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Persuasive Writing Multiple Choice Worksheet document sample
Persuasive Writing Multiple Choice Worksheet document sample
Creative Writing This creative writing class is taught in a 5-A high school in West Texas where the composition is a class of no more than twenty primarily monolingual students of a limited number of advanced LEP students. These LEP students also receive English instruction from the creative writing teacher so she is aware of their language proficiencies. Recent immigrants are not enrolled in creative writing until their second year in the country. The recent immigrant program on this campus includes a creative writing class, which is designated for second-year English language learners and is taught by one of the ESL-endorsed English teachers. On those campuses where enrollment in this course cannot be delayed, the needs of beginning language learners are addressed by appropriate modifications to the lesson plans, thereby giving all students the opportunity to acquire the knowledge and skills outlined in the TAKS and TEKS. The time estimations for the lesson plans are for 90-minute classes on block scheduling. The time frame will vary according to class composition: size, language levels, and learning levels. 1 Creative Writing Persuasive Writing: Advertising Lesson TEKS TAKS Advertising and Reading 4A, 4B Its Components Objective 3 Creating an 1A, 1B, 1C, 1F Writing Advertisement 2A, 2B, 2C, 2E, 2H, 2F Objectives 4, 5, 6 for Print Media 3A-D, 4B Creating 1A, 1B, 1C, 1F, 1G Reading Travel Advertising 2A-I Objective 3 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D 4A, 4B, 4C 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1F, 1G Creating an 2A-I Writing Advertisement 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D Objectives 4, 5, 6 for Broadcast Media 4B, 4C Reading Advertising Unit Objective 3 Review 4A, 4B, 4C Writing And Assessment Objective 4 The above TEKS are specifically related to this unit, however there are on- going TEKS that are utilized in spiraling the instruction. 2 Interdisciplinary Links for Creative Writing Persuasive Unit: Advertising English: The Odyssey The advertising unit includes a lesson in which students create a travel brochure or poster. In their study of The Odyssey, students in English class also create a travel brochure for a fictional location as one of their projects. A collaborative assignment would allow students to incorporate what they have studied in each class and would reinforce the skills and content from both units. Social Studies: Migration Unit One of the lessons in the advertising unit focuses on the study and creation of print advertising. In the Migration Unit, students in social studies study railroads and how the railroad companies attracted migrants by posting advertisements. The teachers of both classes could coordinate their units when presenting print advertising and its effect on targeted audiences. Creating an ad for a railroad company would be an assignment that would incorporate knowledge and skills from both units and show the historical impact of persuasive writing. 3 Creative Writing Unit Persuasive Writing: Advertising Lesson Plan Advertising and its components Content Objectives The student will be introduced to advertising and the components of print advertising. The student will recognize propaganda techniques used in advertising. SIOP Component(s): In order for the LEP student to best understand the content objective, it is essential that it be clearly stated in simple language. The objective should be given both orally and in written form. Language Objective The student will understand key terminology and propaganda techniques: advertisement print requirements signature commercial specialty headline logo purpose layout copy trademark media components illustrations slogan broadcast techniques clip art lines of force SIOP Component(s): It is important in the sheltered instruction setting to establish academic language objectives. LEP students are not only learning content, but they are also acquiring academic English skills in reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Special emphasis is placed on development of content vocabulary. Metacognitive Objectives The student will complete a Venn Diagram or T-chart when comparing and contrasting forms of advertising. 4 SIOP Component(s): Metacognitive strategies that students acquire will continue to help them even when the teacher is not there to guide them. Strategies enable the student to plan, monitor, and evaluate learning independently. Materials Advertising handouts/transparencies of handouts ―Key Terminology: Advertising‖ ―Introduction to Advertising‖ ―Components of Advertising‖ Local newspapers, magazines, circulars, brochures, direct mailings, etc. Transparencies of selected samples (selected & made by teacher) ―Analysis Worksheet‖ ―Group Project: Teacher Guidelines and Expectations‖ Blank paper, glue, pens or markers, highlighters, rulers ―Group Project: Teacher Guidelines and Expectations‖ handout SIOP Component(s): A variety of materials supports different learning styles. The LEP student can hear, feel, perform, create, and participate to construct personal, relevant meanings. Procedure (Estimated Time: 2 - 3 days) (1) The teacher will ask students to respond in their journals about their positive and negative reactions to nationally and locally produced broadcast or print advertising. Journal topic: Which ad or commercial do you really like? Why? Which ad or commercial do you not like? Why? SIOP Component(s): The teacher uses the journal to build background and increase student understanding. Commercials may also include radio and magazines. A resource box of magazines should be provided. Real-life objects enable students to make connections to their own lives. 5 (2) Upon completion of the journal writing, the teacher will lead a class discussion about students’ entries. SIOP Component(s): Students from culturally diverse backgrounds will bring to the class a variety of background experiences. The teacher needs to be aware that the student may have a different but valid schemata. As individuals name their likes and dislikes, the teacher will write them on the board. Students are allowed to add their comments, whether in agreement or disagreement. SIOP Component(s): The student can sign his/her name next to the comment. This gives the student a great feeling of self-worth. Next, the class will discuss the effects of a viewer’s reactions to televised commercials. The class will then consider if published advertisements create the same degree of positive and negative responses. The teacher will finally ask students about the similarities and the differences in broadcast advertising and published advertising and will write (or have a student write) their observations on a T-chart or Venn diagram. The teacher will tell students that these observations will be kept and referred to later as the unit is studied. SIOP Component(s): During class discussion, the teacher can meet the critical needs of the LEP student with varied levels of questioning. Questioning should move from simple to complex. Very limited speakers will be more successful with knowledge level questions with a step-by-step progression to analysis and evaluation. The teacher should begin with the 5W’s and then move to compare and contrast, imagine if, etc. In this particular exercise, the teacher needs to be cautious about the wording of the journal topic, simplifying as needed for understanding. 6 (3) The teacher will distribute three advertising handouts which detail the following: Key Terminology: Advertising, Introduction to Advertising, Components of Print Advertising. A copy of a sample ad with areas numbered is also distributed as a reference when explaining and discussing the handouts. SIOP Component(s): The LEP student can first spend time working with a bilingual dictionary to define key terms. Bilingual peers can be paired with the LEP student. Handouts and notes should be printed rather than written in cursive. For note taking, the LEP student can be paired with the best note taker in class. The teacher should never assume this is an easy task. Before or during the lesson, the teacher can make a word wall of the key words in the lesson. The teacher may need to supplement the key terminology handout with an example of how the key words are used within the context of the lesson. The Venn Diagram and T-chart will help the LEP student make relationships among key concepts and vocabulary. (4) The teacher will explain and discuss the handouts on key terms and introduction to advertising. Students will highlight key words and phrases and add notes as necessary. During the explanation and discussion, the teacher should point and refer to the appropriate transparency in order to focus attention and to guide highlighting and to provide notes as needed. As each is studied, the teacher will again clarify words, discuss, and label the sample ad as it relates to the term being studied. 