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					Vietnam
By: William, Caitlin, and Miranda
                       Location
• Geographic Coordinates: 16 10 N, 107 50 E
• Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of
  Tonkin, and South China Sea, alongside China, Laos, and
  Cambodia
• Area- 331,210 sq km
• Coastline- 2,444 km (excluding islands)
• Extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km
  across at its narrowest point
• Lowest Point: South China Sea (0 m), Highest Point: Fan Si
  Pan (3,144 m)
                        Climate
• Tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season
  (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
• Occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive
  flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta
             Geographic Features
• low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly,
  mountainous in far north and northwest
Halong Bay
Ban Gioc Waterfall
Mekong River
                       Population
• 88,576,758 (July 2009 est.)
• Urban Population: 28% of total population
• Life Expectancy: 71.71 years (Total Population)
                        Economy
• GDP per capita (PPP): $2,900, GDP (PPP): 258.2 Billion
• Population Below Poverty Line: 12.3%
• Labor Force: Agriculture 51%, Industry 15.4%, Services
  32.7%
• Agriculture Products: Paddy rice, coffee, rubber, cotton, tea,
  pepper, seafood, and +
• Industries: Food processing, garments, shoes, machine
  building, and +
               Region (Provinces)
• Vietnam is divided into 58 provinces and 5 centrally
  governing cities
• Provinces are controlled by a People’s Council, which
  is elected by the inhabitants.
   – A People’s Committee is appointed by the People’s Council to
     act as the executive branch.
• Providences are divided into districts, provincial
  cities, and towns.
           Region (Population)
• Largest city is Ho Chi Minh City with 7,123,340
• Second largest city is Ha Noi.
  – These cities are both centrally-governed cities in
    the Red River Delta
• The third largest district is Thanh Hoa, a
  province located in the North Central Coast.
• Least populous province is Bac Kan, located in
  the northeast.
• Centrally controlled cities are divided into
  rural districts, and urban districts.
  – Then the districts are subdivided into wards.
               Regions of Vietnam
• Vietnam can also be
  divided into eight
  regions:
  – Northwest
     • Mountainous and consists
       of four provinces and has
       the lowest GDP per capita.
  – Northeast
     • Mountainous
  – Red River Delta
     • Flat plain formed by the
       Red river, protected by
       dikes. Agriculturally rich
       and densely populated.
       Known for rice cultivation
       Regions of Vietnam (Con’t)
– North Central Coast
   • Hostile to the United States
     forces throughout the Vietnam
     war since it was a National
     Liberation Front (Communists)
     place.
– South Central Coast
– Central Highlands
   • Large numbers of ethnic
     minorities
   • Series of plateaus
   • Known for planting coffee tree,
     cacao, pepper, white mulberry,
     cashew and rubber plants.
       Regions of Vietnam (Con’t)
– Southeast
   • Most economically developed
     region in Vietnam and the
     most urbanized.
– Mekong River Delta
   • Human settlement of this
     region dates as far back as 4th
     century B.C.E.
   • Produces about half of
     Vietnam’s rice output, and
     produces more rice than
     Korea and Japan put together.
   • Even today, many new species
     are being discovered.
              Regional Conflict
• Itu Aba Island/Taiping Island
  – Currently under control of Taiwan, but territorial
    disputes exist between China, Vietnam, and the
    Philippines
  – Very small but contains lots of natural resources
• Paracel Islands
  – Currently under control of China since 1974,
    although disputes are still unresolved between
    Taiwain and Vietnam who also have interests.
     • Also contains resources
                   History
• Vietnam has been
  inhabited since
  Paleolithic times
• 1200 BCE: wet-rice
  cultivation and bronze
  casting developed
• Hong Bang Dynasty
  marks the first
  Vietnamese state: Van
  Lang
                History (Con’t)
• In 111 BCE Vietnam is under Chinese rule, which
  lasts for 1,000 years
  – Independence movements were short term and not
    successful
• Vietnam gained autonomy, not independence in
  the 10th century
• In 938 AD Vietnamese lord Ngo Quyen defeated
  Chinese forces and Vietnam regained
  independence
• Afterwards Vietnam underwent a golden era and
  repelled mongol invasions three times
  – Buddhism became the official religion
                         History (Con’t)
• A civil war occurred between the
  Mac dynasty and the Le dynasty
   – The Mac dynasty was Chinese
     supported
   – The Mac dynasty was defeated and
     power was divided between the
     Trinh lords in the North and Nguyen
     lords in the South.
