Grading Performance Based Assessments - PowerPoint

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					Standards-Based Grading in
  the Science Classroom
 How do I make my grading support
        student learning?

                 Ken Mattingly
     ken.mattingly@rockcastle.kyschools.us

                   Julie Phillips
     julie.phillips@rockcastle.kyschools.us
      Standards-based Grading
• How do I make my
  grading:
  – Meaningful?
  – Defensible?
  – Student motivating?
  – Teacher friendly?
  – Infinite Campus
    compatible?
  – Administration
    approved?
               Our Job…
1. To show you how a
   standards-based
   grading system
   works.
2. To show you how
   standards-based
   grading can improve
   student motivation
   and performance
        We will do that by…
1. Sharing examples of formative and summative
   assessments that focus on learning targets.
2. Presenting a method for using learning targets
   as the structure for a standards-based grading
   scale.
3. Sharing examples of student opportunities to
   demonstrate target mastery that allows them to
   take ownership of their learning.
      Rockcastle County Middle
              School
•   625 students grades 6-8
•   2 teams per grade level
•   70% Free and reduced lunch
•   2007 AI – 95, 2008 AI – 98, 2009 AI – 105
•   Science P+D%:
    – 2007: 70
    – 2008: 73
    – 2009: 84
         Guidelines for Grading in
        Standards-Based Systems
• Relate grading procedures to learning goals (targets)
• Use criterion-referenced performance standards as
  references points to determine grades
• Limit the valued attributes included in grades to individual
  achievement
• Sample student performance – do not include all scores in
  grades
• Grade in pencil – keep records so they can be updated
  easily
• Crunch numbers carefully – if at all
• Use quality assessments and properly recorded evidence
  of achievement
• Discuss and involve students in assessment, including
  grading, throughout the teaching/learning process
             » Ken O’Connor, How to Grade for Learning, p. 44
    Standards-based Grading in a
              Nutshell
• Focuses on whether students know what you
  want them to know
• Provides opportunities for variable learning
  paces
• Rewards students who continue to try mastering
  the information/concepts
• Gives a clear indication of what students know
  and don’t know
• Gives a clear picture of where your instruction is
  being effective/ineffective
     The Backbone of a Good
     Standards-based system?
• Learning Targets that are:
  – Clear to all stakeholders
  – Communicated to students
  – Measured regularly
  – Adjustments to learning made
 Student Friendly Learning Target
             Example
• Standard: SC-07-4.6.2 Students will:
  – describe the transfer and/or
    transformations of energy which occur in
    examples that involve several different
    forms of energy (e.g., heat, electrical, light,
    motion of objects and chemical).
  – Explain, qualitatively or quantitatively, that
    heat lost by hot object equals the heat
    gained by cold object.
 Student Friendly Learning Target
             Example
1. I can give examples of energy.
2. I can give examples of energy transfer. That
   means when energy is moved from one object
   to another.
3. I can give examples of energy transformations.
   That means when energy is changed from one
   form to another form.
4. I can describe the exchange of energy
   between hot objects and cold objects.
  Clear, Student-friendly Targets
• Turn knowledge, skill, reasoning, and
  product pieces into “I can” target statements.
• Targets should use student-friendly
  language.
• Targets should be attainable.
• Provide clear, stationary targets for students
  to aim at and they will hit them.
• Give students a copy of learning targets for
  the unit.
Students who can identify what they are
  learning significantly outscore those who
  cannot.
                                    – Robert Marzano
                   Assessment
• Formative
  – Tied to how student is doing on a particular target
  – Use to identify growth areas and show how to close
    the mastery gap
  – Generally not included in grading of target mastery
• Summative
  –   Includes assessment items for all targets in a unit
  –   Diagnoses strengths and weaknesses of student
  –   Provides road map for attaining target mastery
  –   Determines current performance on targets
        Using Targets for
  Post-Assessment Development
• Matching the assessment method to the
  type of target.
• Determining adequate sampling size.
• Assessment format considerations: open
  response vs. multiple-choice, time
  constraints
• Quality of questions, information value of
  incorrect answers
      Summative Feedback
• Before using targets: score 65%
  – Student knows what questions they got
    right/wrong
  – Kept the score and went on, maybe reviewed,
    but still went on
  – No diagnosis of problems and ways to
    address them – perhaps taking a test again
    but no plan as to what to focus on
  – No idea on student or teacher’s part of
    strengths and weaknesses
      Summative Feedback
• After using targets: score 65%
  – Get results broken out by target
  – Students know what they do well and what
    they need to work on
  – Students have opportunities to work on
    identified targets and gain understanding
    before trying again to show mastery
  – Diagnostic tool to show strengths and
    weaknesses by student and class
               Re-testing
• Students have received summative
  assessment results by target
• Identify targets needing improvement
• Work on target practice in preparation for
  re-testing
• Re-test only over identified targets
• Evaluate results, rinse, and repeat!
         Our Grading Format
• All assessments, formative and summative, are
  based on learning targets
• Students’ grades are based on how well they
  show mastery of learning targets
• Behaviors are not factored into grade unless the
  behavior is an identified and communicated
  learning target
• Students are aware of targets being assessed
• Students are given multiple opportunities to
  demonstrate mastery of targets
            No Grades for…
•   Homework
•   Activities
•   Class work
•   Behavior
•   Quizzes
•   Formative assessments
    Learning Target Performance
              Criterion
• Student performance is divided into three
  categories
  – Basic
  – Developing
  – Mastery
• Students receive a score of 1, 2, or 3 for
  each target depending on their
  performance
 Summative
 Assessment
• Provides
  itemized
  feedback on
  performance per
  learning target
  Why Do We Need a Grade?
• They will be around for a while
• Parents expect and “understand” them
• Students need something to compare their
  learning to
• Communities are not ready for “no grades”
• Administrators are not ready for “no
  grades” 
So Where’s the Grade?
• Total points possible for each target is 3
• Total points for unit is number of targets
  times 3
• Students total points earned divided by
  total unit points gives percentage
• All 2’s (developing) = 67% D
• ½ 2’s and ½ 3’s = 83% low B
• All 3’s (mastery) = 100% A
                Re-testing
• Opportunities for re-teaching
  – Reviewing test results
  – Learning target practice
  – Classroom time
• Re-test by target
  – Targets receiving 1’s must be worked on
  – Targets receiving 2’s can be worked on
• Results on re-test provide information for
  further narrowing of mastery gap
           Infinite Campus
• Targets are entered as different
  assignments
• Assignment is given a name “Ecosystem
  Learning Target #1”
• Assignment description contains the target
  statement
• Each assignment is worth a maximum of 3
  points
   Infinite Campus Information
• Section Summary report gives a great deal
  of information
• Reading across a student line tells how
  the student is doing on each target
• Reading down the learning target column
  tells how the class is doing per target
    Today’s Take Home Message on
       Standards-Based Grading
• Students are graded on their mastery of
  standards (learning targets)
• There are communicable levels of performance
  leading to mastery
• Only mastery of standards is included on grade
  calculation
• Students receive multiple opportunities to show
  mastery of standards
• Standards-based grading gives students the
  chance to take ownership of their performance

				
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