Part 1                      _____

                  Part 2                      _____

                  Part 3                      _____

                  Part 4                      _____

                  Part 5                      _____


                  Total points earned         _____




                                                                                  57
                              Creative Writing

Unit
Persuasive Writing: Advertising

Lesson Plan
Reviewing and assessing advertising unit

Content Objectives
The student will review advertising terminology, components, and
production.

The student will be tested on advertising terminology, components, and
production.

SIOP Component(s): Preparation

In order for the LEP student to best understand the content objectives, it is
essential that it be clearly stated in simple language. The objectives should
be expressed both orally and in written form.

Language Objective
The student will participate in reading, writing, viewing/representing,
speaking, and listening activities in which the teacher will incorporate
various review, application, and assessment strategies, such as writing in
journals, reading and evaluating print advertising, creating and playing
games and/or flashcards, and representing vocabulary and concepts visually.

SIOP Component(s): Preparation

It is important in the sheltered instructional setting to establish academic
language objectives. LEP students are not only learning content, but they
are also acquiring academic English skills in reading, writing, listening, and
speaking. Special emphasis is placed on development of content vocabulary.

Metacognitive Objectives
The student will review key vocabulary and concepts related to print and
broadcast advertising through the use of a concept of definition map.


                                                                                58
   SIOP Component(s): Preparation

   Metacognitive strategies that students acquire will continue to help them
   even when the teacher is not there to guide them. Strategies enable the
   student to plan, monitor, and evaluate learning independently. The
   objectives are stated clearly for all learners. This lesson will give
   additional support to LEP students. The teacher can determine how well
   the students have understood and retained the key vocabulary and
   concepts. The focus on review links the learning of the previous four
   lessons.

Materials
   Handouts/transparencies from previous lessons
   ―Concept of Definition Map‖ - handout
   ―Test: Advertising Unit‖ – to be created by teacher
   Classroom set of newspapers or sales brochures
   Blank paper, pens, pencils, highlighters, rulers, dried beans

Procedure (Estimated Time: 2 – 3 days)
(1) The teacher will ask students to respond in their journals to the
    following questions: Why is advertising important to you? Why is
    advertising important to our society? Upon completion of journal
    entries, the teacher will lead a discussion of student responses.

 SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Interaction, Review/Evaluation

 Students can be paired with a peer to share journal entries.
 Opportunities for social interaction promote language development.
 Journals provide a non threatening form of assessment.

 The teacher can restate a student’s response and validate what he/she is
 thinking by asking, ―Is that what your are saying?‖


(2) The teacher will guide students in highlighting key vocabulary and
    concepts on previous handouts. As highlighting is done, the teacher will
    reinforce the terminology and concepts by asking students for examples
    from the newspaper, from television commercials, or from prior
    personal experiences. The teacher will distribute the ―Concept of
                                                                            59
    Definition Map‖ handout and then guide students through the strategy of
    completing the map.

SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Review/Evaluation
It is important that the teacher model highlighting in order that the
LEP student effectively learns this strategy. The teacher provides the
student with well-planned review activities. Explicit connections to
the concepts previously covered in class help all students to build a
bridge to new learning. The teacher may provide a graphic organizer
such as a T-chart with the key word in one column and an example on
the right as a solid form of review.

(3) The teacher will direct students to create a bingo board from the
    vocabulary in lessons one and two. The student covers the term with a
    bean or crumpled paper as it is defined.

SIOP Component(s): Interaction, Review/Evaluation

Several bingo games can be made by focusing on the key vocabulary for
each lesson. Students can rotate and play the different games for a thorough
review.

(4) Optional games or activities may be created, depending on time and
    teacher innovation. Examples might be Jeopardy, baseball, team
    competition in which two students write answers on the board, or use of
    flash cards that have been made by students.

SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Review/Evaluation

The teacher can adapt the game to the level of English proficiency of the
LEP student. Tic Tac Toe can be a very effective simple review game. The
teacher puts a big Tic Tac Toe grid on the board. The class divides into
groups with the teacher strategically placing the LEP students. Each group
takes a turn in answering. The question must be answered correctly for the
group to get an X or O. Questions should range from simple to complex.
More advanced LEP students can join classmates in designing their own
games. Groups can take turns playing the different review games.



                                                                             60
(5) The teacher will review lesson 3 vocabulary (travel advertising) by
    dividing the class into two groups. Group 1 is responsible for writing
    questions or finding examples/visual representations of numbers 1 – 33
    on the vocabulary handout. Group 2 will do the same for numbers 34 –
    66. The teacher should give examples or ask for examples to insure that
    students understand the procedures. Upon completion of this
    assignment, the teacher will pass out a new ―Common and Useful
    Travel-Related Vocabulary‖ handout that students may refer to when
    answering questions asked by the opposing team or when identifying
    example/visual representation shown by the opposing team.

SIOP Component(s): Practice, Comprehensible Input

This additional handout provides a supportive learning environment for the
LEP student. Such support will help to develop the student’s proficiency in
English.

(6) For lesson 4 review (broadcast advertising), the teacher will direct
    students to make flashcards of the vocabulary. Partners will quiz each
    other for 15 – 20 minutes. Next, the teacher will decide a game
    format that can be used to continue identification of the terminology.

SIOP Component(s): Lesson Delivery

Throughout these activities the teacher uses different grouping techniques
that support the objectives of the lesson. All language skills are integrated,
and the students use a variety of thinking and learning strategies.

(7) Optional review activities: The teacher may create a written review
    sheet so that students will have a more concise form for home review.
    Another option would be to allow students to develop their own written
    review sheet, individually or with a partner, that could be used as a
    reference on the test. For all students, the amount of written review
    will be determined by the teacher’s informal assessment of the
    understanding demonstrated during class review activities.




                                                                                 61
SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Interactions, Practice, Lesson Delivery

The language learner can benefit from a skeleton outline review. The
amount of information provided by the teacher depends on the student’s
level of English proficiency.
The variety of review activities provides the students with hands-on
materials that have integrated reading, writing, listening, and speaking.
Students are actively engaged in reviewing throughout the entire lesson. The
LEP student needs frequent and ample opportunities for interaction with
classmates and for practice and application.

(8) The teacher will give a written test to formally assess understanding and
    application of key terminology, components, techniques, and concepts.
    The teacher may or may not allow the use of reference/review sheets.

SIOP Component(s): Lesson Delivery, Review/Evaluation

The teacher has effectively maximized the time spent engaged in review
activities. By using effective review strategies, the teacher has encouraged
active participation of students.

LEP students can use the study guides to take the written test. Multiple
choice questions with a maximum of three choices can be designed. A cloze
exercise with a word bank is another effective form of assessment for the
LEP student. The language learner can even handle the challenge of a
True/False assessment if they use the study guide for support.

Technology Applications
The students might use computers to make game boards and/or flashcards,
create visual representations, and write review questions/quizzes.

Formal Assessment
Written unit exam

Informal Assessments
Teacher monitoring of concept map, games, flashcard development and
usage, review by individuals, partners, or groups.



                                                                               62
             Concept Map



                               What is it like?




63
     What are some examples?

				
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