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					Recent Trends in IT-Technologies
  and Internet-based Services



            C.-C. Jay Kuo
   University of Southern California
                      Introduction
    • IT has developed rapidly over the last 50
      years and become mature nowadays
    • Recent major achievements:
         – Internet (including wired and wireless IP
           networks)
         – Digital media
    • The new trend has focused on novel IT
      applications
         – iPod, iPhone, Wii, etc.

11/15/2010                    C.-C. Jay Kuo            2
             IT Paradigm Shift
    • Implementation: from analog to digital
    • System: from PC-centric to network-
      centric
    • Information decimation: from one-way
      broadcasting to two-way interaction
    • Values: from HW/SW/infra-structure
      provision to contents and value-added
      services

11/15/2010             C.-C. Jay Kuo           3
       Why Digital Implementation (1)?
       • Low cost for high-accuracy computation
             – Image: 24 bits per pixel for representation
                • Processing resolution for block DCT is around 14 bits
                  for 8-bit input dynamic range
             – Audio: 16 bits per sample for representation
                • Processing resolution for MDCT is around 26 bits
             – Data encryption will have an even higher
               processing resolution requirement
                • Spectrum scrambling vs DES (or RSA)
       • Processing cost comparison
             – Digital: linear with the resolution
             – Analog: nonlinear with the resolution
                •

11/15/2010                           C.-C. Jay Kuo                        4
       Comparison of Implementations
          for Engineering Designs
    • Mechanical implementation
         – Lowest efficiency
         – Big discrepency between theoretical and practical
           designed systems
    • Electrical/Electronic implementation
         – Small discrepency between theoretical and practical
           designed systems
    • Digital implementation
         – There is basically no gap between theoretical and
           practical designed systems if the design can be well
           described mathematically


11/15/2010                      C.-C. Jay Kuo                     5
                  Impact to SONY
    • Sony was the leader in consumer
      electronics due to its excellent analog
      system design
         – Beautiful color
         – High audio quality
    • Sony lost the edge due to the digital
      implementation
         – Digital implementation is algorithmic, not
           electrical/electronic circuits


11/15/2010                   C.-C. Jay Kuo              6
       Why Digital Implementation (2)?
     • Flexibility in media integration and
       manipulation
             – New media
               • Computer graphics and animation
             – Integration of different media types
               • Natural and synthetic data integration




                          +                       =

11/15/2010                        C.-C. Jay Kuo           7
             More Implications of Unified
              Data/Media Representation
    • Shared infra-structure
         – The mechanism of sending e-mails and
           voice/video packets has no fundamental
           difference (except for QoS)
         – The significance of “voice pathway” (i.e.
           POTS) drops significantly




11/15/2010                   C.-C. Jay Kuo             8
             Example: VOIP and Skype
    • Skype is a big threat to telco
    • Competitive edges
         – Free VoIP service
         – Low-cost Skype-in and Skype-out
         – Quality of Service
             • Significantly better than Yahoo & MSN
               messenger due to successful P2P networking
               technologies
    • Enhanced services
         – Premium VoIP service
    • Other value-added services?
11/15/2010                     C.-C. Jay Kuo                9
                  Impact to Telco
    • The telecommunication companies used
      to make profits by charging people’s
      usage of networking infra-structure
    • However, speech can travel through all
      IP networks nowadays
    • Many telecommunication companies are
      under a big threat
         – losing their business in an alarming rate


11/15/2010                   C.-C. Jay Kuo             10
                               Film Cameras




                  Once Time Use Camera          Polarold Camera




             Portable Camera     Professional SLR     Medium Format Camera

11/15/2010                            C.-C. Jay Kuo                          11
             Digital Still Camera (DSC)
 • Main difference
   - no film needed
   - has a sensor that converts light into electrical
   charges
 • Image sensor
   - most DSC: coupled device (CCD)
   - some low-end camera: complementary metal
   oxide
     semiconductor (CMOS) technology
 • Resolution
   - measured in pixels
      – 1216x912 pixels: (1.1 megapixel) good for print
        images
      – 1600x1200 pixels: (2 million pixels) good for 8x10
        inches image
                                                             CMOS


11/15/2010                             C.-C. Jay Kuo                12
                     Impact to Kodak
    • Kodak was dominant in the film camera
         – The main income comes from the sale of films
    • Kodak had the best digital still camera team in
      90’s
         – Used as a performance benchmark for the film
           camera
             • Kodak wanted to show that DSC could not compete with
               film cameras
    • Kodak’s business shrinks significantly in
      recent years

11/15/2010                         C.-C. Jay Kuo                      13
             IT Paradigm Shift
    • Implementation: from analog to digital
    • System: from PC/system-centric to
      network/individual-centric
    • Information decimation: from one-way
      broadcasting to two-way interaction
    • Values: from HW/SW/infra-structure
      provision to contents and value-added
      services

11/15/2010             C.-C. Jay Kuo           14
                Power of Networking
    • Blurred boundaries between remote and
      local
         – Remote storage can be accessed easily
         – Remote resources can be leveraged locally
             • Application programs can be leased
    • Encouraging sharing and interaction
      among users
         – Napster/Baidu/YouTube
         – Wikipedia (free encyclopedia)
         – Blogs

