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International Association of Demolition Contractors

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					Construction & Demolition Debris

           Lecture 13
                 Overview

 Waste=Pollution=Inefficiency=Lost   $
 Era of Sustainability
 Best Interests of Developers and Builders
 Participation of Designers
 Responsibility of Manufacturers
 Trends
Waste = Pollution = Inefficiency = Lost $
   Positive Correlation: environmentalism & economic
    prosperity
   Germany
     – environmental technologies
     – environmental policy = economic policy
     – improved environmental quality = improved
       competitiveness
   Japan
     – 40% less energy in steel production than US, far less air
       pollution
     – defy conventional wisdom
     – Research Agency of Innovative Technology for the
       Earth: international competitiveness
           Era of Sustainability
 Intergenerational  Justice
 Focus on resources, environment, and health
 Definition: Creating and maintaining a
  healthy built environment using resource
  efficient and ecologically sound methods
 C&D debris = resource inefficiency,
  environmental impact
                     Ethics

 Environmental    Ethics
 PersonalEthics
 Waste = ?
         Construction Issues
 Minimizing  material quantities
 Advanced Waste Management Planning
 Better construction techniques and attention
 Pre-engineered components
 Using recyclable materials
 Recycling infrastructure and markets
 Tipping fees
 Better product design: DFE for construction
 Toxic components: eliminate or advanced
  handling
          Demolition Issues
 Deconstruction   versus demolition
  – Designed into the process
 DFE   for products to promote disassembly
  and recycling
 Tipping fees
 Markets and infrastructure
Advanced Construction Waste Management
   Involves designers and builders
   Set up requirements in Divisions 1 (CSI). Note LEED reqts.
   Steps
     – Assess probable waste streams prior to construction
     – Directly involve local recyclers
     – Work with subcontractors on specific measures:
       reduction, recycling, reverse distribution
     – Write measures into ACWM Plan
     – Provide training for ALL supervisors and workers
     – Emphasize clean site: continuous cleanup, end of day
       wrap-up
     – Measure waste in volume, translate to weight
     – Publicize results
       Best Interests of Builders and
                Developers
 Reduce    quantities of resources
  –   Build compactly/vertically
  –   Lean construction
  –   Minimize waste
  –   Foster reuse and recycling
  –   Brownfields and liability
 Impacts   of C&D landfills
  – Land resource
  – Water impacts
  – Air impacts
       Participation of Designers

 Design  the built environment for reuse and
  recycling
 Use the power of the contract documents
  – Division 1 “General Conditions”
  – WasteSpec: all divisions
 Create   demand with manufacturers
  – Two levels of recycling and reuse potential
    Responsibility of Manufacturers

 Use materials that are reusable or recyclable
 Design products that are easily disassembled
  and component content labeled
 Foster reverse distribution of waste from
  construction and demolition
                       Trends
 Use of Contract Documents
 Higher Tipping Fees
 Internalization Schemes
 Advanced Waste Management Plans
  –   Subcontractors
  –   Suppliers
  –   Training
  –   Integration with Other Construction Site
      Activities
                                     Tipping Fees vs. Recycling Rates

