Business Laws of the 19Th Century by bfq20376


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									                         World History 9.4 An Age of Reforms
Drill: Corporations & Ascertain
Corporations: organization that were formed to raise capital and increase profits by
encouraging people to invest in business ventures that reduced their financial risks..
Ascertain: to determine

Objectives: Students will be able to identify ideas and thinkers that supported
industrialization by analyzing the origins and main concepts of socialism.
1. Adam Smith: Economic liberty guaranteed economic progress; government need not
interfere in the economy in his book, The Wealth of Nations.
2. Thomas Malthus: Population tended to increase more rapidly than food supply;
without wars and epidemics to kill off extra population, most people would always be
3. David Ricardo: The permanent underclass would always be poor.
4. John Stuart Mill: wanted government to do away with great differences in wealth; he
favored a more equal division of profits.
5. Robert Owen: He improved working and living conditions for employees in his mills
by renting them low-rent housing that he built, prohibiting children under ten from
working in his mills, and providing free schooling.
6. Charles Fourier and Henri de Saint-Simon: advocated socialism, under which the
factors of production would be owned by the public and operated for the benefit of all, as
a replacement for freemarket capitalism.
7. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: predicted the destruction of the capitalist system and
the creation of a classless communist state in which the means of production would be
owned by the people.
8. William Wilberforce: He led the fight in Parliament for the end of the slave trade and
slavery in the British Empire.
9. Jane Addams: She ran a settlement house to provide social services to residents of a
poor neighborhood.
10. Horace Mann: He called for free public schooling for all children.
Odds & Ends
2. Utilitarianism held that government policies should promote the greatest good for the
greatest number of people.
3. Nineteenth-century socialists argued that government should actively plan the
5. In the 19th century, collective bargaining was carried out between employers and
6. When the trade union movement began in Britain, the strike was an illegal action taken
against factory owners by union workers.
                          World History 9.4 An Age of Reforms
1. a                BCR1: Laissez-faire capitalists believed that a free-market economy
2. d                benefitted society as a whole; Marxists believed that a free-market
3. b                economy harmed workers and benefited only the middle- and upper-
                    classes. Laissez-faire capitalists believed that if the government
4. b                allowed free trade, capitalism would prosper; Marxists believed that
5. b                if the government allowed free trade, the capitalist economy would
6. c                eventually destroy itself.

BCR2: Under laissez- faire—a free market economy in which the owners of industry and
business set working conditions without government controls—factory workers suffered.
Workers joined together to form unions, or voluntary associations, in which they used
collective bargaining and the threat of strike, or the refusal to work, to speak as “one
voice” in negotiations with employers for better working conditions and higher wages.

SKILLBUILDER PRACTICE Developing Historical Perspective:
1. The primary role of a middle-class woman is to ensure her husband’s domestic
happiness and comfort.
2. Middle class men played the pivotal roles in an industrial society where success was
measured by wealth and social status; to succeed, men needed the support and admiration
of their wives.
3. In today’s society, such advice would be considered as patronizing, unenlightened, and
insensitive to the needs and capabilities of women

1. They believed that natural laws governed economic life. They advocated laissez-faire
economics to allow those laws to operate.
2. Smith believed that individuals acting in their own self-interest, without government
regulation, created economic prosperity.
3. They viewed progress primarily in terms of the wealth of nations and laissez-faire
capitalism. Social harmony would result without government intervention.
4. They advocated many changes including new economic systems, legislative reforms,
free public education, unionization, rights for women, and the abolishment of slavery
5. Working class men received the vote; slavery was abolished in the British Empire;
women began to advocate expanded rights.

Summary: In today’s lesson we identified ideas and thinkers that supported
industrialization and analyzed the origins and main concepts of socialism.