11/15/2010                      C.-C. Jay Kuo          15
              Google versus Microsoft
    • Thick client versus thin client
    • Thick client solution
         – Many software installed in local PC
         – Powerful PC is needed
         – Software update is expensive and troublesome
    • Thin client solution
         – Networked devices
         – Resource sharing
         – However, a minimum amount of local storage is still
           needed


11/15/2010                     C.-C. Jay Kuo                     16
             From Client-Server to Cloud
               Computing Environment
       SaaS: Software as a Service

                                                                                 Client


                                                                                    Fog


                                                                                  Cloud

     Michael Armbrust, Armando Fox, Rean Griffith, Anthony D. Joseph, Randy Katz, Andy Konwinski, Gunho Lee,
     David Patterson, Ariel Rabkin, Ion Stoica, and Matei Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud
     computing”.



11/15/2010                                           C.-C. Jay Kuo                                               17
                         Mobile Devices
     – Portability
             • Pervasive computing
             • Ubiquitous computing
     – Communication
       capability
             • Personal
               communication system
             • 3G
             • WLAN, Bluetooth
     – Multimedia capability
             • A/V capturing                          Embedded processors
             • A/V display



11/15/2010                            C.-C. Jay Kuo                    18
                Phone Camera
      • The fastest growing
        market in DSC
      • Mobile phone with built-in
        camera
      • Server-based
        infrastructure allows users
        to share pictures and
        video
      • Web-based browser in the
        receiving end
11/15/2010               C.-C. Jay Kuo   19
                  Portable Media Players
 • General MP3 players
      – Large capacity hard drive versus
      – Light-weighted flash memory


 • Apple i-pod
      –      Large capacity: using hard drive up to 80GB
      –      Good browsing system to search music
      –      i-tune online music purchasing
      –      Complete business model                                  Quic kTi me™ an d a
                                                           TIFF (U nc ompre sse d) de com press or
                                                              are nee ded to see this pic ture.




11/15/2010                         C.-C. Jay Kuo                                                     20
                    Apple iPhone
 • Cell phone
      – Quad-band GSM
        (850/900/1800/1900)
 • Widescreen iPod with
   touch controls
      – 3.5 Inch widescreen display
      – iTune support of music, TV
        and movies
 • Internet communications
      – 2.5G EDGE networks
      – 802.11b/g Wi-Fi
      – Bluetooth 2.0

11/15/2010                    C.-C. Jay Kuo   21
                From Functionalities to
                     Individualism
    • Stylish products for individuals
    • IT products
         – Go beyond its practical values
             • Functionalities
             • Robustness
         – Reflects the taste and social status of an
           individual
             • Brand-names merchandises (coffee, clothes,
               shoes, etc.)


11/15/2010                       C.-C. Jay Kuo              22
               Emerging Trend: IPTV
    • Internet protocol TV
    • Main advantages
         – Cost
             • Standard networking protocols
             • Low cost for users and operators
         – Interactivity
             • Make TV viewing experience interactive and
               personalized
             • On-demand services
         – Triple play
             • Telephony, data and video


11/15/2010                      C.-C. Jay Kuo               23
             IT Paradigm Shift
    • Implementation: from analog to digital
    • System: from PC-centric to network-
      centric
    • Information decimation: from one-way
      broadcasting to two-way interaction
    • Values: from HW/SW/infra-structure
      provision to contents and value-added
      services

11/15/2010             C.-C. Jay Kuo           24
       On-Demand vs. Broadcasting
    • Pull (on-demand) vs. push (broadcasting)
    • Broadcasting is more economic for delivery
      system
         – Broadcasting works well for live events or hot
           content
    • On-demand is more user friendly
         – Other content delivery will be shifted to on-demand
           services
    • Trend moves from push to pull behavior
         – Newspaper
         – TV news
         – E-news

11/15/2010                      C.-C. Jay Kuo                    25
             Modern Advertisements
    • Traditional advertisements
         – Newspaper
         – TV commercials
         – Banners in portals
    • Modern advertisements
         – Driven by user’s need
             • Search reveals the need
             • Conversation reveals the need
         – Cost sharing with sellers (not buyers/users)

11/15/2010                      C.-C. Jay Kuo             26
    Google’s Advertisement Business
    • Profit sharing with merchants
    • Sale of keywords
    • G-mail advertisement




11/15/2010             C.-C. Jay Kuo   27
             Impact to Broadcasters
    • IT broadcasting will be a major trend
    • The infra-structure advantage of
      traditional broadcasting companies
      disappears quickly
    • Newspapers may phase out soon




11/15/2010              C.-C. Jay Kuo         28
             Top 10 Most Popular Website
                                     (November 2007, Alexa Internet)
    1 yahoo.com
    2 google.com
    3 youtube.com - Web 2.0
    4 msn.com
    5 live.com
    6 myspace.com - Social Networking
    7 facebook.com - Social Networking
    8 wikipedia.org - Web 2.0
    9 hi5.com - Social Networking
    10 orkut.com - Social Networking