7 SIOP Component(s): Beginning English speakers may need the teacher to enunciate more clearly and speak more slowly, but in a natural way. More repetition will be needed for the beginner. The teacher should adjust speech as the student becomes more proficient. Another possible way the teacher can assist the LEP student is to have a tape of the lecture and a copy of the lecture notes on hand to lend if necessary. The teacher uses a variety of techniques to make content concepts clear by introducing highlighting and note taking. The handout on the components of print advertising should be explained by the teacher and may be used later as an oral/written review by all students and as a content translation extension for LEP students with limited language proficiency. Discussion strategies may include question/answer or, for students with lower language proficiency or learning disabilities, identification by number of the term being discussed. Depending on time, a second ad may be quickly labeled and briefly explained by students who volunteer or are called upon by the teacher. SIOP Component(s): Students with limited proficiency can provide a successful response by identifying terms by number. Refer to the earlier student lists and observations whenever possible to connect, apply, and validate prior knowledge and understanding of the components of advertising. SIOP Component(s): At this point, the language learners will benefit from a good comprehensive review of key vocabulary. This can be as simple as a flashcard review with the class or a game of vocabulary bingo. 8 (5) After the explanation/discussion of the terms, the class will be divided into groups of three or four to analyze and identify the components of an ad. Different levels of proficiency should be assigned within a group. SIOP Component(s): LEP students benefit from instruction that frequently includes multiple grouping configurations. Effective teachers with LEP students use a variety of configurations that includes individual work, partners, triads, small groups, cooperative learning groups, and whole- groups. Working in groups encourages the development of different perspectives and collaboration. The teacher will set the following guidelines, or expectations, for group participation. Refer to the handout ―Group Project: Teacher Guidelines and Expectations.‖ The group will determine a leader, a secretary, and a facilitator. All participants will be expected to write personal responses before group discussion begins. Each participant will share his/her responses with the group before a final group decision is reached and recorded for presentation to the class. The teacher will monitor the groups for understanding, participation, and readiness for presentation. SIOP Component(s): It is important that the teacher provides constructive feedback throughout the lesson. The very beginning student can be designated as the facilitator. Teacher monitoring of the LEP student during group work is vital in order to keep all group members involved and on task. (6) After the groups have finished the written evaluation and labeling of their ad on a transparency, the presenter and the facilitator will present the group’s analysis/identification to the class. 9 (7) Upon completion of the group presentations, the teacher will require students to select another ad for an individual written analysis and identification to be submitted for checking/grading as a daily class assignment or as homework. Students will cut out an ad and glue it to the back of the ―Analysis Worksheet.‖ Next, students will indicate each component of the ad by highlighting or drawing a line to or around the component and labeling appropriately. Students will then answer the questions on the ―Analysis Worksheet.‖ (Example attached.) NOTE: Advanced classes/students might incorporate digital cameras and power point presentation SIOP Component(s): The teacher’s scaffolding techniques move the LEP student to a stage of increased independence. In this lesson the teacher incorporates the learner in the whole and then small group collaboration before engaging the LEP student in an individual task. For the assignment, the teacher can accept shortened written responses. Also, ads in the LEP student’s native language can be used. The activities in this lesson integrate all language skills. Hands-on materials are provided for the learner to practice and apply the new content knowledge. Since this is the first lesson in the unit, the teacher can demonstrate how to make a personal word study bank for the students to use for later reference. The teacher along with the students can categorized the key vocabulary in a meaningful way. Technology Applications Students may access advertising from varied sources such as television, radio, or the Internet. Power Point usage with possible incorporation of a digital camera or scanner to reproduce ads or usage of special print programs would enhance the quality of teacher and student presentations. SIOP Component(s): The teacher has effectively engaged LEP students throughout this lesson. The teacher has considered the students’ ability by appropriately pacing the lesson. 10 Informal Assessment Group analysis and identification of components of an ad Formal Assessments Group presentation Individual written analysis Extensions Students, working with a partner or in a group, develop a survey to determine the effects of advertising on the public and the public’s reaction to various print and broadcast advertising. Students will interview people in different age groups and then analyze and publish their results. 11 Key Terminology: Adve rtising 1. Adve rtising Adve rtisement/Ad/ Commercial 2. Advantages of advertising 3. Purposes 4. Media 5. Broadcast 6. Print 7. Specialty 8. Layout 9. Components 10. Techniques 11. Requirements 12. Headline 13. Copy 14. Illustrations 15. Clip art 16. Signature 17. Logo 18. Trademark 19. Slogan 20. Lines of force 12 Introduction to Advertising (Marketing Essentials: Chapter 19) Advertising is the nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, and services by business or institution. Advertising offers these six advantages: (1) A large number of people usually see the message. (2) Costs per potential customer are usually low. (3) Businesses can choose the most appropriate media to advertise since there are many different ways available. (4) Businesses can control the content of an advertisement and adapt it to the medium and method of presentation. (5) Ads integrated into television shows, magazines, or newspapers are subject to repeat viewing. This fixes the message in people’s minds. (6) Ads can influence people to make up their minds about a purchase before they shop. As important as the advantages are that advertising offers, it also has four principal disadvantages: (1) Advertising cannot focus on individual needs because the message is the same for all customers. (2) Some forms of advertising, such as television, can be too expensive for many businesses. (3) In certain instances, advertising is wasteful and inefficient. Newspaper ads, for example, are seen only by people who read newspapers while television ads are seen only by viewers of specific shows. (4) Because of the cost and the need to attract and hold the attention of potential customers, advertisements must brief-- too brief to inform in depth. Other forms of promotion--personal sales presentations, for example can be far more complete. 13 Introduction to Advertising (Marketing Essentials: Chapter 20) Purpose/Motivation: (1) To communicate with customers and (main idea/issue/reasons) future customers to increase sales (2) To find out about products and services for possible purchase Media/Presentation: (1) Print: newspaper, magazine, direct (audience) mail, outdoor, directory, transit (2) Broadcast or viewed: television, radio, Internet, special monitors, or other visual presentations (3) Specialty: printed items Layout: (1) Headline: lettering, slogan, saying (organization/introduction/ elaboration/conclusion) (2) Copy: word choice, sentence structure, concrete or figurative language, sensual images, repetition (3) Illustrations: visual representations, symbols (4) Signature: logo, trademark, slogan, other information: address, phone number, business hours, web site 14 Components of Print Advertising Purposes: (1) attract attention (3) create desire (2) arouse interest (4) produce action Components: (1) headline (3) illustrations (2) copy (4) signature (1) Headline: the lettering, slogan, or saying that gets the readers’ attention, arouses their interest, and leads them to read the rest of the ad. It should be appealing to the self interest of the potential customer; be short, light, and informational; and tell the reader just enough to entice him into reading the rest of the ad. Techniques: 1. Familiar sayings with a twist 2. Use of opposites 3. News and information 4. Shock or surprise treatment 5. Questioning 6. Arousing curiosity (2) Copy: the written message in an advertisement Requirements: 1. Directly expand on the information in the headline 2. Stress the benefit of the product 3. Appeal to the senses 4. Ask for positive action Techniques: 1. Conversation 2. Information 3. Description 4. Testimonial 5. Drama and emotion 6. Humor 7. Entertainment 15 (3) Illustration: the photograph or drawing used in the ad to transmit a total message that would be hard to communicate with words alone. Illustrations should show: 1. the features of the product or service 2. how the product works or service benefits 3. the