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					           Chapter 17
           Investigating Canadian Tourism

Chapter Overview
In Chapter 17, students explore the extensive and varied Canadian tourism
industry. They examine two major aspects of the industry—tourism within
Canada (by both foreign visitors and Canadians), and Canadians visiting
other countries.
    Students discover the importance of tourism to Canada, both as a revenue
earner and a creator of jobs. They learn the ways in which tourism requires
the interplay of natural systems and human systems. To bring home the
consequences of ignoring the need for balance in this relationship, students
investigate some negative effects of tourism, primarily exhaustion of the
natural environment and damage to local cultures. Tourism doesn’t always
have to have a negative effect, however, as students learn in the case study
about ecotourism. The case study focuses on how one Canadian ecotourism
company provides interesting vacations while respecting both natural
systems and local culture. The Canadian entrepreneur who started the
company is profiled in the GeoCareers feature.
    Before beginning this chapter, students should be able to:
• interpret maps showing tourism flows
• make observations and conclusions about information contained in charts
    and bar graphs
• understand the difference between natural systems and human systems
These skills will be reinforced in this chapter.


Assessment and Evaluation Strategies
In this chapter, students demonstrate their ability to interpret maps and charts
containing information about Canadian tourism. They explain what factors
make a successful tourist destination in Canada, evaluate the concept of
ecotourism, and research specific tourism attractions.


Diagnostic
The introductory activity Plan a Trip Across Canada (page 286) is useful in
diagnosing students’ ability to make the mathematical calculations required
when they are on a budget. Students will also demonstrate their under-
standing of the basic trade-offs that tourists on a moderate budget must make
(i.e., speed and convenience vs. cost, etc.). Activity 1 on page 287 can help you
assess to what degree students understand the breadth of the tourism
industry.


Formative
Formative assessment opportunities include the following:
• students interpret tourism flow maps (activities 3–5, 16, and 17, pages 288
   and 293)
• students explain the attractions of three Canadian tourist destinations
   (activities 11–15, pages 292–293)



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                                       •      students consider the problems created by tourism (activities 18 and 19,
                                              page 294 and Reproducible Master 17.5: Tourism Problems and
                                              Solutions)


                                       Summative
                                       Summative evaluation opportunities include the following:
                                       • students explain the importance of tourism (Wrap It Up activity 1, page
                                          298)
                                       • students outline good and bad outcomes from tourism (Wrap It Up
                                          activity 2, page 298)
                                       • students investigate the Olympic Games (Wrap It Up activity 3, page 298)
                                          using Reproducible Master 17.7: Rubric for Olympic Games Report
                                       • students develop a plan to increase tourism in their own region (Wrap It
                                          Up activity 4, page 298) using RM 17.8: Checklist for Writing a Formal
                                          Letter or Reproducible Master 3.10: Rubric for a Poster or Display
                                       • students use the Internet to research and map major Canadian tourist
                                          destinations in each province and territory (Wrap It Up activity 5, page
                                          298)
                                          A summative test is offered on Reproducible Master 17.9: Chapter 17
                                       Checkup.


                                       Pathways Chart
Main Topic                                         Sub-topics           Curriculum         Reproducible Masters
and Key Activities                            (student book pages)     Expectations       and Additional Activities
Plan a Trip Across Canada                      (p. 286)              MI2.08             RM 17.1: Words to Know and
• comparing travel costs and                                                            Student Journal—for AA 1&2
   convenience

Tourism in Canada                              (p. 287)              GC2.04
• discovering who comes to Canada
  and why                                      Who Comes to          GC2.04
                                               Canada?
                                               (pp. 288–289)

Tourism and Canada’s Economy                   (p. 289)              GC3.02             RM 17.2: How the Canadian
• learning how tourism contributes                                                      Dollar Affects Tourism—for
  to Canada’s economy                                                                   AA 3; RM 17.3: Jobs in
• understanding the special impor-                                                      Tourism
  tance of US tourist visitors
                                               The Growth of         GC2.04
                                               Tourism (p. 290)

Tourist Destinations in Canada                 (pp. 290–291)         GC2.03             RM 17.4: Promoting Tourism
• knowing the importance of natural                                                     in Your Community—for AA 4;
  and human systems to Canada’s                                                         RM 3.10: Rubric for a Poster
  tourism industry                                                                      or Display—for AA 4
• examining natural and human
  systems in three tourist destina-            Skiing in Banff       SS1.05, GC2.04
  tions in Canada                              National Park
                                               (pp. 291–292)




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                                                                      C HAPTER 17: I NVESTIGATING C ANADIAN T OURISM