2010-11-15
2010-11-15                      C.-C. Jay Kuo                          29
                                                                       29
    “Time” Magazine - Person of the Year 2006




2010-11-15
2010-11-15            C.-C. Jay Kuo             30
                                                30
                             Web 2.0
    • 2nd generation of web-based services
         – Open source, Web APIs, Web standards and
           online Web services
         – Examples
             •   Web bloging (weblog)
             •   Social network websites
             •   Social bookmarking
             •   Wikipedia
             •   File Sharing (YouTube)



11/15/2010                        C.-C. Jay Kuo       31
                Web 2.0-Based Services
    • Google
         – Mail, maps, calendar, word processing, spreadsheets
    • Amazon
         – User reviews, “People who bought this item also
           purchased”
    • eBay
         – User generated auctions
    • Wikipedia
         – Collaborative Encyclopedia
    • YouTube
         – Video sharing
    • Mapquest
         – Online maps and directions
2010-11-15
2010-11-15                       C.-C. Jay Kuo                   32
                                                                 32
             Core Competencies of Web 2.0
                   Service Companies
  • Services, not packaged software, with cost-
    effective scalability
  • Control over unique, hard-to-recreate data
    sources that get richer as more people join
       – Trusting users as co-developers
       – Using collective intelligence
       – Customer self-service
  • Software above the level of a single device
  • Lightweight user interfaces, development
    models, and business models

2010-11-15
2010-11-15                    C.-C. Jay Kuo       33
                                                  33
                       YouTube (1)
    • Most popular video sharing
      website
    • Unique URL for individual
      video
         – Direct access to a particular
           video
    • Video embedding in other
      website
         – Make good personal video
           blogs!
         – Provide HTML codes

11/15/2010                      C.-C. Jay Kuo   34
                       YouTube (2)
    • User comments and review
         – Foster the Internet communities
    • Tags
         – Metadata for videos
         – Flexible, automatically
           generated internet taxonomies
    • Video search and retrieval
         – Query by tags via text search
           engines
         – Related video, video from the
           same user and playlists

11/15/2010                     C.-C. Jay Kuo   35
                Social Network Websites




       Social networking sites with at least 1million users registered

2010-11-15
2010-11-15                          C.-C. Jay Kuo                        36
                                                                         36
             MySpace.com & Facebook.com

    • Social network websites providing interactive:
       – Blogs
       – User profiles
       – Groups
       – Photos




2010-11-15
2010-11-15                    C.-C. Jay Kuo            37
                                                       37
             IT Paradigm Shift
    • Implementation: from analog to digital
    • System: from PC-centric to network-
      centric
    • Information decimation: from one-way
      broadcasting to two-way interaction
    • Values: from HW/SW/infra-structure
      provision to contents and value-added
      services

11/15/2010             C.-C. Jay Kuo           38
                     Business Models
    • IT business models
         – Hardware providers
             • OEM manufacturers in China/Taiwan
         – Software providers
             • Microsoft, Adobe, etc.
         – Infra-structure providers
             • Traditional Telco
         – Service providers
             • Google, Dell, E-Bay, Amazon, SW subscription
         – Content providers
             • Disney, Universal Studio, Electronic Arts (EA), Nintendo,



11/15/2010                              C.-C. Jay Kuo                      39
                Future Perspectives
    • More values moves towards services and
      contents
         – Services
             • Connecting supply and demand
             • Information is the power!
         – Contents
             • Good contents should be paid
             • Digital rights management




11/15/2010                     C.-C. Jay Kuo   40
    Creating New Service Opportunities in
                 IT Platform
    • Example: language translation in Skype
    • Automatic speech translation between
      two different languages over the
      international phone call
         – Value-added services
         – Powerful edge processors (a concept linked
           with grid computing)
    • A few partners work with Skype on the
      language translation project

11/15/2010                  C.-C. Jay Kuo               41
         Challenges in Web Services
    • Requirements on Information sources
         – Scalability
         – Real-time
         – Reliable
    • Examples
         – Dell
         – E-bay
         – Google

11/15/2010               C.-C. Jay Kuo      42
     More about IT Service Industry
    • The gap between no. 1 and no. 2 is very
      big
         – Google versus Yahoo
         – Google versus Baidu in China (or NHN in
           Korea)
    • A portal in one service sector
         – Search: Google
         – Books: Amazon
         – Auction: E-Bay
         – Computers and peripherals: Dell
11/15/2010                  C.-C. Jay Kuo            43
Conclusion
             IT Paradigm Shift
    • Implementation: from analog to digital
    • System: from PC/system-centric to
      network/individual-centric
    • Information decimation: from one-way
      broadcasting to two-way interaction
    • Values: from HW/SW/infra-structure
      provision to contents and value-added
      services

11/15/2010             C.-C. Jay Kuo           45
             New Horizon for IT Industry
    • Three main ingredients in business
         – People
         – Demand
         – Supply
    • IT provides a new business platform
         – Where are people?
         – What is their need?
         – Who can meet the need?

11/15/2010                C.-C. Jay Kuo     46

				
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