advantages of having the product or service 4. the safety features of the product or service 5. the possible uses of the product or service 6. the need for the product or service 7. an image associated with the product or service, such as prestige, status, or leisure (4) Signature: the distinctive and memorable identification symbol for a business National ad: the logo (the name of the firm) and possibly its trademark and slogan Retail ad: usually includes the business’s name, address, telephone number, and sometimes the business hours in addition to the logo, trademark, and slogan (if there is one) 16 Advertisement Analysis Worksheet 1. Purpose of ad: ______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 2. Media category: _____________ Specific form: _________________ 3. Headline: _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 4. Techniques used in headline: _________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 5. Message (information) in copy: _______________________________ _________________________________________________________ 6. Techniques used to present message: ___________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 7. Illustrations (describe): ______________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 8. Purpose(s) of illustrations: ___________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 9. Information in signature/logo: ________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 10. Rate effectiveness: 1 = very ineffective 10 = very effective _____ Explain your rating on the back of this paper. 17 Group Project: Teacher Guidelines and Expectations Guidelines: (1) The group is limited to three or four participants. (2) Group of 3 options: a: leade r may also be presenter or b: secretary may also be presenter Expectations of individual participants: Leader: writes personal response(s) first asks individuals for response(s) to required questions contributes/explains personal response(s) after questioning me mbers of group questions/checks for understanding/re words response(s) of individual’s response(s) contributes to group’s discussion asks for group’s opinion(s) afte r discussion questions/rewords group’s response(s) checks for accurate recording of group’s response(s) Secretary: writes personal response(s) first contributes/explains personal response(s) contributes to group’s discussion questions/checks any wording of response(s) of individuals and group records response(s) as determined by the leader/group Presenter: writes personal response(s) first contributes/explains personal response(s) contributes to group’s discussion questions/checks any wording of response(s) of individuals and group questions/checks any recording of response(s) of group presents group’s response(s) to the class Facilitator: writes personal response(s) first contributes/explains personal response(s) contributes to group’s discussion questions/checks any wording of response(s) of individuals and group aids teacher by handing out project paper(s) and distributing necessary mate rials aids in presentation of group’s responses to class by holding up/pointing to necessary poster/paper presentation or assisting in overhead projection presentation 18 Creative Writing Unit Persuasive Writing: Advertising Lesson Plan Creating an advertisement for print media Content Objectives The student will review components of an advertisement. The student will create an advertisement. SIOP Component(s): Preparation In order for the LEP student to best understand the content objective, it is essential that it be clearly stated in simple language. The objective should be given both orally and in written form. Language Objective The student will review key terminology from the introductory lesson. The student will understand new terms in the ―Creating an Advertisement‖ notes: alliteration, paradox, rhyme, pun, play on words, word choice. SIOP Component(s): Preparation It is important in the sheltered instructional setting to establish academic language objectives. LEP students are not only learning content, but they are also acquiring academic English skills in reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Special emphasis is placed on development of content vocabulary. Metacognative Objective The student will highlight key words and phrases on a handout of notes. SIOP Component(s): Preparation Metacognitive strategies that students acquire will continue to help them even when the teacher is not there to guide them. Strategies enable the student to plan, monitor, and evaluate learning independently. 19 Materials ―Key Terminology: Advertising‖ handout/transparency previous lesson (#1) Short quiz for comprehension check (developed by teacher) ―Developing an Advertisement‖ handout/transparency (#2) ―Key Terminology: Developing an Advertisement‖ handout/transparency (#3) Samples of ads from different media (provided by teacher/students) Transparencies of ads ―Ad Creation‖ worksheet/guidelines (#4) ―Peer Evaluation Checklist‖ handout (5) ―Teacher Evaluation Form: Creating an Advertisement‖ (#6) Supplies: Blank paper, glue, pens, pencils, markers, rulers SIOP Component(s): Preparation This variety of materials addresses different learning styles. They provide real-life learning activities that engage the learner in meaningful language experiences. Procedure (Estimated Time: 2-3 days) (1) Orally review key terminology from previous lesson by pointing to the transparency of key terminology and asking students to explain, define, or give example to confirm understanding. Reword student responses as necessary. SIOP Component(s): Building Background By reviewing the terminology from the previous lesson, the teacher links the new lesson to past learning. The teacher can reword the student responses as well as his/her own to aid in making the delivery of the lesson more clear. The previous lesson vocabulary can be recorded on a word wall or in a personal student dictionary. These vocabulary strategies can provide valuable resources for the LEP student. 20 (2) Give a short written quiz to assess understanding of vocabulary and recognition of components of advertising. Students will identify answers by numbering or circling response choices. After checking over the quiz, the teacher will either reteach or continue the lesson. SIOP Component(s): Strategies The teacher might consider giving LEP students an open-note quiz. The teacher can adapt the activity depending on the student’s English proficiency. By responding with numbering or circling, the teacher offers support to the student at a basic level. The teacher will move the student to a higher level of understanding with good pacing and well thought-out activities. (3) Distribute the ―Developing an Advertisement‖ handout and the ―Key Terminology: Developing an Advertisement‖ handout. With a partner, students will define/identify/explain terminology in words or language which they will understand and remember. Examples will be added during class discussion. (Students will use the handout ―Developing an Advertisement‖ and/or appropriate dictionary to complete terminology worksheet.) SIOP Component(s): Interaction Working with a partner provides the LEP learner with an opportunity to interact with a classmate. Examples could be displayed visually in the classroom. (4) To begin the presentation of the handout ―Developing an Advertisement‖, the teacher will ask students/partners to explain/express in their own words the concepts. The teacher will then add to the explanation/discussion and question students to check for understanding. Students will then need to add to their definitions/ explanations on Key Terminology worksheet as necessary. 21 SIOP Component(s): Building Background, Comprehensible Input, Review/Evaluation LEP students can continue to add to their personal word study list, which can be used for reference later in the unit. Continuous feedback and monitoring from the teacher plays a vital part of the LEP student’s success. In this lesson, the teacher has given ample opportunities for students to clarify the key concepts. At any point in the lesson the teacher may see that s/he needs to reteach or arrange peer tutoring for the struggling LEP student. Before continuing, the teacher may give a review of key concepts and words up to this point. Early second language learners could make flashcards and pair up to review. A quiz could be given in the form of a cloze exercise with a word bank to assist. (5) The teacher will lead the class in creating an ad layout. Follow the guidelines and suggestions on the handout. The class, as a unit, will create an ad. Utilize student volunteers whenever possible to add headline, copy, illustrations, and signature to layout. Upon completion, list simplified steps of ad creation on the board; check partners for understanding. SIOP Component(s): Practice The students now have the opportunity to use the hands-on materials to apply the concepts they have learned. The class, crating the ad as a whole group, gives the student support that will lead to independence on the learner’s part. Students with technology skills in word processing and clip art might be paired with the LEP student with little or no computer experience. The steps of ad creation can be presented in the form of a flow chart for the language learner. Students also learn from bad examples that do not follow the given ad guidelines. Student could work in pairs to discuss these examples and report back to the class. 