 Main Topic                                    Sub-topics           Curriculum           Reproducible Masters
 and Key Activities                       (student book pages)     Expectations         and Additional Activities
                                           Prince Edward         SS1.05, GC2.04
                                           Island (p. 292)

                                           The Polar Bear        SS1.05, GC2.04
                                           Express
                                           (pp. 292–293)

 Where Do Canadians Travel?                (p. 293)              GC2.03, GC2.04
 • identifying the top ten countries as
   destinations for Canadian tourism

 Negative Effects of Tourism               (p. 294)              UM2.01               RM 17.5: Tourism Problems
 • learning how tourism can damage                                                    and Solutions
   natural systems and local cultures
                                           Case Study: GAP       GC2.04               RM 17.6: Paradise Island—
                                           Adventures                                 for AA 5
                                           (pp. 295–296)

                                           GeoCareers:           UM3.03
                                           Ecotourism
                                           Entrepreneur
                                           (p. 297)

 Wrap It Up                                (p. 298)              GC3.01, MI2.08       RM 0.4: Pro/Con Comparison
 • explaining the importance and the                                                  Organizer; RM 17.7: Rubric for
   effects of tourism                                                                 Olympic Games Report;
 • reporting on an Olympic Games                                                       RM 3.10: Rubric for a Poster
   host city                                                                          or Display; RM 17.8: Checklist
 • identifying ways to boost local                                                    for Writing a Formal Letter;
   tourism                                                                            RM 9.6: Canada Political
 • mapping Canadian tourism desti-                                                    Outline Map; RM 17.9:
   nations by type                                                                    Chapter 17 Checkup



Curriculum Expectations Key
SS1.05 Demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which natural and
         human systems function as parts of a whole
GC2.03 Map and describe Canadian tourist destinations in Canada and
         around the world
GC2.04 Research and describe the importance of tourism to Canada’s
         economic development
GC3.01 Use a variety of media sources (e.g., newspapers, televised docu-
         mentaries, taped interviews, Internet search) effectively to produce a
         research report on an international trade, cultural, or sporting event
         involving Canada (e.g., trade missions, Commonwealth and
         Olympic Games)
GC3.02 Investigate the importance of tourism to Canada’s development
UM2.01 Predict the consequences of human activities (e.g., agriculture, recre-
         ation) on natural systems (e.g., soil depletion, climate change)
UM3.03 Identify job and career opportunities in the Canadian workplace
         requiring geographic knowledge and skills
MI2.08 Provide evidence to support conclusions and opinions




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                                                                   •   airplanes with computer outlets and Internet
Teaching Notes and Answers to                                          access
Text Activities                                                    •   airport business centres—with telephones,
                                                                       Internet access, and fax machines—where
                                                                       passengers can work while waiting for a flight
Plan a Trip Across Canada (text page 286)                          •   hotels with special floors reserved for business
Before students do this quiz, ask them to consider this                travellers who want access to a business centre
question: “All travellers love speed and convenience,                  and quiet accommodations
but can they afford it?” After students have completed             •   limousine services to and from airports, which
their travel budget, ensure that the total cost for trans-             allow businesspeople to work while travelling
port, accommodation, and incidentals stayed within                 •   electronic tickets, which allow the frequent
$3000. Ask students a few follow-up questions. For                     flyers to avoid some lineups
example, which type of traveller (a business traveller, a     Who Comes to Canada? (text pages 288–289)
family, a short-term traveller, or a long-term traveller)
would most likely                                             Many of the students in tourist areas, such as Niagara
• fly? (a business or short-term traveller)                   Falls, will have seen tourists locally. What are their
• stay in a luxury hotel? (a business traveller)              observations? Where do the tourists appear to come
• drive? (a family or long-term traveller)                    from? How do they travel, individually or in orga-
    At this point before beginning further work on the        nized groups? Where do they go? What do they buy?
chapter, you may wish to familiarize students with the        Do they come at specific times of the year? If possible,
Words to Know using Additional Activities 1 and 2             establish a brief profile of tourists to your area or a
with Reproducible Master 17.1: Words to Know and              nearby tourism site to see how it compares with the
Student Journal.                                              overall information about tourists provided in this and
                                                              other sections of the chapter.

