ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY GOVERNMENT OFFICE BUILDING ● 7320 RITCHIE HIGHWAY, SUITE 210 ● GLEN BURNIE, MD 21061●
(410) 222-6755FAX (410) 222-6747 ● TIP-A-PHONE (410) 761-8911 ● TTY (410) 787-1174 ● SOUTH COUNTY (301) 970-8250 EXT. 6755-6759
PRINCE GEORGES COUNTY OFFICE • 6707 GROVETON DRIVE • CLINTON, MD 20735 • 301 868-8781 • FAX 301 599-6714
Dave’s Ramble Fall 2008
She began to jeer and then laugh as the Well my friends, you have never experienced rain
farmer approached the cattle gate and his hair stood until you head north into a squaw on an exposed farm
on end like a whiskered basketball. The laughing tractor coupled to a baler trailing the last wagon load
ceased when she felt her own hair stream straight of alfalfa, throttled all the way.
into the air as if the hand of God was grabbing. The The farmer pulled the rig out of the weather and
farmer yelled, “Run from the fence!” It was one of made haste to the machine shop. Where was everyone?
those electrically intense mornings--warm, muggy, “Home under the bed!” he muttered to himself.
with rumblings of thunder and a pressing cold front.
Even the cattle were edgy, huddled Calendar of Events
away from the fence under a tree Mark Your Calendars --- Plan To Participate
with their heads low; normally the September 18 - Appalachia Strawberry Field Day - Gorman
heifers would have rushed the feed September 18 – Anne Arundel Pasture Walk - Lothian
truck by now. “Crouch down low!” September 23 & 25 - Pumpkin & Sweet Corn Twilights REC
cautioned the farmer, “Lightening is September 23 – Manure Application Field Day–Carroll Co.
about to strike!” Pay attention! September 25 – Sustainable Nursery Production–Frederick
Farmers understand lightening. October 14 – National Tractor Safety Program–College Pk
November 8 – MD/DE Annual Horse Conference -
Hoping for a photo finish, the farmers are
November 18-20 – Crop Mgmt. School - Ocean City
scrambling as hay wagons hustle from the baler to December 4 – Southern MD Crop Conference - Waldorf
the barn and the sky darkens in the northwest; the December 22 – Crops IPM Workshop NM/PAT - DFRC
barometer has been falling all day. The farmer January 6 - Southern MD Forage Conference - Waldorf
baling on the open tractor is beginning to feel a little January 12 - Pesticide Certification Training - DFRC
uneasy as lightening begins to streak earthward. He January 26 - Pesticide Certification Exam – DFRC
gazes up at the umbrella over his head and it kind of February 11 - So. MD Vegetable & Fruit Meeting - Loveville
reminds him of a waffle iron with an inviting metal March 16- Pasture & Field Crop Workshop NM/PAT- DFRC
spike pointed skyward. Normally, this farmer would March 27 – On-Line Pesticide Applicator Recertification
March 30 – Advanced Herbicide Workshop –Glen Burnie
be under the bed safe at home by now; he is not
April 3 – On-Line Nutrient Voucher Recertification
particularly fond of lightening. Ah! But the cool
breeze is sure beginning to feel nice. “Just a few Inside This Issue
more windrows of perfect alfalfa hay!” he exclaimed,
as another farmer just jockeyed the last full wagon Fall & Winter Meetings
load of hay from the field and another was CMREC Research Highlights
beginning to spread fertilizer. As all of the farmers Vegetable & Agronomic IPM Updates
past each other they exchanged grins. Who was Pest Net
going to get the wettest this time? Fungicide Use in Corn & Soybean
Preharvest Disease Management
Now pressing the machinery to its limits,
Grape Harvest Ripeness
raindrops start falling as the farmer turns to take up MD Soybean Rust Risk Assessment
the final windrow of hay. He is heading south on this National Crop Insurance
final run as a streak of lightening sizzles to earth Grain Market Highlights
ahead of him, so close you can smell the ozone and SARE Farmer Grants
witness the fiery vapor trail. The fertilizer buggy Environmental Horticulture
makes its final pass turns and throttles towards the Equine Studies Update
farm shop. Now feeling abandoned the farmer Phoenix Services AGSlag
gobbles up the last of the windrow, kicks the baler Nutrient Management Update
New Website Features
out of gear, straightens the baler tongue and begins
the mile stretch toward the tractor shed.
It is the policy of the University of Maryland, Agricultural Experiment Station and Maryland Cooperative
Extension, that no person shall be subjected to discrimination on the grounds of race, color, gender,
religion, national origin, sexual orientation, age, marital or parental status, or disability.
FALL & WINTER MEETINGS
Mark your calendars now and plan to be
a part of the fall and winter meetings.