22 (6) The teacher will assign a project: create an advertisement for a product or service. The teacher must approve the selected product or service before beginning the layout. Students will follow ―Ad Creation‖ worksheet/guidelines. SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Lesson Delivery The teacher should encourage LEP students to write notes in the margins of the handouts. Very limited English students can even draw pictures in the margins to enhance comprehension. These are both good metacognitive strategies that clearly support the objective. Underlining key words on a handout is a strategy that helps the language learner to conceptualize the assignment. The teacher will provide materials and computer access as needed. The teacher will closely monitor individual progress and assist students as needed to ensure success. Students will display or orally present their product to the class for a written evaluation. The students will then turn in the final product to the teacher for grading. Students will be given an opportunity to improve their ad before final teacher evaluation. SIOP Component(s): Lesson Delivery, Review/Evaluation The teacher has used scaffolding techniques in that the previous activities involved the class working as a whole. Throughout the lesson the student has been an active learner. The teacher effectively paced the lesson with consideration on the students’ abilities. The final project encourages the student to work on a more independent level. The LEP student could work with a partner on this product. The objectives have been clearly supported with ample opportunities for a variety of interaction, practice, and application for the LEP student. 23 Technology Applications Use of digital camera Use of computer to develop ad Use of Internet to find illustrations/clip art Formal Assessments Short written quiz/limited responses Teacher evaluation of finished product using ―Teacher Evaluation Form‖ Informal Assessments Journal entry Oral check for understanding Teacher observation/monitoring Peer evaluation of finished project using a ―Peer Checklist Form‖ SIOP Component(s): Practice, Review/Evaluation A peer evaluation before turning in the finished assignment allows the student to make improvements in his/her work before being graded by the teacher. This step in the writing process helps reduce the student’s level of stress, improves his/her sense of accomplishment, and increases self-esteem which is sometimes minimal in LEP students. Extensions Arrange for students to interview people involved in print advertising. Arrange for a guest speaker from a newspaper advertising department or an ad agency. Consider a guest speaker who would discuss career possibilities related to advertising. 24 Key Terminology: Advertising 1. Adve rtising Adve rtisement/Ad/ Commercial 2. Advantages of advertising 3. Purposes 4. Media 5. Broadcast 6. Print 7. Specialty 8. Layout 9. Components 10. Techniques 11. Requirements 12. Headline 13. Copy 14. Illustrations 15. Clip art 16. Signature 17. Logo 18. Trademark 19. Slogan 20. Lines of force 25 Developing an Advertisement (from Marketing Essentials: Chapter 21) A headline stresses one primary benefit of a product or service. Because more than 80 percent of the people who look at an ad just read the headline, you want it to be powerful enough to draw potential customers into reading the entire copy. Guidelines: (1) Should have a single focus or main idea (2) Should be brief because most people can’t take in more than seven words at one time (3) Should be easy to understand to avoid the reader’s mistrust and mis unde rstanding (4) Should be powerful or surprising (5) Should give the reader a very good reason to read the copy Techniques: (1) Alliteration - repeating initial consonant Ex: “Ruffles Have Ridges” (2) Paradox - a seeming contradiction that could be true Ex: “You’re Not Getting Olde r, You’re Getting Better” (3) Rhyme - syllables of two or more words sound alike Ex: “Bounty…The Quicke r Picker Uppe r” (4) Pun - a humorous use of a word that suggests two or more of its meanings or the meaning of another word similar in sound Ex: “Every Litter Bit Hurts” (5) Play on Words - Use of the same word in more than one way Ex: “For Soft Babies and Baby Soft Hands” Suggestions: (1) Use three of the most powerful key words in advertising: new, now, and free. (2) Make your headline long enough to feature one product benefit, but short enough (seven words or less) to encourage people to read all of the ad. (3) Arouse reader curiosity by promising something-- free ___, better ___, more ___, less ___, fewer ___ (key words) 26 The copy, which is the selling message, stresses the secondary benefits of the product or service. Guidelines: (1) Should be simple and direct (2) Should establish contact with the reader (3) Should arouse interest (4) Should create awareness and desire (5) Should explain the benefits and features of the product or service (6) Should build preference for the product or service (7) Should ask for action in the last line Techniques: (1) Use keys words, such as compare, introduce, now, price, save, and easy to establish immediate contact with the reader. (2) Use short sentences that repeat key words. (3) Use many adjectives. (4) Provide specific information, such as the who, what, where, when, why, and how of your product or service. (5) Use facts about your product or service (case histories, statistics, performance figures, dates, and quotes from experts) because they are more powe rful than claims. (6) Write in the active voice. (7) Use warm, pe rsonal language and expressions familiar to your target audience. (8) Use key words such as today, now, before it’s too late, and without delay to help create action. It helps to include a penalty for not acting now. 27 Illustrations are the photographs, drawings, or clip art used in the advertisement. They determine the image that the business or service projects to the public. Photographs should be used when a sense of reality is necessary, such as what the product looks like or how it is used. Photos should be sharp and clear with good contrast between light and dark areas. Drawings can be used to show a part of a product that would not normally be seen, such as cut-away drawings, to show important features not visible in a photo. Clip art is ready for production and printing and is inexpensive, quick, and easy to use. Guidelines: (1) Should draw attention to the subject (2) Should show the main benefits of the product or service (3) Should tie into the headline and copy (4) Should contain lines of force that guide the reader to the copy through the illustrations (line of force – photo or drawing is directed or positioned so as to guide the reader to the copy of the ad, not pointed away from the copy) The signature (logo), which is the name of the product and/or business, may also include any or all of the following: slogan telephone number trade mark business hours illustrations web site address e-mail address Guidelines: (1) Should be distinctive (2) Should be me morable (3) Should be easily read/understood (4) Trademark and slogan should attract attention 28 An ad layout is a rough draft that shows the general arrangement and appearance of a finished ad. It clearly indicates the position of the headline, illustration, copy, and signature. Guidelines: (1) Should be prepared in exactly the same size as the final ad (2) Should be large enough to show all product features (3) Should make generous use of white space for an uncluttered look (4) Should be an image appropriate for the target audience (5) Should have typeface (style of printing type) and size that is easy to read and appropriate for the target audience Suggestions: (1) Color makes advertisement stand out and draws a higher response rate than black-and-white ads (2) Use a larger, simpler type and a good, uncluttered design (3) Use one typeface for headlines and another typeface for copy (4) Add variety and emphasis by using diffe rent sizes, italics, and boldface versions of the two basic typefaces selected for the advertisement (5) Check accuracy and s pelling Final Evaluation: (1) Is the ad bold enough to stand out on a page, even if it is placed next to other ads? (2) Does the headline arouse interest and attract attention? (3) Use the illustration large enough and done well enough to highlight the product or service? (4) Is the signature plate apparent and distinctive? (5) Is the copy simple, direct, and unde rstandable? (6) Does the layout guide the reade r to and through the copy? (7) Are the typefaces and type sizes easy to read? 29 Key Terminology: Developing and Advertisement Alliteration - repeating initial consonant Ex: “Ruffles Have Ridges” Paradox - a seeming contradiction that could be true Ex: “You’re Not Getting Olde r, You’re Getting Better” Rhyme - syllables of two or more words sound alike Ex: “Bounty…The Quicke r Picker Uppe r” Pun - a humorous use of a word that suggests two or more of of its meanings or the meaning of another word similar in sound Ex: “Every Litter Bit Hurts” Play on Words - Use of the same word in more than one word Ex: “For Soft Babies and Baby Soft Hands” 30 Ad Creation Worksheet & Guidelines Refer to your ―Creating an Advertisement‖ handout as necessary. NOTE: It is sometimes easier to create a large copy first and then reduce to fit your ad layout. 