Tourism in Canada (text pages 287–289)                        3.   a) Of the top ten major sources of tourists to
                                                                      Canada, Australians come the farthest.
If yours is a region where tourism is important, some              b) Australians come to Canada for many reasons.
students may have family who work in the industry.                    • to compare the open spaces with those in
Even if yours is not a tourism area, students may have                    Australia and experience the Canadian
family in different regions where tourism is a major                      wilderness
economic factor. Ask the class how many family                        • to experience a different climate (they can
members work in the following components of the                           stay in Canada’s summer during their
tourism industry:                                                         winter)
• transportation (airlines, buses, taxis, etc.)                       • to see the major cities
• hospitality (restaurants, hotels, etc.)                             • to see the natural attractions such as
• entertainment and adventure (ski or golf resorts,                       Niagara Falls and the Rocky Mountains
     outdoor adventures, theatres or cinemas, etc.)                   • to visit friends and relatives
• services (travel agencies, travel publications, etc.)               • to visit a country with a similar history as
This introduction may help to establish the importance                    a colony of Britain
of tourism to Canadians generally, and to students in
the class directly.                                           4.   a) Because Canada was once a British colony, our
                                                                      two countries have many historical ties. In the
1.    a) Possible answers include recreational tourism,               2001 Census, approximately 40 per cent of
         ecotourism, wilderness tourism, and visiting                 Canadians stated that their ethnic origin was
         friends and relatives (VFR) tourism.                         British. Many visitors from the UK come to
      b) Encourage students to write a clear statement                visit relatives in Canada.
         explaining their choice.                                  b) Reasons to explain Canada’s popularity with
                                                                      Japanese travellers:
2.    Business travel makes up 18 per cent of overnight               • Canada’s vast open spaces and low popu-
      traffic into and out of Canada. Many business                        lation density (very different from
      travellers pay much higher prices for more                           Japan’s)
      comfort and convenience. (“Business” class                      • the Japanese appreciation of nature (some
      features larger seats and better meals.) Many busi-                  Japanese come to see the mountains or the
      ness travellers are attracted by services such as the                Northern Lights)
      following:

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                                                                               C HAPTER 17: I NVESTIGATING C ANADIAN T OURISM


          •    the reasonable costs (the yen is very                      would like to work in the travel industry. Which
               strong against the Canadian dollar)                        job would they like? Why?
          •    the popularity of Anne of Green Gables in
               Japan                                                 7.   a) Shopping is the activity with the highest
          •    Canada’s reputation as a safe country                         listing. Sixty-one per cent of American and
                                                                             eighty-one per cent of overseas visitors
5.   For Americans, Canada is quick and easy to get to,                      include it in their activities while in Canada.
     has similar customs that make them feel at home,                        Jobs connected with shopping and virtually
     is safe, is welcoming to visitors, and is cheaper                       every other activity listed in Figure 17.3
     than many other tourist destinations.                                   involve the service sector.
                                                                          b) Probe for clear reasons to support the choices
                                                                             that students make.
Tourism and Canada’s Economy
(text pages 289–290)                                                 8.   If shopping, sightseeing, dining, and visiting
                                                                          parks or historical sites are the most popular activ-
This section establishes the importance of tourism to                     ities for tourists, what opportunities for these exist
the Canadian economy. As its importance grows,                            in your area? If there is little opportunity for these
however, so does the industry’s vulnerability to inter-                   activities, encourage students to think of other
national forces outside its control. The strength of the                  activities that could be developed (e.g., planning
Canadian dollar is one example. For an extension exer-                    an amusement park or a skiing development) and
cise in which students study why the strength of the                      that would likely to appeal to tourists. Use Figure
dollar affects tourism, use Additional Activity 3 and                     17.3 on page 289 as a guide.
Reproducible Master 17.2: How the Canadian Dollar
Affects Tourism.                                                     The Growth of Tourism (text page 290)
                                                                     9.   Clarify that the activity refers to international
6.   The tourist-related jobs could be recorded in a                      tourism to Canada, not international travel by
     cross-classification chart such as the one in Figure                 Canadians. Encourage students to look on pages
     TR 17.1. Note that students are required to suggest                  289 and 290 for data. The number of tourist visi-
     jobs for only three tourist activities, but you may                  tors to Canada grew from 15 210 000 (1990) to
     wish to have them generate a class list individu-                    19 618 000 (2000). (Note that the vertical scale in
     ally, in small groups, or as a class, using                          Figure 17.4 should read “Thousands of Arrivals.”)
     Reproducible Master 17.3: Jobs in Tourism. After                     In 2000, tourism provided jobs for 546 400 people,
     completing this activity, ask students if they                       and provided more than $30 billion in revenues.