      • They engaged in civil war for forty years
• The Tay Son brothers defeated both
  parties and established a short
  dynasty, which ended the civil war
   – Nguyen lords were aided by the
     French and defeated the Tay Son
     brothers, which unified Vietnam
                       History (Con’t)
• France corrupted Vietnam’s
  independence with military
  conquests from 1859 until 1885
  – As a result Vietnam became part of
    French Indochina
  – This brought the modern, western-
    style system of education and
    Christianity to Vietnam
  – The French tried to develop a
    plantation economy
     • As a result the wishes of the
       Vietnamese for self-government and
       civil rights were ignored, so a nationalist
       political movement developed
                Movements
•   French Colonization of “Indochina”
•   Marxism and Communist Movements
•   First Indochina War
•   U.S. Entry into Vietnam War
                         French Indochina
•   French rule began when the federation of
    the three Vietnamese regions, Tonkin
    (North), Annam (Central), and
    Cochinchina (South), as well as
    Cambodia, was formed in 1887. (Later
    Laos was added)
•   The capital was moved from Saigon (in
    Cochinchina) to Hanoi (in Tonkin) in 1902
•   Wanted Vietnam’s raw material’s and cheap
    labor
•   Built roads and railways for trade
•   Promoted Catholism
•   French did little to help out the Vietnamese
    in terms of education
       Ho Chi Minh and the Communist
                 Movement
•   Ho studied in Paris and was greatly
    influenced by Marxist-Leninist literature
•   Became a founding member of the French
    Communist Party
•   Moved back and began training teams
    revolutionary techniques and teaching
    Marxism-Leninism, Vietnamese and Asian
    revolutionary history
•   Was inspired my Japan’s Independence
    and victory over Russiaand wanted
    Independence for Vietnam as well.
•   His Revolutionary followers were called the
    Viet Minh and they carried out guerilla
    warfare against the French, U.S., and other
    political factions
    First Indochina War and Outcome
•   The First Indochina War was virtually a          •   When Ngo Dinh Diem was appointed to be
    stalemate between the French and the Viet            the prime minister, with Bao Dai the then
    Minh from 1946 – 1950; then towards the              president, Vietnam was split into two
    end in 1954, the Viet Minh gained significant        separate countries: North Vietnam and
    advances in driving out the French.                  South Vietnam. During this separation, more
•   Dien Bien Phu was the climactic                      than 860 thousand people fled to the South
    confrontation that occurred between March            and more than 50 thousand left for the north.
    and May 1954 and culminated in a
    comprehensive French defeat that
    influenced negotiations over the future of
    Indochina at Geneva
•   The Geneva Conference of 1954 ended
    France's colonial presence in Vietnam and
    partitioned the country into two states at the
    17th parallel pending unification on the basis
    of internationally supervised free elections.
•   Creation of the DMZ( De-militarized Zone)
                              Diem
• First president of Vietnam        • Rounded up suspected
  1955-1963 (though the               communists
  election was most-likely          • Allocated land to the wealthy
  rigged)                             and often abstentee
• Endorsed by both the French         landowners while the
  and the U.S. because of his         peasants were tenents
  anti- Communist sentiments        • U.S. later decided that Diem
• While Johnson visits Saigon,        was a corrupted leader and
  calls Diem “Churchhill of Asia”     helped the Vietnamese army
• Wealthy Catholic and                overthrow him. Possible C.I.A.
  repressed peasant revolts and       assassination in 1963
  religious factions, including
  the Buddhists
                 U.S. Entry into Vietnam
•   After French leave Vietnam in 1956, the        •   Gulf of Tonkin- On August 2, three North
    U.S. assumes responsibility for training the       Vietnamese PT boats allegedly fire
    South Vietnamese                                   torpedoes at the USS Maddox, a destroyer
•   In 1957, Communist insurgent activity in           located in the international waters of the
    South Vietnam begins. Guerrillas                   Tonkin Gulf, some thirty miles off the coast
    assassinate more than 400 South                    of North Vietnam. The attack comes after six
    Vietnamese officials. Thirty-seven armed           months of covert US and South Vietnamese
    companies are organized along the Mekong           naval operations. A second, even more
    Delta                                              highly disputed attack, is alleged to have
•   In 1962 US Air Force begins using Agent            taken place on August 4.