Appalachia Strawberry Field Day
September 18, 2008, 5 pm
Join us for an evening field day that will feature
research being conducted for a three year Northeast SARE
Research and Education Grant entitled “An Integrated
Approach to Developing a Day-Neutral Strawberry Anne Arundel Pasture Walk
Production Industry”. Research conducted through the Burrages End Stables
grant has focused on propagation and production of 5635 Old Ridge Path Lane
day neutral strawberries in an annual system. The system Lothian, Maryland 20711
is designed to produce fruit during the summer months September 18, 2008, 1 – 4 pm
when local fruit is typically not available. The production
system is a great fit for the Appalachian Mountains as Are Your Pastures Hot, Erosive, Colicky, with
strawberries require cool summer temperatures. The goal
of the project is to develop a system of propagating, Nutrients moving to the Waters’ of The Bay?
growing and marketing high quality fruit throughout the Or
Cool, Nutrient Retentive and Covered in Safer
Variety Trial – Participants will be able to a Grasses for horses?
variety trial with 13 different day neutral Come see the beginning of a new way to manage summer
varieties. pastures and loafing lots that is horse and Bay friendly. The
Plastic Mulch Colors for Day Neutral pasture walk will be at Burrages End Stables managed by
Strawberries Carol Jahnigen. Working with various agencies, Carol has
Post Planting Flower Removal implemented several practices to improve water quality and
Spring versus Fall Planting of Day Neutral the management of her horse farm. These practices will be
Strawberries highlighted in addition to where you can get technical and
Production on 2nd Year Plantings financial assistance to implement them on your farm.
Fertilization of Day Neutral Strawberries This summer an improved Bermuda grass seed, Mohawk,
High Tunnel Production with June Bearing was planted in Carol Jahnigen‟s sacrifice area. In the
Plants summer the grass will provide good protective cover and will
Speakers: actively utilize nutrients present from manure and urine in the
Dr. Harry Swartz, Associate Professor – feeding area. Bermuda grass, once completely established, is
Horticulture, University of Maryland a long lived perennial that should need little reseeding once it
Kathy Demchak, Sr Extension Associate – reaches maturity. Properly managed Bermuda grass, a C-4
Horticulture, Penn State University warm season grass, will provide high quality forage that is
Dr. Lewis Jett, Extension Specialist – good for horses and grows in the summer when few other
Horticulture, West Virginia University things do. Manure nutrients can easily move off site during
Willie Lantz, Extension Educator, Maryland summer months. With a perennial grass present, nutrient
Cooperative Extension capture will occur and a much needed forage will be
Sherry Frick, Extension Program Assistant, produced. Landowners can over seed with rye or ryegrass in
Maryland Cooperative Extension the fall to create a year round grazing pasture.
Location: Assistance is provided by Anne Arundel Soil Conservation
The field day will be held at the newly established farm District, Maryland Department of Agricultural, Maryland
of Dr. Harry Swartz. The farm is located south of Oakland Cooperative Extension and the USDA Natural Resources
along Rt. 560 and the address is 4771 Gorman Road, Conservation Service.
Oakland, MD 21550. Come see a well managed horse farm and a new way to manage a
Registration: sacrifice or summer pasture. To sign-up or for more details
The cost of the field day is free and includes a barbeque contact Suzi Whilden at the Anne Arundel SCD at 410-571-6757.
meal afterwards. If you are planning on attending
please call the extension office to register at 301-
1st Pumpkin & Sweet Corn Twilight Expected benefits of effectively managing manure
WMREC, Keedysville, MD nitrogen
If you apply manure you can’t afford to miss this
September 23, 2008
WMREC Pumpkin & Sweet Corn Twilight Meeting
Free Lunch for program attendees
Join us September 23, 2008 for an exciting twilight
The field day will provide four (4) continuing education credits
meeting! University of Maryland experts will present results
from the Maryland Nutrient Management Program
of the pumpkin research project at Keedysville to current
For reservations or more information call 301-694-
growers, as well as those interested in starting their own
9290 ext. 130 by Sept. 18.
pumpkin patch. You‟ll see 30 varieties of pumpkins; no-till
Sponsored by: Maryland Cooperative Extension, USDA
on vetch; and information will also be presented for the Bt
Agricultural Research Service, and the Maryland Department
sweet corn research project.
of Agriculture, with grant funding from the Chesapeake Bay
Time: 4:30 PM - 7:00 PM
Location: Western MD Research & Education Center,
18330 Keedysville Rd., Keedysville, MD 21756
Contact: Bryan Butler 410-386-2760
Come and Learn:
2 Pumpkin & Sweet Corn Twilight
What information a
WYEREC, Queenstown, MD sensor network can
September 25, 2008 give you for irrigation
WYEREC Pumpkin Twilight Meeting and growth
Join us September 25, 2008 for an exciting twilight management?
meeting! University of Maryland experts will present results
of the pumpkin research project at the Wye Research and New techniques for
Education Center to current growers, as well as those controlling potato
interested in starting their own pumpkin patch. You‟ll see leafhopper.