 Tourist Activity                              Job #1                                    Job #2

 Shopping                                      retail clerk                              stock buyer
 Sightseeing                                   guide                                     driver
 Dining at high-quality restaurants            server                                    cook
 Visiting parks or historic sites              wildlife officer                          caretaker
 Visiting friends or relatives                 movie projectionist                       restaurant cashier
 Outdoor activities or sports                  ski instructor                            professional hockey player
 Zoos, museums, or natural displays            admissions clerk                          zookeeper
 Participating in nightlife or similar         bartender                                 musician
 entertainment
 Attending cultural events                     orchestra conductor                       gallery guide
 Attending fairs or festivals                  organizer                                 sales agent

Figure TR 17.1: Jobs in various tourist activities




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Tourist Destinations in Canada                                addition, tourists have little competition from the
                                                              local population for use of tourist facilities.
(text pages 290–293)                                          Further, PEI has managed to retain some of its
                                                              homespun, small-town charm because of its small
Some students may have visited popular tourist desti-
                                                              size. The relatively small population on the island
nations in Canada. Where have they been? What did
                                                              benefits from the huge influx of tourism dollars,
they like about the experience? What do they think
                                                              which support many tourism businesses.
could be done to improve the experience? Point out
that most of the improvements they suggest will be to     The Polar Bear Express (text pages 292–293)
the human systems, since major changes to the natural
systems often detract from the tourist experience.        This suggested mathematical exercise will help
    In addition to the work in this section, you may      students comprehend the length of the Polar Bear
wish to focus on the tourist opportunities available in   Express. First, ask the class to locate Cochrane and
the local community using Additional Activity 4 and       Moosonee on a map of Ontario.
Reproducible Master 17.4: Promoting Tourism in                Distance: Ask students to calculate the distance
Your Community, which can be assessed using               from Toronto to Cochrane (about 750 km). The text
Reproducible Master 3.10: Rubric for a Poster or          states that the distance from Cochrane to Moosonee is
Display.                                                  300 km. So the total distance is about 1050 km.
                                                              Travel time: The Ontario Northland train leaves
10. Foreign travellers will ask many questions about      Union Station at 6 p.m. and arrives in Cochrane at
    Canadian natural and human systems. Here are a        5 a.m. the next morning. The Polar Bear Express leaves
    few examples.                                         Cochrane at 8 a.m. and arrives in Moosonee at
    • Are the public washrooms clean?                     12:15 p.m. Ask the class to calculate how long the
    • Are the city streets safe?                          journey takes (18 1/ hours).
                                                                              4

    • Is the winter fair worth the money?                     Average speed: What is the average speed through
    • Are the museums crowded?                            the entire journey? (1050 km/18 1/ h = 57.5 km/h)
                                                                                             4

    • Will the weather be suitable for swimming?              The experience: There is no road connection to
    • Are the ski hills demanding enough?                 Moosonee but, assuming you could drive there from
                                                          Toronto, how long might the journey take, including
Skiing in Banff National Park                             rest stops. (Assuming you could average 70 km/h,
(text pages 291–292)                                      including stops, the journey would take 1050 km/70 h
                                                          = 15 h.) What does this tell us about tourist travel?
Direct students to the photograph in Figure 17.6 (page    (The experience is more important than the speed.)
292) to see why scenery is an attraction in Banff. Has
anyone in the class visited Banff, or any other tourist   13. The remote location of the Polar Bear Express route
destinations in the Rockies? What did they experience         means that it is difficult for tourists to get there,
there? What are their observations about the location         and many cannot fit it into the time they have
as a tourist destination? What are the natural systems        available. But for those who really like the rugged
like? What are the human systems like?                        wilderness and few tourists, this is an attraction.
                                                              They will go out of their way to take the trip!
11. Other reasons for visiting Banff include the
    outdoor recreational activities (hiking, canoeing,    14. a) Cultural tourists can examine Aboriginal sites
    and rafting), the wildlife, the scenery, and the             and the Hudson’s Bay post, and can purchase
    nightlife.                                                   authentic cultural souvenirs (such as soap-
Prince Edward Island (text page 292)                             stone carvings).
                                                              b) Adventure tourists can go whale watching on
Ask the class to look at the map of Prince Edward                James Bay, take a wilderness excursion along
Island in Figure 17.7 on page 292. Why would it be a             the coast, or scour for fossils.
popular destination for tourists? (Lots of sand beaches       c) Sports tourists can go hiking or canoeing.
beside the ocean, easy to drive to from the mainland
over the Confederation Bridge.) Ask the class ques-       15. If students have trouble designing a chart, model
tions similar to those above about Banff.                     the one shown in Figure TR 17.2 on the following
                                                              page, which provides possible answers. You may
12. The small size of Prince Edward Island is an              wish to limit students to two ideas per cell.
    advantage for tourists because the attractions are
    all close together, and can be reached quickly. In