1. Describe and name product or service or company as chosen or assigned: _____________________________________________________ 2. Write your slogan. (Your slogan will become part of your copy or your signature.) _____________________________________________________________ 3. Decide on and write the wording of your headline. _____________________________________________________________ 4. Following the copy guidelines and suggestions, write the message (words, phrases, and/or sentences) that you plan to use. (May include slogan.) _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. Create or find the illustrations you will use in your copy and/or signature. 6. Create or design your trade mark/logo for your product and/or company on a separate sheet of paper. 7. Create your signature. Refer to your handout for what you need to have and for what you may choose to include. 8. Decide on your layout of the above and create your advertisement. Use a computer and/or supplied materials to produce your ad. 31 Name_________________________ Teacher Evaluation Form Creating an Advertisement Crite ria Points 1. Appeal/effectiveness/creativity: 0 - 20 pts _____ 2. Slogan: 0 - 10 pts _____ 3. Headline: 0 - 10 pts _____ 4. Copy: 0 - 20 pts _____ 5. Illustrations: 0 - 10 pts _____ 6. Trademark/logo: 0 - 10 pts _____ 7. Signature: 0 - 10 pts _____ 8. Layout: 0 - 10 pts _____ TOTAL NUMBER OF POINTS = GRADE _____ 32 Name_________________________ Peer Evaluation Form Creating an Advertisement Criteria Rating 1. Appeal/effectiveness/creativity 1 2 3 4 5 Comments: 2. Slogan 1 2 3 4 5 Comments: 3. Headline 1 2 3 4 5 Comments: 4. Copy 1 2 3 4 5 Comments: 5. Illustrations 1 2 3 4 5 Comments: 6. Trademark/logo 1 2 3 4 5 Comments: 7. Signature 1 2 3 4 5 Comments: 8. Layout 1 2 3 4 5 Comments : 33 Creative Writing Unit Persuasive Writing: Advertising Lesson Plan Reading, analyzing, evaluating, and producing informative and expressive text and visual representations in travel advertising Content Objectives The student will read, analyze, and evaluate informative and expressive text and visual representations in various travel brochures/pamphlets. The student will write informative and expressive text and create visual representations on a travel poster proposing a dream vacation. SIOP Component(s): Preparation In order for the LEP student to best understand the content objective, it is essential that it be clearly stated in simple language. The objective should be given both orally and in written form. Language Objectives The student will understand and be able to incorporate travel-related vocabulary. The student will recall and use expressive vocabulary (learned in a previous expressive writing unit) such as concrete images, figurative language, and sensory observation to enhance meaning and create mood and tone. SIOP Component(s): Preparation It is important in the sheltered instructional setting to establish academic language objectives. LEP students are not only learning content, but they are also acquiring academic English skills in reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Special emphasis is placed on development of content vocabulary. 34 Metacognitive Objectives The student will complete a graphic organizer to brainstorm descriptions and travel details related to a selected location. The student will utilize technology and supplied materials to create chart/ schedule, itinerary, and visual representations with appropriate expressive and informative notes. SIOP Component(s): Preparation Metacognitive strategies that students acquire will continue to help them even when the teacher is not there to guide them. Strategies enable the student to plan, monitor, and evaluate learning independently. Materials Travel brochures/pamphlets from local travel agency Travel magazines, state-provided materials, hotel/motel pamphlets Graphic organizer (―The ABC’s of It All‖) - handout #1 "Common and Useful Travel Vocabulary" - handout #2 ―Evaluation Form: Travel Brochure/Pamphlet‖ - handout #3 ―Project: Dream Vacation Proposal‖ - handout #4 ―Evaluation Form: Dream Vacation Proposal‖ - handout #5 Supplies: poster boards, markers, glue, scissors, rulers, blank paper SIOP Component(s): Preparation Travel brochures, pamphlets, and magazines enable the students to make connections to their own lives. Procedure (Estimated Time: 3 - 4 days) (1) Students will complete a graphic organizer ―The ABC’S of It All,‖ which relates to the following topic: What would be your dream travel destination? Students will brainstorm in order to complete the boxes with words that reflect reasons for traveling to the location, places of interest, words describing the locale, transportation options, accommodation options, possible activities, weather considerations, clothing guidelines, and time frame. Upon completion of the activity, students will share their responses in a small group. Sharing may prompt additional thoughts that a student may want to include in his or her reflections. 35 SIOP Component(s): Building Background, Strategies The teacher connects the activity to the students’ personal background experiences. This brainstorming graphic organizer is a visualization tool that helps the students to organize their thoughts in a meaningful way. (2) Distribute the handout ―Common and Useful Travel-Related Vocabulary.‖ Students will work with a partner to help each other understand/translate the vocabulary they already know. The teacher will go over the list aloud with the students, helping them to jigsaw the list as some students will know the words while others may not. The teacher will then involve the students in a game such as vocabulary bingo to follow-up. SIOP Component(s): Strategies The teacher can give support to the LEP learner with supplementary vocabulary activities. Seek and find puzzles can easily be generated by the teacher using puzzle websites. Students can be paired for vocabulary bingo. With this particular vocabulary travel list, the teacher can help the student to categorize the vocabulary. Exercises with word families can help students to better understand and use the new vocabulary correctly. An exercise as easy as scrambled words can give the student the extra drill needed to reinforce the key vocabulary. The teacher will distribute travel brochures to each student in the class. Every student needs a brochure as he/she will be answering questions based on the content of his/her brochure. Hand out the "Travel Brochure Evaluation Form.‖ The teacher will ask students to provide their interpretation of the questions on the evaluation form. If students seem hesitant or unsure, the teacher should simplify questions and then ask for examples based on the students’ travel experiences or the places where they or their family and friends have lived or visited. 36 SIOP Component(s): Preparation, Comprehensible Input, Interaction The teacher can adapt this first handout for the LEP student with an evaluation that is in a checklist form. The beginning student may need to do this activity with a partner. (3) Next, as students individually read, analyze, and evaluate their brochures, they are to complete the evaluation form. The teacher should carefully monitor students, stopping to assist any student who seems to be having difficulty completing the assignment. Upon completion of the evaluation, two students will share their brochure and their evaluations. Students should help each other to expand their partner’s evaluation by asking questions or making personal comments which can then be added to the form. SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Practice The vocabulary handout includes reinforcement of vocabulary from the previous advertising lessons. The teacher connects past learning to the new activity and concepts. This lesson provides the student with the opportunity to use a variety of thinking strategies. (4) The teacher will assign the following travel project: ―Dream Vacation Proposal.‖ The dream vacation is based on the student’s choice as described in his/her journal entry. The proposal will include information and description of the location, pictures or photographs, travel arrangements and accommodations, itinerary, and projected cost. The student will create a poster on which all the required inclusions are displayed. Both sides of the poster may be used for the layout; however, a second poster may be used (dependent on teacher/student budget considerations). Students should incorporate all the components of advertising as previously studied in lessons 1 and 2. Students should proofread and edit as needed before creating their final proposal on their posters. 