30 varieties of pumpkins; no-till on vetch; and information
will also be presented for the Bt sweet corn research Some tricks for single-
project. A light fare will be available. pass weed control?
Time: 4:30 p.m. - 7:00 p.m.
Location: Wye Research & Education Center, 124 How to use cover
Wye Narrows Rd., Queenstown, MD 21658 crops for pest
Contact: Bryan Butler 410-386-2760 or Mike Newell management and
410-827-7388. improving soil quality?
Manure Land Application Field Day at the About a 2-year study
Sellers Farm in Carroll County, MD at Waverly Farm
September 23, 2008, 10:00 AM - 2:00 PM Nursery on nitrogen
fertilization of nursery
Manure land application strategies for improving nitrogen trees?
use and uptake.
“Learn how to fight record-high fertilizer prices
through effective management of manure nitrogen”
See the latest in minimum disturbance manure The program for the day will include:
injection equipment 10:00 – 10:15 AM - Welcome by Dean Cheng-i Wei.
Dietrich No-till injectors 10:15 – 11:30 AM - Tour of Raemelton Farm by Steve
Black, owner of Raemelton Farm
Dragline with AerWay
11:30 – 12:00 PM - Wireless Sensor Networks for
Turbo-till Improved Irrigation Monitoring in the Nursery –
Yetter Some Interesting Revelations! By John Lea-Cox,
Watch cover crop grain seeded with a no-till drill Andrew Ristvey and Steve Black
directly behind the manure application 12:00 – 1:00 PM Lunch & Refreshments
Perform in-field ammonia loss measurements 1:00 – 1:20 PM - Nitrogen Fertilization of Field-Grown
Manure spreader calibration using portable truck Evergreen Nursery Stock Jerry Faulring (Owner,
scales Waverly Farm), Stanton Gill and Chuck Schuster
Demonstration of the PSNT process 1:20 – 1:30 PM - Future Field Research with Input from
Growers Chuck Schuster – survey of industry
Rye cover crops for dairy farms
Alternative nutrient sources Walk to Field Stations
1:30 – 3:00 PM - Field Stations – (20 min. each station) Instructor Manual with the guidelines and procedures for
Brief Presentations on projects Questions on conducting the youth training. This manual will be covered
the benefits to the nursery industry during the day of instruction. Also, a copy of the Student
1. Effective Management of Potato Leafhopper – Manual is included; it contains the Task Sheets and Driving
Stanton Gill, Suzanne Klick & Shannon Wadkins Skills Guidelines/Exam used in the youth training program.
2. Using Cover Crops for Sustainable Pest There may be select other handouts. Lunch will be included.
Management and Improving Soil Quality – Paula Be prepared for the weather as we do the Driving Exam
Shrewsbury, Ray Weil, Stanton Gill & Chuck Schuster outdoors in the afternoon. Deadline to register is
3. Practical Considerations for Deploying Wireless September 29. Contact David S. Ross, email@example.com,
Networks for Irrigation in Field Production – Phone 301-405-1188, FAX 301-314-9023
John Lea-Cox, Andrew Ristvey & Steve Black Federal law dating back to 1938 identified hazardous
occupations where workers had to be age 18 or older to be
Registration is Free! But limited to the first 50 registrants.
employed. In 1968 the laws were amended to include the
To register, contact Debby Dant @ 410-827-8056 X115 or
Hazardous Order for Agriculture which established age 16 or
firstname.lastname@example.org by SEPTEMBER 19th
For additional program information, please contact John 14 years with special training for employment in Agriculture.
Lea-Cox @ 301-405-4323 or JLC@umd.edu Further details can be found on the website
http://nstmop.psu.edu. Youths age 14 and 15 are required to
be trained and certified to work on a non-parent farm. In
2001, a new training development program was funded which
has resulted in the current curriculum.
David S. Ross, Professor & Extension Specialist, Agricultural
Engineering, 1431 AnSc/AgrEng Bldg.,College Park, MD 20742
National Safe Tractor and Machinery Phone 301-405-1188, FAX 301-314-9023
Operation Program (NSTMOP)
Hazardous Occupations Safety Training in
University of Maryland/Delaware
Annual Horse Conference
HOSTA Community November 8, 2008
Lead Instructor (CLI) Training The University of Maryland and the University of Delaware
October 14, 2008, 9 am – 4 pm will host the 4th Annual Horse Conference at Chesapeake
The new NSTMOP Curriculum includes: a) a series of College in Wye Mills, MD on Saturday, November 8, 2008.