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                                                                              C HAPTER 17: I NVESTIGATING C ANADIAN T OURISM



 Destination                                 How Natural Systems Attract                How Human Systems Attract
                                             Tourists                                   Tourists

 Skiing in Banff National Park               •   plenty of snow                         •    restaurants
                                             •   mountains with steep descents          •    shops
                                                                                        •    road and parking facilities
                                                                                        •    accommodations with a variety
                                                                                             of price ranges
 Prince Edward Island                        •   seaside location                       •    bed and breakfast accommoda-
                                             •   sand beaches                                tions on farms
                                                                                        •    musicals
                                                                                        •    stock car racing
                                                                                        •    the Lucy Maud Montgomery
                                                                                             home
 Polar Bear Express                          •   wilderness                             •    300-km railway
                                             •   the Abitibi and Moose Rivers           •    “Polar Princess” cruises
                                             •   whales                                 •    transport to Fossil Island
                                             •   fossils                                •    Hudson’s Bay Post, 1673

Figure TR 17.2: The attractions provided by natural and human systems at three Canadian tourist sites


Where Do Canadians Travel?                                                   afford a corresponding winter holiday here in
                                                                             Canada. Italy attracts Canadians with family
(text page 293)                                                              ties there, but also attracts cultural visitors.
Before beginning this section, you may wish to give
                                                                   17. The United States is the most popular destination
students travel advertisements from a newspaper.
                                                                       for Canadian tourists because it is easy to get to,
Most dailies have a weekly travel section that contains
                                                                       can provide warm destinations in winter, and has
a number of ads. If you keep a file of these, with spring
                                                                       similar customs and way of life.
dates (for spring and summer travel) and fall dates
(for fall and winter travel), students could easily deter-
mine the seasonal nature of the tourism industry. Ask              Negative Effects of Tourism
students to identify key foreign destinations and some
of the attractions available.
                                                                   (text pages 294–297)
                                                                   Ask students to tell about any experiences they have
16. a) Countries that are in the top ten destinations              had at dirty beaches, hiking trails, or amusement
       for Canadian tourists but not in the top ten                parks. How does the litter affect their experience?
       that provide visitors to Canada are Italy,
       Spain, Dominican Republic, and Cuba.                        18. A few of the negative effects of tourism—and
    b) The Dominican Republic, Cuba, and Spain are                     possible solutions—are listed in Figure TR 17.3.
       primarily winter destinations for Canadians                     You may wish to provide students with
       seeking a week or so in the sun. Relatively few                 Reproducible Master 17.5: Tourism Problems
       citizens of these countries would be able to                    and Solutions to complete this activity.

 Negative Effect                                                  Possible Solution

 It can harm the natural environment.                             Limit the number of tourists who can visit fragile sites.
 It tends to generate only low-skill jobs for local people.       Provide training programs for local people to give access
                                                                  to higher skilled jobs in tourism.
 Local culture can suffer because artisans concentrate            Promote traditional art forms among visitors, and
 on producing tourist souvenirs instead of traditional art        sponsor traditional art fairs.
 forms.
 Large foreign-owned hotel chains own and control the             Aid local entrepreneurs in starting locally owned tourist
 profitable resorts.                                              businesses.

Figure TR 17.3: Tourism problems and solutions

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     E XPERIENCE C ANADA T EACHER ’ S R ESOURCE