37 SIOP Component(s): Comprehensible Input, Interaction, Practice, Review/Evaluation The teacher should provide a clear student-made example for the LEP student. Project requirements again can be presented to the beginning language learner in the form of a simple task list. This could be a partner project with the teacher helping to divide the tasks equally for the LEP learners. The peer evaluation of the final product gives the opportunity for all students to interact with each other. This activity not only integrates all language but also considers the different learning styles. (5) The teacher will decide if the proposal is displayed and/or presented orally for evaluation. Class members and a panel of teacher colleagues will rate the display/presentation according to the ―Dream Vacation Proposal‖ evaluation form. The evaluations will be tabulated, and the top three will receive an award or reward determined by the teacher. The teacher has the option of tabulating class and teachers’ evaluations separately, which would possibly allow for more awards or rewards to be given. SIOP Component(s): Lesson Delivery Displaying work in itself is very rewarding for the LEP student. The student will gain self worth even without being the student who has won the prize! Students of other cultures appreciate and enjoy the opportunity to view other classmates’ work. The teacher has met the lesson objectives by delivering a lesson that is clear and focused. The variety of activities engaged students in active learning. Appropriate pacing is critical for LEP students. Technology Applications Students should have access to available technology: computer, digital camera, scanner, Internet, relevant computer programs, etc. 38 Formal Assessment Project Evaluation (average of teacher colleagues’ evaluations) Informal Assessments SIOP Component(s): Practice, Review/Evaluation The student can meet with the teacher to explain orally how the project was done as well as to summarize what he/she learned about the chosen dream vacation spot. Students can develop quizzes based on a brochure. Students exchange brochures and quizzes. (True/false, fact/opinion, detail, etc. Extensions SIOP Component(s): Practice, Review/Evaluation Students can write an article for the travel section of the newspaper. The student might design a t-shirt for his/her designated vacation spot. Expressive Unit All of these lessons can actively involve the LEP student: -Make a postcard. Illustrate it and write a message to a friend. -Draw a filmstrip. Slides can illustrate activities from the trip. Captions underneath describe what is happening in the slide. -Make a scrapbook. Illustrate with your own drawings or use magazine cutouts. Write a description for each picture. -Write a ―how to.‖ (How to organize a trip!) -The teacher and students together make adjective charts. Charts are displayed and used as references for all trip activities. 39 The ABC’S of It All A B C D E F G H I J What is it? K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 40 Common and Useful Travel-Related Vocabulary 1. accommodations 34. fee 2. amenities 35. first class 3. arrival 36. flight 4. attire 37. gratuity 5. baggage/luggage 38. guest 6. balcony 39. inclusion, inclusive 7. bon voyage 40. itinerary 8. book 41. lodge 9. buffet 42. luxury 10. cabin 43. non-refundable 11. cancellation 44. package 12. carryon 45. port 13. charter 46. port of call 14. coach 47. refundable 15. confirmation 48. reservation 16. continental breakfast 49. resort 17. cruise 50. room service 18. cuisine 51. round trip 19. culinary 52. sightseeing 20. currency 53. standard 21. customs 54. standby 22. deck 55. stateroom 23. deluxe 56. suite 24. departure 57. surcharge 25. deposit 58. tariff 26. destination 59. ticket 27. dining 60. tour 28. discount 61. tourist 29. disembarcation/debarcation 62. travel agency 30. excursion 63. travel agent 31. exclusion, exclusive 64. upgrade 32. fare 65. vacation 41 Name_________________________ Travel Brochure/Pamphlet Evaluation Form Crite ria Points 1. Appeal/effectiveness/creativity: 0 - 20 pts _____ 2. Slogan: 0 - 10 pts _____ 3. Headline: 0 - 10 pts _____ 4. Copy: 0 - 20 pts _____ 5. Illustrations: 0 - 10 pts _____ 6. Trademark/logo: 0 - 10 pts _____ 7. Signature: 0 - 10 pts _____ 8. Layout: 0 - 10 pts _____ TOTAL NUMBER OF POINTS = GRADE _____ 42 Project: Dream Vacation Proposal 1. Research the country/location that you wrote about in your journal. 2. Take notes of interesting facts and places of interest. Include descriptions. Use expressive language and sensory observation. 3. Select photographs and pictures from available sources. Print, copy, cut out, or use original illustrations. Write a description of your selected illustrations. Descriptive writing may be words, phrases, or sentences. 4. Determine the length of your proposed trip. 5. Determine and specifically name/describe travel arrangements and accommodations. You will probably want to include company logos in your final layout. (May be needed for #8) 6. Create an itinerary of places and activities. Include a time frame. 7. Draft a projected cost. Include the following in your projection: transportation fare, accommodations cost, estimated dining costs, and fees/charges for planned/unplanned activities and excursions. Also include a statement about individual’s personal budget: souvenirs, medical emergencies, upgrades, etc. 8. Type or handwrite the text that you want to use on your poster. Remember to vary font and font sizes to create interest and attract attention. Text includes headline, copy, and signature/logo. 9. Plan your layout. Really work with placement, wording, font, and font sizes to create the most appealing poster. Illustrations, informative and expressive text (copy), and headline should be laid out on the front of the poster. Signatures/logos may also be included in this layout. Itinerary, cost projection chart, and any other schedules may be displayed on the back of the poster or on another poster. 10. Create your final project. 43 Name_________________________ Dream Vacation Proposal Evaluation Form Crite ria Points 1. Appeal/effectiveness/creativity: 0 - 20 pts _____ 2. Slogan: 0 - 10 pts _____ 3. Headline: 0 - 10 pts _____ 4. Copy: 0 - 20 pts _____ 5. Illustrations: 0 - 10 pts _____ 6. Trademark/logo: 0 - 10 pts _____ 7. Signature: 0 - 10 pts _____ 8. Layout: 0 - 10 pts _____ TOTAL NUMBER OF POINTS = GRADE _____ 44 Creative Writing Unit Persuasive Writing: Advertising Lesson Plan Creating an advertisement for broadcast media Content Objectives The student will learn the similarities and differences of print and broadcast advertising. The student will create broadcast advertising. SIOP Component(s): Preparation In order for the LEP student to best understand the content objective, it is essential that it be clearly stated in simple language. The objective should be given both orally and in written form. Limiting the content objectives to one or two per lesson reduces the complexity of the task for the second language learner. Language Objectives The student will review key terminology of advertising from lessons 1 and 2. The student will understand the following key terminology related to broadcast advertising: audio, backdrop, broadcast media, commercial, concise language, dialect, dialogue, intonation, pausing, prop, propaganda techniques, script, set, sound effects, staging, staging directions, target audience, timing, video, visual appeal. SIOP Component(s): Preparation It is important in the sheltered instructional setting to establish academic language objectives. LEP students are not only learning content, but they are also acquiring academic English skill in reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Special emphasis is placed on development of content vocabulary. This language objective focuses on the reinforcement and learning of the new advertising vocabulary. The teacher should plan for the students’ different levels of language proficiency. 45 Metacognitive Objectives The student will make a chart or Venn diagram of the similarities and differences of print and broadcast advertising. The student will use available resources (computer, video camera, cassette player, etc.) to create broadcast advertising. SIOP Component(s): Preparation Metacognitive strategies that students acquire will continue to help them even when the teacher is not there to guide them. Strategies enable the student to plan, monitor, and evaluate learning independently. This teacher has planned meaningful activities with ample opportunity for practice in reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Materials ―Key Terminology: Broadcast Advertising‖ - handout/transparency ―Print and Broadcast Advertising: Similarities and Differences‖ Blank chart – handout/transparency Blank Venn Diagram – handout/transparency Video clips of television commercials Audio of radio commercials ―Broadcast Advertising Information‖ – handout ―Evaluation of Broadcast Advertising‖ – handout ―Broadcast Advertising: Project Guidelines‖ – handout ―Broadcast Advertising: Project Evaluation ‖ – handout Supplies: blank paper, video camera, cassette player, CD player SIOP Component(s): Preparation This variety of material supports different learning styles. The language learner can use all of his/her senses in making connections and building relevant personal meaning. 