Task Sheets as the primary curriculum resource; b) rules Registration will open at 8:00 am and informative equine
and guidelines to promote consistency in teaching with the presentations will be given throughout the day, from 8:45 am
Task Sheets, conducting evaluations, and for meeting until 4:00 pm.
minimum requirements to receive a certificate of training; Nationally recognized speakers will discuss timely topics on
c) a set of written test questions randomly selected for each horse health and nutrition, equine business management and
test date; d) guidelines and standards for conducting a marketing, pasture management, careers in the equine
skills test with a tractor and stationary piece of equipment; industry and much more! Veterinarians, trainers, horse
and e) guidelines and standards for conducting a driving breeders, horse owners, and anyone involved in Maryland‟s
test with a tractor and rear-attached machine. Safety equine industry should not miss this opportunity to increase
professionals selected a set of Minimum Core Content Areas their knowledge about horses. All attendees will receive
(MCCA) to use. The USDA adopted the program title conference proceedings, breakfast, lunch, and the opportunity
HOSTA, thus the two names. A minimum of 24 hours of to ask questions of participating experts. For more
instruction is required for youth certification; this time can information on this event, please contact Kelly Brannan at
be scheduled in several ways. email@example.com.
An adult taking this training will be certified as a
Community Lead Instructor (CLI) which qualifies the Beginner GPS Training; Use of Terrain
individual to access and use the curriculum to train youth.
In an extension of this federally mandated certification Navigator Software with GPS
program, the CLI will be able to educate other youths and For Natural Resource Professionals, Forest Landowners, and
adults in safe operation of tractors and machinery in non- Recreationalists that may be interested in attending the
certification programs. CLI‟s are high school teachers, trainings.
Extension educators, 4-H community volunteers and others. 1) BEGINNER GPS COURSE: Hand held GPS receivers are a
David S. Ross is Maryland‟s Master Trainer and several great resource for landowners, natural resource professionals,
others have received their CLI certification. An and other outdoor recreationalists. Current GPS units used in
identification card and number is issued upon completion of this course are accurate (plus or minus 15 feet) and can be
the training both for CLI‟s and certified youth. used for marking hunting locations, structures, streams, your
The Registration fee of $60 includes a copy of the vehicle location, as well as for fun activities such as
geocaching. Professional natural resource managers can If you have any questions regarding the trainings, please visit
save valuable field time by using GPS with a computer to our website www.naturalresources.umd.edu/GPS.cfm.
locate inventory plots, access roads, timber sale and
property boundaries, directing customers to sale locations,
and much more. Mid-Atlantic Crop Management School
The one day training and will cover: November 18-20, 2008
* GPS receiver basics The Mid-Atlantic Crop Management School
* Waypoints and Routes will be held at the Princess Royale Hotel in Ocean City
* Calculating area on November 18-20, 2008. Individuals
* Finding locations seeking advanced training in soil and water,
* Basic Mapping soil fertility, crop production and pest
* Software and hardware management will have an opportunity at
TRAINING LOCATIONS: hands on, intensive sessions that also provide
Western MD Research & Education continuing education units (CEU‟s) for the Certified Crop
Center, Keedysville, MD (near Advisor (CCA) Program. You may also register on line at:
Hagerstown, MD): October 21 or http://www.psla.umd.edu/extension/crops/home.cfm
Wye Research & Education Center,
Queenstown, MD (near Easton, Southern Maryland Crops
MD): November 4 Conference
University of MD Eastern Shore, December 4, 2008
Princess Anne MD: November 18. The Southern Maryland Agents would like to
2) USING TERRAIN NAVIGATOR invite everyone to join with our University specialists to have
SOFTWARE WITH GPS: Terrain your questions answered about crop production and pest
Navigator (TN) software provides control at the Southern MD Crops Conference on
USGS topographic maps on CD-ROM and allows you to December 4, 2008, 4:00 to 8:30 p.m. at the Isaac
create GPS waypoints, routes and tracks and transfer them Walton League Conference Center in Waldorf, MD.
to a GPS unit or to download GPS information taken in the
field and then create a individualized computer map of the Speaker Topic
area you are working. This is very useful for natural Ron Ritter Weed Control Update for Field
resource professionals and landowners as well. Crops
The one day training and will cover: Cerutti Hooks Field Crops IPM - Early Insect
* Use of Terrain Navigator software Scouting
* Waypoints and routes (in office) Bob Kratochvil Varietal Update for Wheat, Corn &
* GPS receiver review Soybeans
* Case studies Ron Mulford Poultry Litter Utilization on Field
* Custom mapping Crops
* Internet Resources Ben Beale Deer Control
A brochure with registration form and additional information Attendance at this conference will satisfy the requirement for
about the trainings is available on our website: the Private Pesticide Applicator Recertification &
www.naturalresources.umd.edu/GPS.cfm. Nutrient Management Voucher.
TRAINING LOCATIONS: Please call the Charles County Extension Office at
Western MD Research & Education Center, Keedysville, MD: 301-934-5403 to register. Make plans now to attend.