19. Focus the students on the problems identified                   will show. There isn’t a consumer on this world
    above.                                                          who will believe in your product if you don’t
    • Do the tourists threaten the environment?                     believe in it yourself.”
    • Are the jobs provided restricted to low-skill
       jobs?                                                   3.   Bruce: “I always say that entrepreneurs can’t be
    • Has local and traditional culture suffered with               taught. You either have it or you don’t. You can’t
       the influx of tourists?                                      really learn to be an entrepreneur unless you want
    • Are the attractions and facilities owned by                   to start a franchise [like Tim Hortons]. The only
       foreign companies?                                           thing I would suggest is work on your skills to
                                                                    recognize your strengths and more importantly
Case Study: GAP Adventures                                          your weaknesses. You would be surprised at how
(text pages 295–296)                                                many people can’t do this. You can only survive if
As an extension of this case study, you may wish to                 you know what you can do yourself as an
provide students with the opportunity to step into the              entrepreneur and what you need help with. Many
shoes of an entrepreneur by planning their own                      people think that entrepreneurs are people that do
ecotourism resort paradise. Use Additional Activity 5               it all. I don’t believe that. They are mature delega-
and Reproducible Master 17.6: Paradise Island.                      tors [they know when and how to assign tasks to
                                                                    other people] who know a few things really well.
1.    Ecotourism companies encourage tourists to learn              They know how to find people to handle areas
      about local cultures, eat the local food, have as             they are not afraid to admit are weaknesses.”
      little effect on the environment as possible, use
      locally owned transportation and accommodation           Given that the tourism and hospitality sector is such a
      services, visit protected areas, and travel only in      large employer of Canadians, some of your students
      small groups.                                            might want to find a career in it. The following book,
                                                               although American, provides excellent ideas, high-
2.    Answers to this question should address the              lighting the various job types that exist in the sector:
      students’ feelings towards the items identified in       Marjorie Eberts, Linda Brothers, and Ann Gisler,
      the previous activity.                                   Careers in Travel, Tourism, and Hospitality,
                                                               (Lincolnwood, IL: VGM Career Horizons, 1997).
GeoCareers: Ecotourism Entrepreneur
(text page 297)                                                Wrap It Up (text page 298)
Before students answer the questions, ask them if they
would like to own their own travel company, and why.           1.   Tourism brings jobs and money to the Canadian
Bruce provided the following answers for the student                economy. In 2000, it generated $30 billion of
questions. Students may have different answers, but                 economic activity and provided 546 000 jobs.
they’ll probably be interested in hearing what a young
entrepreneur has to say about these issues.                    2.   a) You may wish to distribute Reproducible
                                                                       Master 0.4: Pro/Con Comparison Organizer
1.    Bruce: “I would say that being in control of                     to facilitate this activity. Students should think
      whether I win or lose is the most intriguing thing               of most of the effects listed in Figure TR 17.4
      about being an entrepreneur. You have to be a                    on the following page.
      person who can celebrate mistakes and look                    b) Suggest that students try to think of two items
      forward to learning from them… What I like least                 for each of the three categories.
      is dealing with banks and having to justify what                 The local economy:
      you do over and over to professionals and curious                • Buy from local suppliers (e.g., for accom-
      people you meet and always ask, ‘What do you do                       modation or tours).
      for a living?’ My answer is usually breathe, drink,              • Eat local-style food in restaurants that
      and eat! What about you?”                                             don’t cater particularly to tourists.
                                                                       Culture:
2.    Bruce: “Being an entrepreneur requires confidence                • Don’t buy cheap “tacky” souvenirs.
      and focus. You have to have passion about what                   • Pay a fair price for goods.
      you are doing and have total confidence that it is               • Try to understand the local culture.
      the right thing. You can’t fake it either. You need to           The environment:
      have a huge sense of confidence. If you don’t, it                • Take low- or no-fuel transportation when-
                                                                            ever possible.


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                                                                        C HAPTER 17: I NVESTIGATING C ANADIAN T OURISM


 Positive Effects of Tourism                                 Negative Effects of Tourism

 •    Tourism creates jobs.                                  •    The jobs for local people tend to demand only low-
 •    Tourists bring money to spend.                              level skills.
 •    People gain a better understanding of people in        •    Visitors can overrun local cultures.
      other countries.                                       •    In some places, the environment is being harmed by
 •    Some types can lead to greater respect for the envi-        too many visitors.
      ronment.                                               •    Foreign-owned businesses can take money out of
                                                                  the country.