46 Procedure (Estimated Time: 3 – 4 days) (1) The students will respond in their journals to the following questions: What do you notice first when a commercial is played on television the people or the product? Are you ever influenced by advertisements that are shown on the television or that you hear on the radio? Why or why not? Which influences you more—advertising or broadcast advertising? Why? SIOP Component(s): Comprehensible Input The teacher links the student’s background to the new concepts that he/she is about to introduce. Journal writing is essential for the development of second language writing skills. Students can share writing in small groups, or the teacher can later collect and provide written comments. (2) The teacher will discuss students’ responses and note opinions on the board or on wall charts. These ideas should help students to better understand the similarities and differences in media advertising. SIOP Component(s): Comprehensible Input, Strategies A graphic organizer as simple as a T-chart or skeleton outline provides the LEP student with visual support. (3) Before the teacher introduces advertising in broadcast media, the teacher will review basic terminology and writing processes of print advertising. The teacher will refer to previous transparencies (lessons 1 and 2) to focus attention on prior knowledge and to improve recall of the ad creation process. The teacher will give the students the list of ―Key Terminology.‖ Students will write definitions/ explanations/examples on their papers as vocabulary is discussed and clarified. 47 SIOP Component(s): Building Background, Comprehensible Input, Strategies At the beginning of this activity, the teacher links past learning to the new vocabulary. Additional vocabulary activities assist the language learner to better learn the key words for the lesson. With something as simple as a folder with extra homemade pockets, the student can keep old and new vocabulary words in an organized visual way for future reference. The previous lesson’s vocabulary should be displayed on word walls in the classroom. The teacher should not forget that LEP students need to see how the new words are used in the context of the lesson. Sentences embedded with the key term provide meaningful vocabulary development. (4) The teacher will also distribute the ―Broadcast Advertising Information.‖ The teacher will discuss the importance of each term as it relates to the writing and production of a commercial. Students will then add notes to their handout. SIOP Component(s): Comprehensible Input Depending on the student’s proficiency in English, the teacher may need to slow down his/her speech and to be sure to enunciate clearly. The more advanced student should hear normal speech. The video clip will be replayed and rewound. Students will then be asked to associate the vocabulary word or element of broadcast advertising to the commercial viewed by using the remote and pausing on a section of the commercial that represents the word or element being studied. Each student will then explain his/her choice of that spot as an example of the target term or component. The class as a unit will evaluate the commercial. The teacher will post comments on the evaluation sheet ―Evaluation of Broadcast Advertising.‖ 48 SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Interaction Scaffolding is effectively used in this lesson. The teacher may verbally scaffold by paraphrasing. By teaching, modeling, and supplying lots of practice for the student, the teacher uses instructional scaffolding to assist the language learner. This activity promotes student discussion and interaction. SIOP Component(s): Review/Evaluation The evaluation sheet provides solid feedback for the students. Assessment for the English learner needs to be an ongoing process. (5) After the review and introduction to broadcast advertising, the teacher will hand out the blank T-chart and Venn diagram. After viewing a clip of a television commercial, the teacher will lead the class in an analysis of the commercial, being sure to bring out the similarities and differences between print and broadcast advertising. The teacher will fill in the Venn diagram transparency during discussion; students will copy the information on their Venn diagram handout. The students will listen to a radio commercial. With a partner, students will complete a Venn diagram. The teacher will monitor to make sure that all students have completed their diagrams. Upon completion of the two Venn diagrams, the teacher will ask a student to reword/explain what the diagrams represent. The teacher will extend the student’s explanation as necessary. 49 SIOP Component(s): Comprehensible Input, Strategies In this activity, the teacher has moved the students toward independent functioning with less support. The teacher first models the Venn diagram. Working with a partner gives the student the additional support that leads to increased learning independence. When the teacher asks the student to reword/explain what the diagrams represent, the students use higher-level thinking skills. The rewording/explaining exercise can be a written or verbal response. (6) Teacher option: This assignment may be daily practice, homework, or an extension activity. Since some students may relate better and more quickly to a chart format, the teacher will tell students to transfer the information from the Venn diagram to a chart. Additionally, students will write an example from the TV and radio commercials that relate to each entry. SIOP Component(s): Lesson Delivery The students are actively engaged throughout this lesson. At this point in the lesson, the teacher may give a comprehension review of the key vocabulary of the lesson. It is important to remember that review and monitoring should not be separate elements but should continually be part of each lesson. (7) The teacher will assign the project for this lesson: creating a broadcast commercial for television. The teacher may determine that students with limited oral language skills or with learning disabilities affecting speech may create a written radio commercial as an alternate assignment. The teacher will go over and clarify the ―Project Guidelines.‖ The teacher will also give students ―Project Evaluation‖ so that they will be aware of the assessment criteria. The teacher will monitor progress throughout the creation of the commercial. 50 SIOP Component(s): Comprehensible Input, Strategies, Practice, Review/Evaluation The teacher’s monitoring of each group is essential in providing feedback. Group members can do a self-evaluation as a form of assessment. The end product is the student’s creation of his/her own broadcast commercial. Application is the final step in effective scaffolding. Directions for projects and more challenging tasks can be written in the student’s first language. A very limited English student could cut out examples of magazine commercials and write simple sentences, telling what he/she thinks the advertiser wants us to think. Technological Applications Students will use available technology (computer, scanner, video camera, audio equipment, etc.) to produce a broadcast commercial. Formal Assessment Teacher and class evaluation using ―Project Evaluation‖ form (handout #7) Informal Assessments Teacher monitoring during class discussions Teacher check of Venn diagrams and/or chart Extensions The students will compare and contrast print, broadcast/TV, broadcast/radio, and specialty advertising on a more advanced Venn diagram. When possible, the teacher will set up a field trip to a local company (TV station, radio station, ad agency) to witness broadcast commercial production. 51 Key Terminology: Broadcast Advertising (1) audio (2) backdrop (3) broadcast media (4) comme rcial (5) concise language (6) dialect (7) dialogue (8) intonation (9) pausing (10) prop (11) propaganda techniques (12) script (13) set (14) sound effects (15) staging (16) staging directions (17) target audience (18) timing (19) video (20) visual appeal 52 Venn Diagram 53 Broadcast Advertising Information Most common media utilized: television and radio Target audience: juvenile teenager young adult mature adult senior adult Propaganda technique/s: Audio components of production: concise language dialect dialogue intonation pausing script sound effects timing Video components of production: backdrop prop set staging/staging directions timing visual appeal 54 Evaluation of Broadcast Advertising Commercial sponsor: Media: Propaganda technique(s): Target audience: Analysis of audio component (script): dialogue dialect intonation pausing timing sound effects Analysis of video component (visual appeal): backdrop or set props staging timing Effectiveness: 55 Broadcast Advertising: Project Guidelines Television Commercial Each student will write the script for a TV commercial and turn it in to the teacher for evaluation. 1. Determine the product, service, or company to be advertised. 2. Identify the target audience. 3. Write the script. (Refer to “Broadc ast Advertising Information” handout.) (Note: limit the characters to two) a. Be sure to include the audio components. b. Be sure to include the video components. Students will divide into groups of three or four. 1. Members of the group will analyze the individual scripts and select one to produce. 2. Identify participants: a. two actors b. video operator/director c. cue cards/director 3. Practice performance. 4. Videotape commercial. (Commercial may be presented live if no video camera is available.) Students will present their productions to the class for assessment by the teacher and classmates. Refer to the evaluation form for criteria to be used in the evaluation. 