    Orange -- a defoliant that came in metal       •   This is a vital point during the war because
    orange containers-to expose roads and trails       the Resolution approved by Congress gave
    used by Vietcong forces.                           Johnson the power to wage war without an
•   Unlike Viet Minh’s ,Viet Cong were the             official declaration
    South Vietnamese forces that were ordinary     •   Operation Rolling Thunder begins-
    peasants that were predominantly non-              continuous air raids last for 3 years
    communists
Guerilla warfare
                  Vietnam War Continued
•   North Vietnamese launch Tet Offensive. In a show
    of military might that catches the US military off
    guard, North Vietnamese and Vietcong forces
    sweep down upon several key cities and provinces
    in South Vietnam, including its capital, Saigon.
    Within days, American forces turn back the
    onslaught and recapture most areas. From a
    military point of view, Tet is a huge defeat for the
    Communists, but turns out to be a political and
    psychological victory. The US military's assessment
    of the war is questioned and the "end of tunnel"
    seems very far off.



•   My Lai Massacre- On March 16,1968 the angry
    and frustrated men of Charlie Company, 11th
    Brigade, Americal Division entered the village of My
    Lai. "This is what you've been waiting for --
    search and destroy -- and you've got it," said
    their superior officers. Many unarmed women and
    children are brutally tortured and killed
•   A short time later the killing began. When news of
    the atrocities surfaced, it sent shockwaves through
    the US political establishment, the military's chain of
    command, and an already divided American public.
      U.S. Leaves Vietnam War and
               Aftermath
• Nixon signed the cease-
  fire agreement January
  28, 1973
• Fall of Saigon and North
  Vietnam takeover-
  Unifying a communist
  Country
• Country left in ruin due
  to bombing, napalm,
  and agent orange
                                      Migration
•   Under French Colonization                         •   North/ South Division
•   -rural–urban migration of landless peasants.      •   -An initial flush of settlers from the North to
•   rural–rural movements of agricultural                 the South occurred during a power transfer
    laborers in search of temporary employment            period of a few months, when political
    in farming. Thirdly,                                  negotiations led to southward migration of
•   -It is argued that migration during the period        almost 900,000 northern residents, including
    of the French rule was basically a survival           the French, their collaborators and Catholics
    strategy adopted by rural households. It also     •   -Population movement in this period was
    occurred in response to the labour market             greatly influenced by the warfare as well as
    demand under colonialism. Migration was an            the different political and ideological
    explicit policy of the French to encourage            orientations of the two regimes, and thus
    ‘capitalist activities’ and, in particular, the       displayed distinctive patterns between the
    maintenance of mobile rural labor reserves            northern and southern parts. There was, in
    for such activities.                                  effect, ‘zero urban growth’ in the North, but
•   -This period witnessed severe exploitation            ‘hyper-urbanisation’, in the South
    and brutal treatment of the native                •   -Civil life during the wartime was severely
    Vietnamese by the French in plantations or            disrupted. In the North, urban people were
    coalmines and, in consequence, there was              evacuated to the countryside to avoid heavy
    increased impoverishment amongst the rural            bombing, leading to an overall decline of
    population
               Migration During Post War
                  Decade(1975-1985
•   The historical trend of North–South
    population movement by the majority ethnic
    Kinh people continued after the organised
    North-North resettlement program initiated
    during wartime.
•   There was southward movement of
    significant numbers of northern cadres in
    order to consolidate the Communist power
    in the newly conquered South.
•   Organised relocations of people also took
    place from both northern cities and rural
    areas in the Red River Delta to regions such
    as the Central Highlands and other southern
    frontier provinces bordering Cambodia and
    Laos. For the latter, the Red River Delta
    residents were encouraged to move to the
    northern highlands and midlands regions
                                  Doi Moi
•   1986-These reforms led to the
    development of what is now referred
    to as the Socialist- Oriented market
    where the state sector plays a
    decisive role in the economy but
    private enterprise and cooperatives
    play a significant role in commodity
    production. This economic reform
    helped Vietnam establish diplomatic
    relationships with the capitalist West
    and East Asia in the 1990s, such as
    the United States and Japan. The
    Communist Party of Vietnam has
    reaffirmed its commitment toward
    the socialist economic orientation
    and that the renovation of the
    economy is intended to strengthen
    socialism
                        Sex Industry
• World renown for their sex
  tourism
• Recent estimates say that
  nearly a third of all sex workers
  in Vietnam are under the age
  of sixteen
• Trafficked to other countries
• According to the Vietnamese
  Supreme People’s Court, there
  has been a 60 percent
  increase in the number of
  trafficking cases between 2001
  and 2006
               Humans and Environment
             • Agriculture and Importance of                  •   Fisheries
               rice                                           •   -Vietnam has around 1.4 million hectars of
•   -Of all households in Vietnam, 70% earn their                 inland waters for aquaculture purposes,
    livelihood from agricultural production.                      majority paddy fields and further reservoirs,
•    -Rice (Mekong delta, red red river delta, coastal            tidal flats, lagoons and small lakes and ponds.