Figure TR 17.4: Positive and negative effects of tourism



         •    “Take only pictures, leave only foot-               to incorporate some form of ecotourism in their
              prints.”                                            proposals.
         •    Don’t litter.
         •    Don’t use disposable, throw-away items         5.   Students will require a copy of Reproducible
              unless there is no alternative.                     Master 9.6: Canada Political Outline Map to
         •    Stay out of restricted areas such as bird           complete this activity. Two Web sites with infor-
              sanctuaries or fragile sand dunes.                  mation about popular tourist sites in Canada are
         •    Contribute to efforts to preserve fragile           listed below.
              sites.                                              • Out There:
                                                                       http://www.out-there.com/prv_m.htm.
3.   Students’ reports can be evaluated using                          This Chamber of Commerce site provides list-
     Reproducible Master 17.7: Rubric for Olympic                      ings and hot keys to many provincial tourism
     Games Report. Two useful Web sites that students                  sites.
     can use to begin their research are listed below.            • Canadian Tourism Commission:
     • International Olympic Committee:                                http://www.travelcanada.ca/travelcanada/app/en/
         http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/index_uk.asp.                 ca/home.do.
         This official site contains details about all                 This official site provides ideas of places to
         summer and winter Olympic Games since                         visit in Canada. Additionally, students can use
         1896.                                                         a specialized search engine to research specific
     • Encyclopaedia Britannica:                                       sites.
         http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=115022.
         At this Web site, an article called “Olympic
         Games” details all the modern Olympic               Additional Activities
         Games (since 1896). There are hot keys for
         each of the summer and winter games. This is        1.   Students can use Reproducible Master 17.1:
         a commercial site, supported by member                   Words to Know and Student Journal to famil-
         subscriptions. Anyone can register, however,             iarize themselves with new key terms in this
         for a free 72-hour membership. Follow the on-            chapter. In this activity, students complete
         screen instructions.                                     sentences by filling in the blanks with the key
                                                                  terms. Also ask them to add their own definitions
4.   There will be great variation in what students               for these important terms to their glossary. The
     produce, depending on whether they create a                  answers are as follows.
     brochure or write a letter and depending on which            1. adventure tourism, 2. ecotourism, 3. tourist,
     region they select. To assess student brochures,             4. business travel, 5. cultural tourism, 6. entre-
     you may wish to use Reproducible Master 3.10:                preneur, tourism industry, 7. human system,
     Rubric for a Poster or Display. To assess student            8. sports tourism, 9. natural system
     letters, or to help students understand what goes
     into a good letter, use Reproducible Master 17.8:       2.   Included on Reproducible Master 17.1: Words to
     Checklist for Writing a Formal Letter. To make               Know and Student Journal are four journal ques-
     this activity a little more challenging, ask students        tions you may wish students to address as they
                                                                  work through the main sections of the chapter.



                                                                                                                   241
     E XPERIENCE C ANADA T EACHER ’ S R ESOURCE


3.    You may wish to discuss the impact of the value of                                              0.80
      the Canadian dollar on tourism in Canada.
                                                                                                      0.78
           When the value of the Canadian dollar is low
      compared with their home currencies, tourists to                                                0.76
      Canada get good value for their money. It buys
      more because Canadian goods and services are                                                    0.74




                                                                           Worth of $1 Cdn. in US$
      cheap compared with those in their home coun-
      tries. Consequently, tourism in Canada thrives.                                                 0.72

           When the Canadian dollar is relatively strong,
                                                                                                      0.70
      however, the money that tourists bring into the
      country does not go as far—Canadian goods and                                                   0.68
      services are more expensive than those in countries
      with weaker currencies. In this situation, tourism in                                           0.66
      Canada usually suffers. The advantage of a strong
                                                                                                      0.64
      currency is that Canadian tourists can travel abroad
      more cheaply than they can travel in Canada.                                                    0.62
           After discussing these cause-and-effect rela-
      tionships, ask students to complete Reproducible                                                0.60
      Master 17.2: How the Canadian Dollar Affects                                                             1998   1999   2000   2001   2002    2003*
      Tourism. The completed chart about the effect                                                                              Year
                                                                             *as of 10 October 2003
      of currency rates on tourism appears in Figure
      TR 17.5. The completed line graph showing the                   Figure TR 17.6: Value of the Canadian dollar, 1998–2003
      value of the Canadian dollar over time appears in
      Figure TR 17.6.                                                                                island and create their dream ecotourism retreat.
                                                                                                     See Reproducible Master 17.6: Paradise Island for
4.    You may wish to focus on the tourist opportunities                                             detailed student guidance.
      available in the local community. Ask students to
      research and design travel posters to promote
      tourism in the local community. If a computer lab
                                                                      Answers for Chapter 17
      is available, students could use a program such as              Checkup
      MSPublisher. See Reproducible Master 17.4:
      Promoting Tourism in Your Community for                         The answers for Reproducible Master 17.9: Chapter
      detailed student guidance. To assess the poster,                17 Checkup are as follows.
      use Reproducible Master 3.10: Rubric for a Poster
      or Display.                                                     1.                             •   When travellers visit a locale to enjoy the
                                                                                                         people and their customs, they participate in
5.    Provide students with the opportunity to step into                                                 cultural tourism.
      the shoes of an entrepreneur by planning their                                                 •   Sports tourism occurs when people travel to
      own ecotourism resort paradise. Before they begin,                                                 watch or take part in athletic activities.
      ask students to review the section “Ecotourism” in                                             •   Those participating in adventure tourism travel
      the case study on pages 295–296. Then have                                                         to take part in unusual, adventurous (some-
      students draw a map of an imaginary tropical                                                       times risky) activities.