56 Broadcast Advertising: Project Evaluation 1. Product/Service/Company clearly identified (1 – 5 pts) 2. Target audience appropriately addressed (1 – 10 pts) 3. Effectiveness of script – audio components incorporated (1 – 30 pts) Comments: 4. Effectiveness of script – video components incorporated (1 – 30 pts) Comments: 5. Overall appeal of the commercial (1 – 25 pts) POINTS AWARDED Part 1 _____ Part 2 _____ Part 3 _____ Part 4 _____ Part 5 _____ Total points earned _____ 57 Creative Writing Unit Persuasive Writing: Advertising Lesson Plan Reviewing and assessing advertising unit Content Objectives The student will review advertising terminology, components, and production. The student will be tested on advertising terminology, components, and production. SIOP Component(s): Preparation In order for the LEP student to best understand the content objectives, it is essential that it be clearly stated in simple language. The objectives should be expressed both orally and in written form. Language Objective The student will participate in reading, writing, viewing/representing, speaking, and listening activities in which the teacher will incorporate various review, application, and assessment strategies, such as writing in journals, reading and evaluating print advertising, creating and playing games and/or flashcards, and representing vocabulary and concepts visually. SIOP Component(s): Preparation It is important in the sheltered instructional setting to establish academic language objectives. LEP students are not only learning content, but they are also acquiring academic English skills in reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Special emphasis is placed on development of content vocabulary. Metacognitive Objectives The student will review key vocabulary and concepts related to print and broadcast advertising through the use of a concept of definition map. 58 SIOP Component(s): Preparation Metacognitive strategies that students acquire will continue to help them even when the teacher is not there to guide them. Strategies enable the student to plan, monitor, and evaluate learning independently. The objectives are stated clearly for all learners. This lesson will give additional support to LEP students. The teacher can determine how well the students have understood and retained the key vocabulary and concepts. The focus on review links the learning of the previous four lessons. Materials Handouts/transparencies from previous lessons ―Concept of Definition Map‖ - handout ―Test: Advertising Unit‖ – to be created by teacher Classroom set of newspapers or sales brochures Blank paper, pens, pencils, highlighters, rulers, dried beans Procedure (Estimated Time: 2 – 3 days) (1) The teacher will ask students to respond in their journals to the following questions: Why is advertising important to you? Why is advertising important to our society? Upon completion of journal entries, the teacher will lead a discussion of student responses. SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Interaction, Review/Evaluation Students can be paired with a peer to share journal entries. Opportunities for social interaction promote language development. Journals provide a non threatening form of assessment. The teacher can restate a student’s response and validate what he/she is thinking by asking, ―Is that what your are saying?‖ (2) The teacher will guide students in highlighting key vocabulary and concepts on previous handouts. As highlighting is done, the teacher will reinforce the terminology and concepts by asking students for examples from the newspaper, from television commercials, or from prior personal experiences. The teacher will distribute the ―Concept of 59 Definition Map‖ handout and then guide students through the strategy of completing the map. SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Review/Evaluation It is important that the teacher model highlighting in order that the LEP student effectively learns this strategy. The teacher provides the student with well-planned review activities. Explicit connections to the concepts previously covered in class help all students to build a bridge to new learning. The teacher may provide a graphic organizer such as a T-chart with the key word in one column and an example on the right as a solid form of review. (3) The teacher will direct students to create a bingo board from the vocabulary in lessons one and two. The student covers the term with a bean or crumpled paper as it is defined. SIOP Component(s): Interaction, Review/Evaluation Several bingo games can be made by focusing on the key vocabulary for each lesson. Students can rotate and play the different games for a thorough review. (4) Optional games or activities may be created, depending on time and teacher innovation. Examples might be Jeopardy, baseball, team competition in which two students write answers on the board, or use of flash cards that have been made by students. SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Review/Evaluation The teacher can adapt the game to the level of English proficiency of the LEP student. Tic Tac Toe can be a very effective simple review game. The teacher puts a big Tic Tac Toe grid on the board. The class divides into groups with the teacher strategically placing the LEP students. Each group takes a turn in answering. The question must be answered correctly for the group to get an X or O. Questions should range from simple to complex. More advanced LEP students can join classmates in designing their own games. Groups can take turns playing the different review games. 60 (5) The teacher will review lesson 3 vocabulary (travel advertising) by dividing the class into two groups. Group 1 is responsible for writing questions or finding examples/visual representations of numbers 1 – 33 on the vocabulary handout. Group 2 will do the same for numbers 34 – 66. The teacher should give examples or ask for examples to insure that students understand the procedures. Upon completion of this assignment, the teacher will pass out a new ―Common and Useful Travel-Related Vocabulary‖ handout that students may refer to when answering questions asked by the opposing team or when identifying example/visual representation shown by the opposing team. SIOP Component(s): Practice, Comprehensible Input This additional handout provides a supportive learning environment for the LEP student. Such support will help to develop the student’s proficiency in English. (6) For lesson 4 review (broadcast advertising), the teacher will direct students to make flashcards of the vocabulary. Partners will quiz each other for 15 – 20 minutes. Next, the teacher will decide a game format that can be used to continue identification of the terminology. SIOP Component(s): Lesson Delivery Throughout these activities the teacher uses different grouping techniques that support the objectives of the lesson. All language skills are integrated, and the students use a variety of thinking and learning strategies. (7) Optional review activities: The teacher may create a written review sheet so that students will have a more concise form for home review. Another option would be to allow students to develop their own written review sheet, individually or with a partner, that could be used as a reference on the test. For all students, the amount of written review will be determined by the teacher’s informal assessment of the understanding demonstrated during class review activities. 61 SIOP Component(s): Strategies, Interactions, Practice, Lesson Delivery The language learner can benefit from a skeleton outline review. The amount of information provided by the teacher depends on the student’s level of English proficiency. The variety of review activities provides the students with hands-on materials that have integrated reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Students are actively engaged in reviewing throughout the entire lesson. The LEP student needs frequent and ample opportunities for interaction with classmates and for practice and application. (8) The teacher will give a written test to formally assess understanding and application of key terminology, components, techniques, and concepts. The teacher may or may not allow the use of reference/review sheets. SIOP Component(s): Lesson Delivery, Review/Evaluation The teacher has effectively maximized the time spent engaged in review activities. By using effective review strategies, the teacher has encouraged active participation of students. LEP students can use the study guides to take the written test. Multiple choice questions with a maximum of three choices can be designed. A cloze exercise with a word bank is another effective form of assessment for the LEP student. The language learner can even handle the challenge of a True/False assessment if they use the study guide for support. Technology Applications The students might use computers to make game boards and/or flashcards, create visual representations, and write review questions/quizzes. Formal Assessment Written unit exam Informal Assessments Teacher monitoring of concept map, games, flashcard development and usage, review by individuals, partners, or groups. 62 Concept Map What is it like? 63 What are some examples?
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