    zones) and fish cultivation predominate as main           •   -One third of this water surface is already used
    sources of livelihood.                                        for aquaculture purposes; 61% for fish culture
•   -In Vietnam, 53% of the farming population is                 and 39% for shrimp culture.
    female and 73% of these women are employed in
    the agricultural sector.                                  •   -Aquaculture is included in the integrated
                                                                  farming system approach, the VAC system. In
                                                                  addition, Vietnam has marine fisheries along
•   Roles of women                                                the coast.
•        - involved in trading the agricultural produce in    •   -Both men and women are actively involved in
    local markets and marketing cooperatives.                     aquaculture. Men are involved in decisions of
    Traditionally, the first stages of rice cultivation are       fish species to be raised, timing for stocking,
    male designated and the latter stages female                  buying fingerlings, netting and harvesting.
    designated. However, the traditional task division            Women are often involved in daily feeding such
    has changed due to lack of male labour.                       as gathering grass and manure and feeding fish
•   Women are thus increasingly involved in all stages            by rice bran.
    of rice production. Apart from rice, rural
    households produce a variety of vegetables and
    fruits in their homegarden. In upland areas, 80% of
    the land area, farmers produce perennial crops,
    such as tea, coffee, rubber, pineapple, and have
    fruit trees.
                 Impact on Environment
•   Erosion and Pollution                             •   Deforestation
•   -In many provinces of Vietnam a process of soil   •   -Since colonial times, had been exploited.
    degradation is apparent due to intensive use of       Forests were logged or cleared to make way for
    chemical fertilizers, insecticides and weed           rubber, coffee and tea plantations. Roads were
    killers. Soils in upland areas have grown             built to facilitate timber extraction and to
    thinner: 50% of soils in hilly and mountainous        increase colonial control over remote areas
    areas are degraded.                               •   -Vietnam War impact from napalm and agent
•   - In areas where two to three paddy crops are         orange, and lumber to pay for war expenses
    grown soils have become saline.                   •   -According to 2005 report conducted by the
•   -Pest and disease outbreaks have been                 Food Agricultural Organization of the United
    occurring more frequently, especially in the          Nations, Vietnam has the second highest rate
    Mekong delta, where yearly two to three crops         of deforestation of primary forests in the world,
    of rice are grown.                                    second only to Nigeria
•   -There are harmful impacts due to improper use
    of pesticides. Rice and fish production system
    is adversely affected by pesticide use.
•   -The process of deforestation reduces forest
    resources available to the households and
    leads to soil degradation. Fish resources are
    declining due to overfishing.
             Place
Ethnic Groups, Religion, Culture, and
             Customs
Ethnic
Groups
•Kinh (Viet) 86.2%, Tay
1.9%, Thai 1.7%, Muong
1.5%, Khome 1.4%, Hoa
1.1%, Nun 1.1%, Hmong
1%, others 4.1% (1999
census)
•Kinh exert political and
economic control
•Kinh localized in the
alluvial deltas and coastal
plains but government has
enacted programs to settle
them in indigenous areas.
Religion
Buddhist 9.3%,
Catholic 6.7%, Hoa
Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai
1.1%, Protestant 0.5%,
Muslim 0.1%, none
80.8% (1999 census)
Culture
•Food: Very little oil,
many vegetables, main
dishes based around
rice, and soy or fish
sauce. Characteristic
flavors of sweet, sour,
and spicy.
•Music: Ca Tru, Cheo
Opera, and Hat Xam
•Martial arts most
common sport
Customs
•Longevity
•Superstition
•Ancestor Worship
•Birth & Death
                Citation
• http://community.middlebury.edu/~scs/maps
  /vietnam-population_density,1999.jpg
• http://countrystudies.us/vietnam/11.htm
• http://www.chinhphu.vn/portal/page?_pagei
  d=439,1090462&_dad=portal&_schema=PORT
  AL&pers_id=1091147&item_id=33638381&p_
  details=1

				
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posted:11/15/2010
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