 Currency Scenario                                Canadian Dollar is Worth More                                    Canadian Dollar is Worth Less

 Impact on tourists coming to                     Tourists pay more for the same                                   Tourists pay less for the same goods
 Canada                                           goods and services.                                              and services.
 Impact on Canadians travelling                   Tourists pay less for the same goods                             Tourists pay more for the same
 outside of Canada                                and services.                                                    goods and services.
 Relative value of travel in Canada               Travel outside Canada is the better                              Travel inside Canada is the better
 versus outside of Canada                         bargain.                                                         bargain.
 Effect on travel industry in Canada              Canadian travel industry suffers                                 Canadian travel industry flourishes
                                                  because fewer travellers come to                                 because more travellers come to
                                                  Canada.                                                          Canada.

Figure TR 17.5: How the value of the Canadian dollar affects tourism


 242
                                                                      C HAPTER 17: I NVESTIGATING C ANADIAN T OURISM


     •   Business travel occurs when businesspeople              looks at the impact of tourism in northeastern
         travel for work reasons.                                Ontario.
     •   Ecotourism, one of the fastest growing forms of
         travel, features activities to experience the     Whelan, Tensie, ed. Nature Tourism: Managing for the
         natural environment without harming it.             Environment. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1991.
                                                             This examination of the key issues surrounding
2.   Reasons why most visitors to Canada are                 the ecotourism movement suggests ways in which
     American:                                               the sustainability of the industry can be enhanced
     • close proximity                                       and the impact on the environment minimized.
     • same language
     • similar cultures                                    “World Wonders.” Canadian Geographic 117, no. 4
     • family ties                                            (July/August 1997): 70–82.
     • similar geographies (climate and landforms)            This article profiles Canada’s World Heritage-
     • connected travel infrastructures, such as              listed sites and offers useful information for
        linking highways and rail routes                      students doing research projects about specific
     • favourable exchange rates for Americans                tourist destinations.
     • extensive international trade between the two
        countries (promotes business travel)
                                                           Audio/Video
3.   Harmful effects that tourism can have on a country:
                                                           Costa Rica: Ecotourism and Economic Development.
     • ecological damage caused by too many people
                                                               (Series: The Voyageur Experience.) Norris
        in a fragile environment
                                                               Communications, 1996, 25 minutes.
     • pollution
                                                               Costa Rica is a prime ecotourism location. This
     • local people are underpaid and resent
                                                               video takes the viewer on a raft sailing along the
        “wealthy” tourists
                                                               country’s rivers to see some spectacular sights.
     • local cultures may suffer from globalization
     • local artisans stop making traditional crafts,
                                                           Ecotourism: The Impact on Wildlife. CBC News in
        creating souvenirs instead
                                                               Review. December 1998.
                                                               Ecotourism is promoted as a sustainable industry
4.   To assess the display ad, use Reproducible Master
                                                               that respects the environment. Are these claims
     3.10: Rubric for a Poster or Display.
                                                               valid? Who is attracted to ecotourism, and what is
                                                               its effect on wildlife? This program explores these
Additional Resources                                           issues.

                                                           Our      Backyard. Norris Communications, 1996,
Books and Periodicals                                            24 minutes.
                                                                 This film looks at some of the mistakes that the
Brenton, Kelly. “Highways and By-the-Ways.”                      government of Guyana is trying to avoid as it
    Canadian Living 28, no. 7 (July 2003): 111–116.              develops a new ecotourism business featuring rain
    This article presents several Canadian tourist               forests, mountains, and wildlife.
    destinations suitable for summer family vacations,
    and would come in handy for students planning a
    holiday as part of an assignment.                      Internet Resources
Chadwick, Douglas H. “Pacific Suite.” National             You can find more information about the three Canadian
   Geographic 203, no. 2 (February 2003): 104–127.         tourist destinations featured on pages 290–293 of the text
   This article examines the Clayoquot Sound area of       at the following sites. Note that they are all commercial
   western Vancouver Island. It provides a good            sites. Also note that Web site addresses change
   understanding of the balance needed between             frequently. It is recommended that teachers check these
   natural and human systems in areas attractive to        sites before giving them to students.
   tourists.                                               • Banff–Lake Louise Tourism Bureau:
                                                                http://www.banfflakelouise.com
Schultz, Ken. “By Rail to Moosonee.” Field and Stream      • Unofficial Prince Edward Island Tourism Site:
   99, no. 12 (April 1995): 52–55.                              http://www.charlottetownpei.com
   This description of the Polar Bear Express route        • The Polar Bear Express:
                                                                http://www.polarbearexpress.ca

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