Homework: Laissez- Faire & Union
Laissez- Faire: is a free market economy
Union: are voluntary associations of workers for better conditions and higher wages.
Name ________________________________________________________Period___________________
                                       World History 9.4 An Age of Reforms
A. Terms and Names Write the letter of the best answer.
______ 1. Who defended the free-market system of capitalism in his book, The Wealth of Nations?
a. Adam Smith b. John Stuart Mill c. Jeremy Bentham d. William Wilberforce
______ 2. Utilitarianism held that government policies should promote a. wars and epidemics to kill off excess
people. b. public ownership of the means of production. c. the complete independence of each individual. d. the
greatest good for the greatest number of people.
______ 3. Nineteenth-century socialists argued that government should a. leave the economy alone.
b. actively plan the economy. c. destroy the economy. d. allow the economy to be controlled by the bourgeoise.
______ 4. With which of the following is Karl Marx most closely associated? a. socialism
c. utilitarianism b. communism d. trade unionism
______ 5. In the 19th century, collective bargaining was carried out between a. government and unions.
b. employers and employees. c. communists and capitalists. d. political and financial leaders.
______ 6. When the trade union movement began in Britain, the strike was an illegal action taken against a. child
laborers by factory owners. b. union workers by factory owners. c. factory owners by union workers. d. non-
union workers by union workers.
BCR1. Critical Thinking Briefly answer the following question: In the 19th century, what were some of the
main differences between the beliefs of laissez-faire capitalists and communists?

BCR2. Recognizing Purpose, explain why workers formed unions. Include the following terms in your writing.
laissez-faire, union, collective bargaining, & strike

SKILLBUILDER PRACTICE Developing Historical Perspective When you view events and people from a
historical perspective, you view them in the context of their times. You consider the conditions that existed and
the attitudes that were commonly accepted at a certain time in history. You do not
judge the past solely by the standards and values of today. As you have read, the middle class rose in status and
wealth as a result of the Industrial Revolution. The excerpt below is from a book published in 1842 counseling
middle-class women on their proper role in society. Use historical perspective as you read the passage. Then
answer the questions that follow.
         Domestic life is the chief source of her influence; and the greatest debt society can owe to her is domestic
comfort: for happiness is almost an element of virtue; and nothing conduces more to improve the character of men
than domestic peace. A woman may make a man’s home delightful, and may thus
increase his motives for virtuous exertion. . . .
         Perhaps one of the first secrets of her influence is adaptation to the tastes, and sympathy in the feelings, of
those around her. . . . It is for woman, not for man, to make the sacrifice, especially in indifferent matters. She
must, in a certain degree, be plastic herself if she would mould others. . . . Nothing is so likely to [win over] the
affections of the other sex as a feeling that woman looks to them for support and guidance. In proportion as men
are themselves superior, they are accessible to this appeal.
         On the contrary, they never feel interested in one who seems disposed rather to offer than to ask
assistance. There is, indeed, something unfeminine in independence. It is contrary to nature, and therefore it
offends. from Elizabeth Poole Sandford, Woman in Her Social and Domestic Character (Boston: Otis, Broaders,
1. According to the writer, what is the primary role of a middle-class woman?

2. How do the writer’s images of middle-class men and women reflect the attitudes and values of an expanding
industrial society?

3. The writer advises women to be dependent and ask assistance. How might such advice be viewed in today’s

Enlightenment Ideals in an Industrial Age Enlightenment thinking produced long-term effects that profoundly
shaped Western civilization. How did Enlightenment ideals affect the economic thinking of the Industrial Age?
To find out, answer the questions that follow.
1. Enlightenment thinkers believed that natural laws were just and reasonable. Just as there were natural laws of
motion, so were there natural laws of politics, government, and economics. How did Adam
Smith and other philosophers of industrialization view natural laws?

2. Enlightenment philosophers believed in the importance of the individual in society. Government was created by
individuals to promote their welfare and self-interest. How are these ideals reflected in the philosophy of Adam

3. An important concept of the Enlightenment was that society would progress. How did the economic
philosophers view progress?

4. Enlightenment philosophers and reformers criticized the great inequalities that existed in society and believed
that through reason, a better society was possible. They called for social equality, abolition of slavery, prison
reform, and improvements in education. What changes did reformers advocate to correct the faults of an
industrialized society?

5. The ideas of Enlightenment philosophers John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau laid the foundations for
modern Western democratic governments. What reforms expanded democracy in newly industrialized societies?


Summarize today’s lesson

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