Wye Research & Education Center, Queenstown, MD:
November 6 Global Crop Sustainability & IPM Workshop
REGISTRATION INFORMATION: Pesticide Recertification &
* Registration for all trainings begins at 9:00 am and Nutrient Management
trainings are from 9:30 am to 3:30 pm
* Cost for each training is $55-includes lunch & materials Voucher Training
* A Garmin GPSMAP 76Cx unit is provided for use at the December 22, 2008
workshop. If you have the same model please bring it. Make plans to attend the Global Crop
* For information on trainings held at the Western MD Sustainability & IPM Workshop,
Research & Education Center contact Pam Thomas at 301- Monday, December 22, 2008 at the
432-2767 x315, Email firstname.lastname@example.org . Davidsonville Family Recreation Center (DFRC) from 6:00
For trainings at other locations contact Carol Taylor at 410- p.m. to 9:00 p.m. This workshop will explore advanced crop
827-8056, Email email@example.com production practices used around the world focusing on
sustainability, food security and integrated pest provide IPM updates and present on a broad range of
management tactics. Topics will include: production topics.
Crop selection; integrated crop management; soil fertility; Also meeting sponsors will showcase their products and
weed control; insect control; and disease control for field services, and state vegetable organization leaders will be
crops, fruits and vegetables. present to recruit and answer your questions. Please attend
Private Pesticide Applicator Recertification & and make this meeting the best ever. For full conference
Nutrient Management Voucher Recertification will be details, contact Ben Beale, Extension Agent, St. Mary’s
awarded for full class participation. County Extension Office at 410 222-6759.
To register for this event contact the Anne
Arundel County Extension Office at 410 222-6759. Field Crops & Pasture IPM Workshop
March 16, 2009
Maryland/DelawareForage Council Make plans to attend the Field Crops & Pasture IPM
Southern MD Hay & Pasture Conference Workshop, Monday, March 16, 2009 at the Davidsonville
January 6, 2009 Family Recreation Center (DFRC) from 6:00 p.m. to 9:00
Make plans to attend the Southern Maryland Hay & p.m. This workshop will explore advanced concepts of
Forage Conference, tentatively set for January 6, 2009, pasture and field crop production in the Southern Maryland
at the Isaac Walton League Conference Facility in Waldorf, region from establishment to harvest, including animal
MD. Topics will be presented covering all aspects of hay utilization. Topics will include: Crop selection; integrated crop
and pasture production. The programs will address key management; soil fertility; weed control; insect control; and
issues and concerns facing hay and pasture producers. disease control for soybeans, corn, wheat, barley and hay
The conferences also features displays and exhibits by crops.
numerous agribusinesses. Attendees will be able to obtain Private Pesticide Applicator Recertification &
information on seed, fertilizer, equipment, fencing, etc. Nutrient Management Voucher Recertification will be
needed for hay and pasture production and management. awarded for full class participation.
To register for this event contact the Anne Arundel
More detailed program information on the Southern
County Extension Office at 410 222-6759.
Maryland conference will soon be available on the Web at:
http://www.mdforages.umd.edu or through local county
Extension and NRCS/Soil Conservation District offices in
Maryland. Register early to receive a discounted ticket.
Registration at the door will cost you more.
Become a MD Certified Private
If you have allowed your Private Pesticide
Applicator Certification to expire or are a
new applicant, then you are invited to attend
the Private Pesticide Applicator Certification
Training and Examination. It‟s a two step process:
Step 1: A Private Applicator Certification
Training will be conducted at the Davidsonville Family
Recreation Center (DFRC) from 6:00 to 8:00 p.m. on New Live On-Line Session
January 12, 2009. Private Pesticide Applicator Recertification
Step 2: A Private Pesticide Applicator Exam will be March 27, 2009
given at the Davidsonville Family and Recreation Center
If you would like the opportunity to learn from home, yet
(DFRC) from 6:00 to 8:00 p.m. on January 26, 2009.
still be engaged, then be sure to enroll in this New On-Line
Private Pesticide Recertification Training, scheduled for
Southern Maryland Vegetable March 27, 2009 from 4:00 to 6:00 p.m.
& Fruit Production Meeting The session will focus on pesticide use and related topics for
February 11, 2009 all field crops, fruits and vegetables. This Adobe Connect
Make plans to attend the Southern Maryland recertification session will be live via the internet directly from
Vegetable and Fruit Production Meeting on the University of Maryland. Adobe Connect is a student
Wednesday, February 11, 2009. This year the meeting interactive system that will document your attendance. To
will be held in St. Mary‟s County. This meeting will provide participate in a live Adobe Connect session a high speed cable
Private Applicator Recertification & Nutrient or satellite internet connection is required.