                 80

                 70

                 60
REcycling Rate




                 50

                 40

                 30

                 20

                 10

                 0
                      10   20   30     40     50     60    70     80    90   100
                                             Tipping Fee
              Case Study - Abacoa
 Reduce    waste from 6 to 1 lb/sq. ft.
  – 3 lbs from waste reduction techniques
  – 2 lbs from reverse distribution
  – Problematic materials
 Waste   Management Plan
  –   Engage all parties: subs, suppliers, recyclers
  –   Waste reduction schemes, chip organic debris
  –   Facilitate recycling of high value materials
  –   Proactive
  –   Efficiency = $ and waste = -$
   Deconstruction: Economic, Social, and
         Environmental Factors
 Economic    Factors
  – New businesses based on deconstruction and reuse
    activities
  – Used Building Materials Association (UBMA)
  – Re-User Inc. (Gainesville) and Community Distribution
    Center (Orange County)
  – Perhaps $20-$40 million in salvaged materials and
    components at Orlando NTC
  – Reduced costs of demolition for construction industry:
    reduced capital costs and landfill dumping charges
  – New business infrastructure
 Social   Factors
  – Job Creation
     • Ratio: 10 resource recovery jobs to 1 landfill job
     • Job Training for low-skill individuals working under
       supervision of experienced contractors
     • Training of workforce for new industry
     • Training ground for worker short construction
       industry
  – Local Economic Development
     • New activities: deconstruction, storage, sorting,
       transporting, recycling, remanufacturing, and resale
     • Growth rate: 15-20% per year in locales where
       implemented
 Environmental     Factors
  – Decreased reliance on scarce landfill space
  – Lowered impacts on environment
  – Preserving virgin resources
  – Helps comply with laws to reduce solid waste
    stream
  – Another 10:1 ratio, 1,000 board feet can replace up
    to 10,000 board feet of standing lumber
Deconstruction Issues for Orlando NTC
 Existing   Buildings: 250
  – Approximately 190 are older, many in poor condition
  – Approximately 60 larger newer buildings
 On   the order of 7,000,000 sq ft to be removed
  – Corresponds to approximately 330,000 T of demolition
    debris
  – Cost of disposal: $6.1 million
 Impacts    on environment and landfill availability in
  Orlando
 Tremendous opportunities for new businesses and
  jobs
                Cost Considerations
 Financial   feasibility of deconstructing a building
  – Amount and value of salvageable materials
  – Structural complexity and accessibility of salvageable
    materials
  – Amount of debris not able to be reused or recycled
 Excellent candidates: warehouses and industrial bldgs
 Good candidates: barracks
 Variable candidates: offices and housing
                  Overall Strategy
 Develop   a strategic plan that includes all buildings
 Avoid “cherry-picking” to reduce overall costs
 Institute deconstruction as soon as possible
 Conduct workshops to develop a local strategy
 Best approach:
   –   Strategic combination of deconstruction and demolition
   –   Group buildings in packages to reduce costs
   –   Conduct a detailed assessment
   –   Select the optimum contracting method: RFP, turn-key
   –   Include requirements for job training, hiring locals
 Assessment:
  – Characterize buildings and inventory salvageable
    materials, obtain info from military about buildings
  – Determine value of salvageable materials, volume of
    unsalvageable materials
  – Estimate labor hours to dismantle building and access
    salvageable materials
  – Identify problem areas: asbestos, lead-based paint,
    treated wood
 Contracting:
  – Package variety of buildings to reduce costs of
    deconstruction
  – Establish deconstruction requirements
  – Set salvage minimums
 Funding:
  – Learning curve for contractors, job training, economic
    development
  – Deconstruction at no-cost: clearly valuable materials
  – Military/DOD Funding: convert O&M funds to
    deconstruction funds
  – US EPA funds for deconstruction
  – State, county, municipal government funding
                     Case Studies
 Bay   Area military bases:
  – 27.7 million board feet of wood can be salvaged
  – Demolition: 32,300 work hours and 36,000 tons of
    waste
  – Deconstruction: 284,200 work hours, small quantities
    of waste
 Job   Training:
  – Youth Employment Partnership (YEP) Oakland
    trains local youth in deconstruction at the Fleet and
    Industrial Supply Center
  – Building Opportunities for Self-Sufficiency (BOSS)
    employs at-risk youth and homeless adults in pilot
    deconstruction program at Alameda NAS
                 Presidio, Building #901, 1996
                     Deconstruction Bid   Demolition Bid
EXPENSES
Labor (5 people)           $ 33,000
Equipment&WasteDisposal $ 12,000
Administration             $   8,000
Total Expenses             $ 53,000       $ 16,800
INCOME
Sale of Salvageable Lumber $ 43,660
NET COST                   $   9,340      $ 16,800
         Port of Oakland, Building# 733, 1997
                    Deconstruction Bid   Demolition Bid
EXPENSES
Labor (16 people)          $ 240,000
Equipment&WasteDisposal $ 47,000
Administration             $ 43,000
Total Expenses             $ 330,000     $ 150,000
INCOME
Sale of Salvageable Lumber $ 280,000
NET COST                   $ 50,000      $ 150,000
                Conclusions
 C&D   waste generation needs rethinking
 Re-engineering of construction process
 Plug-in manufacturers
 Use power of the contract
 Plan, educate and train
 Use market forces where possible
  (government to price externalities)

				
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posted:11/15/2010
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