Arizona Divorce Records by aue58973

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									Question of the day:
How is a Tucson flood like a
redneck divorce?
Rainfall in southern Arizona
A Case of Famine and Feast
         Precipitation Seasons in Southern Arizona

                    Pacific tropical storms


                    Monsoon                      Pacific storm s
April   May   June July   Aug   Sept Oct   Nov   Dec   Jan   Fe b March
 Digital
 Elevation
 Map                      Colorado
 General                  Plateau
 airflow
 from
 Pacific        Basin and Range

You are here.
  Annual Precipitation




Sky Islands of SE Arizona
          Anatomy of River Valley
• Main channel is normal course of river.
• Floodplain is area covered during flood.
• Over geologic time, river meanders over floodplain.
Typical flood hazard is water
  covering the floodplain.
Major Drainages of Tucson Basin
Flow Gauge Records, Santa Cruz River
                          Record Flows on Santa Cruz River
                                                                  1983
         1914                                        1965 1977
 1900

        stream gauge 1910

                       1920

                               1930

                                      1940

                                             1950

                                                    1960

                                                           1970

                                                                  1980

                                                                         1990

                                                                                2000
                              1983 flow = 53,000 cfs
        installed 1913




                              (Equivalent to 16 backyard
                              swimming pools per second!)
                              25% above previous 100-year
                              flood estimates.
  More frequent record flows post 1960
1983 Santa Cruz River @ Congress
Santa Cruz River @ Congress
Rillito at First Avenue, Oct. 1983
Bank erosion along the outside of a meander bend
 Active river channel moves by bank erosion.
 This is principle flood hazard in Tucson.




            Rillito Creek at First Avenue, Tucson, 1983


October, 1983 flood:
8 deaths, ~1000 injuries; $250 million damage.
Increased frequency of record
Santa Cruz flows since 1960.
A. Climatic effect?
 Global warming?
 Enhanced El Nino?
B. Urbanization?
 Urbanized desert increases
runoff by four times compared
to undeveloped desert.
Effects of Urbanization on Stream Flow
      Before                After
                       Lag tim e                           Lag tim e




                                         Discharge
Discharge




                                                     Rainfall
            Rainfall




                           Stream flow                          Stream flow
                          Tim e                                   Tim e

Urbanization decreases lag time and
increases maximum flow.
                                     Flood Forecasting
                             10000
                                                                  ?
                                                            ?
Stream Discharge (ft3/sec)



                                                                        100-year flood
                             1000
                                                                        projections
                                                                        depend on
                                                                        models of
                                                                        climate and
                              100
                                                                        hydrology.


                               10
                                 1              10                100
                                       Recurrence Interval (yr)
Flood Control Measures
A. Structural
 Dams               Pima County
 Channelization
 Diversion channels
B. Nonstructural
 Zoning and land-use restrictions
 Land acquisition programs
 Flood forecasting
 Public education
Soil cementing, Rillito @ Campbell




 Confine the flow.
 Move the water out of Tucson ASAP.
Q:
How is a Tucson flood
like a redneck divorce?


A:
Sooner or later,
someone’s going
to loose a trailer.
Teton Dam on Snake River
Beginning of water piping and
erosion of earthfill.
Complete failure
Permeable volcanic rock in
footings of Teton Dam

								
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