Management Voucher Recertification. Speakers will Private Pesticide Applicator Recertification credit
will be awarded for full 2-hour session participation.
Registration by March 25th is required in order to To register for this workshop or for more information
receive Adobe Connect login instructions. contact Dave Myers at the Anne Arundel County Extension
To register for this on-line event contact the Anne Office, 410 222-6759.
Arundel County Extension Office at 410 222-6759.
New Live On-Line Session
Nutrient Management Voucher
April 3, 2009
If you would like the opportunity to learn from home,
yet still be engaged, then be sure to enroll in the New On-
Line Nutrient Management Voucher Recertification
Training, scheduled for April 3, 2009 from 4:00 to
6:00 p.m. This session will focus on fertility and production
related topics for all field crops, fruits and vegetables. This
Adobe Connect recertification session will be live via the
internet directly from the University of Maryland. Adobe
Connect is a student interactive system that will document
your attendance. To participate in a live Adobe Connect
session a high speed cable or satellite internet connection is
Research Highlights Presented at the CMREC
Nutrient Management Voucher Recertification Upper Marlboro Crops Twilight Held on August
credit will be awarded for full 2-hour session participation. 7, 2008
Registration by April 1st is required in order to receive High Tunnel Chili-Mix
Adobe Connect login instructions. R. David Myers, Brian Clark, Mark Spicknall, Alfred Hawkins
To register for this on-line event contact the Anne
Arundel County Extension Office at 410 222-6759. A market garden may be substantially augmented by
utilizing season technologies. Plasticulture systems that utilize
Advanced Agronomics Workshops: early spring and late fall in-field high tunnels can significantly
expand the market window and produce premium quality
I. Herbicide Technology products. Growers in Southern Maryland have adopted these
March 30, 2009 techniques readily and should be encouraged to always
Every year offers a different challenge to the consider adding new vegetable, herb and floral varieties.
effectiveness of herbicides for controlling weeds in our field
crops, vegetables and fruits. In order to better
understand herbicide successes and failures we need to
have a working knowledge of herbicide chemistry,
environmental interaction and mode of action.
Make plans to attend the first of a series of
Advanced Agronomic Workshops: I. Herbicide
Technology scheduled for March 30, 2009 from
6:00-9:00 p.m. at the Anne Arundel County
Extension office in Glen Burnie, MD.
This workshop is intended for farmers and crop
professionals, taught at the college level, therefore, a
familiarity with herbicides and their application is a
prerequisite. Participants in this workshop will discover
the importance of knowing herbicide chemical families;
persistence of herbicides and interaction in the soil
environment; and herbicide mechanism of weed control.
We will use crop, soil and weather scenarios to
understand and predict the effectiveness of herbicide
applications. During our discussions we will reveal
important herbicide soil and plant behaviors such as:
mobility; water solubility; translocation; plant
metabolism; mechanism of action; symptomology; soil
half-life; environmental degradation; and vapor potential.
Using a Special Cover Crop to Support organic fertility practices.
For sunn hemp (SH) treatment plots, SH will be grown for
the Production Needs of Maryland’s ~ 2 months. Afterwards, SH plots will be mowed and alternate
Sustainable Agriculture and Organic SH rows will be strip-tilled (green manure) to create rows for
the vegetable crop. The remaining mowed sunn hemp will be
Vegetable Industry left on the soil surface as organic mulch. One week later, the
Cerruti Hooks, Crops IPM Specialist first vegetable crop will be planted into the tilled-strips.
University of MD Neighboring SH rows will be allowed to re-grow as
intercropped living mulch. Summer squash will be used as the
Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea) is a tropical legume that first crop, and after that cropping cycle is complete, broccoli
has often been investigated as a green manure. Sunn hemp will be planted in the same field to mimic a double cropping
is well known for its ability to produce high amounts of practice. For the SH treatment, SH rows that remained during
biomass and symbiotic N in a short period of time, and add the initial cycle will be mowed and strip-tilled, and the second
C to the soil. Thus, sunn hemp is used primarily to increase crop (broccoli) will be planted into the newly tilled strips. For
soil organic matter and nutrients. Additionally, when the BG treatment, the second crop will be planted into the
incorporated into the soil, it releases compounds that are same rows as the previous crop to duplicate a double cropping
toxic to several plant parasitic nematodes. The sunn hemp practice. Attached is an illustration of the double cropping
cultivar „Tropic Sunn‟ was jointly released by USDA-NRCS protocol.
and the University of Hawaii at Manoa Institute of Tropical
Agriculture and Human Resources in 1983. This sunn hemp
cultivar has received great interest since its release because Upper Marlboro CMREC
of its green manure „super powers‟ and nematicidal Fruit Research Plantings
properties. It has also been suggested that sunn hemp
„Tropic Sunn‟ may serve as a forage crop for cattle in
2008 Disease and Pest Summary
southern temperate regions. Researchers have further
Regional Specialist in Fruit Pathology
shown that sunn hemp hay may be used to help check Maryland Cooperative Extension
weed growth. Despite the many benefits of sunn hemp, this CMREC, Upper Marlboro Research Farm
super hero without a cape has been only lightly investigated August 7, 2008
for its potential to help manage insect pests. Apples
Thus, field experiments are currently being conducted In young, non-bearing orchards, the main diseases to
at the Central Maryland Research and Education Center- manage are those that could defoliate the trees: apple scab,
UMF in Upper Marlboro, to examine the use of sunn hemp cedar-apple rust, and apple powdery mildew. Young trees
as a cover crop to suppress insect pests and enhance need healthy leaves to support their growing root systems and
beneficial arthropods in a double-cropping vegetable canopies. In our planting, the only disease we observed in
system. During both crop cycles, insect pest populations 2008 was powdery mildew, for which we applied several
and their associated natural enemies will be censused. This sprays.
experiment will be expanded next year to concurrently look Blueberries
at other potential benefits of using sunn hemp within the Blueberries are native plants that have relatively few
same field such as improving soil health, soil and plant diseases and pests compared to imports like peaches, apples,
nutrient status, and plant growth under conventional and and wine grapes. Our planting, now in its fourth year, has had
no observable fruit rot or insect damage. We lost a few canes
to winter injury and herbicide injury. Netting kept out a
vertebrate pest: the robins who stole most of last year‟s crop.
Peaches/Nectarines and Beach Plums
These fruit trees and shrubs are all species of “stone
fruit.” They belong to the same genus, Prunus, and have
similar diseases and pests. Our nine-year-old peach and
nectarine planting has typically had a lot of peach scab on the
leaves and fruit. This year, we sprayed for scab early, so that
there was less on the early peaches, but gaps in the spray
schedule allowed many scab lesions to develop on the late
peaches and nectarines. Hailstorms in June and early July also
damaged some fruit, allowing fungal rots to enter and
attracting birds and insects.
Brown rot is an annual problem on all stone fruits,
including beach plums. The fruit rot phase of the disease
causes a brown, soft rot on ripening fruit. Rotted fruit vegetables. See labels for use rates and restrictions. They
become covered with grayish powdery spores, and dry have not been posted to CDMS yet. Bayer also received
down to “mummies” that look like a peach or plum pit. The registration for another new active ingredient spirotetramt
brown rot fungus survives the winter in these fruit which will be sold under the trade name, Movento. It is
mummies, and if they are left in the orchard, they will infect labeled for aphid and whitefly control on a number of
next year‟s crop of blossoms and fruit. vegetable crops. Please see labels for use rates, restrictions
Table and Wine Grapes and labeled crops at:
Our eight-year-old vineyard also suffered from the http://www.cdms.net/LDat/ld8L5005.pdf
hailstorms this summer. In addition to battered leaves, Cabbage
many fruit split open. Fruit that are damaged when they are Continue to sample for cabbage looper, diamondback
small will often heal over or drop off. More mature fruit may larvae and harlequin bug. Although the pyrethroids will
not fully heal and become susceptible to fungal fruit rots provide control of harlequin bugs they are not effective on
and insect damage. diamondback in our area. So be sure to scout and select
Beginning in early June, warm, humid nights and control options based on the complex of insects present in the
frequent daytime rainfall created the conditions for an field.
explosive outbreak of grape downy mildew, a destructive Spinach
fungal disease that can defoliate vines and prevent very As the earliest planted spinach emerges from the ground,
young fruit from developing normally. We brought the be sure to watch for webworms and beet armyworms.
disease under control with little defoliation in the wine Controls should be applied when worms are small and before
grapes, though the table grapes fared worse. By the time they have moved deep into the hearts of the plants. Also,
the disease struck, most of the fruit were old enough to be remember that both insects can produce webbing on the
largely immune, though some have purplish spots indicating plants.
downy mildew damage to the skin.
Despite favorable weather from budbreak onward, we Disorders in Cole Crops
haven‟t seen a lot of grape powdery mildew, which was a Gordon Johnson,
serious problem in the vineyard in 2006 and late 2007. We Extension Ag Agent, Kent County
sprayed lime sulfur while the vines were dormant to reduce firstname.lastname@example.org
the overwintering population of several fungal pathogens, Most cole crops will be planted by mid-August in
including powdery mildew, with apparent success. We Delaware although late plantings of broccoli and collards will
continued to apply protectant sprays as the shoots and fruit be going in up to the end of the month. Cabbage, cauliflower,
developed. broccoli, broccoflower, Brussels sprouts, and collards are
Other common grape diseases include (1) Phomopsis important crops for fall income on many vegetable farms
cane and leaf spot, caused by a cool-weather fungus that throughout Delaware. There are a number of challenges to
becomes inactive in the summer, and (2) black rot, another growing cole crops including producing quality transplants,
spring fungal disease that is the first fruit rot to appear. scheduling plantings for harvest, and pest management
Cool, wet weather early in the season favored Phomopsis (especially insect control). Cole crops are also susceptible to a
infections of shoots and leaves. Phomopsis fruit rot is just number of disorders that growers need to be aware of
now appearing, so it is too soon to tell how well we did in because they can cause issues with marketability.
protecting fruit. We have seen a few black rot lesions on Tipburn of Cauliflower, Cabbage, and Brussels
leaves but very few berries with black rot. Our worst insect Sprouts
pest is Japanese beetle, which skeletonizes leaves and may This problem can cause severe economic losses.
feed on fruit. Beetle damage so far this year has been Tipburn is a breakdown of plant tissue inside the head of
minor. cabbage, individual sprouts in Brussels sprouts, and on the
inner wrapper leaves of cauliflower. It is a physiological
disorder which is associated with an inadequate supply of
calcium in the affected leaves, causing a collapse of the tissue
and death of the cells. Calcium deficiency may occur where
the soil calcium is low or where there is an imbalance of
nutrients in the soil along with certain weather conditions.
Vegetable Crop Insects (High humidity, low soil moisture, high potash and high
Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist nitrogen aggravate calcium availability). Secondary rot caused
email@example.com by bacteria can follow August 22, 2008 Weekly Crop Update
Volume 16, Issue 22 3 tipburn and heads of cauliflower can be
New Insecticide Registrations severely affected. Some cabbage and cauliflower cultivars are
Bayer Crop Science recently received federal and state relatively free of tipburn problems.
registrations for their new active ingredient flubendamide.
It is the active ingredient in Belt and Synapse. Belt is
labeled for sweet corn. Synapse is labeled for a number of
Boron Deficiencies diameter. Leaves may also be broken over the curd to prevent
Cole crops have a high boron requirement. Symptoms of yellowing. In hot weather blanching may take 3 to 4 days, but
boron deficiency vary with the cole crop. Cabbage heads in cool weather, 8 to 12 days or more may be required.
may simply be small and yellow. Most cole crops develop Cauliflower fields scheduled to mature in cool weather
cracked and corky stems, petioles and midribs. The stems (September and October) that are well supplied with water
of broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower can be hollow and are and planted with "selfblanching" cultivars will not need tieing.
sometimes discolored. Cauliflower curds become brown and Newer orange cauliflower and green broccoflower varieties are
leaves may roll and curl. being planted. They are less susceptible to off-colors but still
Hollow Stem in Broccoli and Cauliflower Not can develop purpling under warm conditions.
Caused by Boron Deficiency Cauliflower Ricing
This condition starts with gaps that develop in the “Riciness” and “fuzziness” in heads is caused by high
tissues. These gradually enlarge to create a hollow stem. temperatures, exposure to direct sun, too rapid growth after
Ordinarily, there is no discoloration of the surface of these the head is formed, high humidity, or high nitrogen. “Ricing” is
openings at harvest but both discoloration and tissue where the flower buds develop, elongate and separate,
breakdown may develop soon after harvest. Some cultivars making the curd unmarketable.
of hybrid cauliflower and broccoli may have openings from Development of Curd Bracts in Cauliflower
the stem into the head. Both plant spacing and the rate of Curd bracts or small green leaves between the segments
nitrogen affect the incidence of hollow stem. Hollow stem of the curd in cauliflower is caused by
increases with wider spacings and as the rate of nitrogen August 22, 2008 Weekly Crop Update Volume 16, Issue 22 4
increases. The incidence of hollow stem can be greatly too high of temperature or drought. High temperatures cause
reduced by increasing the plant population. a reversion to vegetative growth with production of bracts on
Cabbage Splitting the head. In
Cabbage splitting is mainly a problem with early a marketable cauliflower head, the individual flower buds are
cabbage. A problem can develop when moisture stress is undeveloped and undifferentiated.
followed by heavy rain. The rapid growth rate associated Loose Heads in Cauliflower and Premature
with rain, high temperatures and high fertility cause the Flowering in Broccoli
splitting. Proper irrigation may help prevent splitting and Loosely formed curds in cauliflower can be due to any
there are significant differences between cultivars in their stress that slows growth making them small or open.
susceptibility to this problem. Splitting may also be partially Fluctuating temperatures and moisture will also cause less
avoided by deep cultivation to break some of the plant compact growth. In contrast, excess vegetative growth caused
roots. by excessive nitrogen can also cause loose heads in
Cauliflower and Broccoli Buttoning cauliflower and broccoli. Premature flowering and open heads
Buttoning is the premature formation of a head and in broccoli can be brought on by high temperatures.
because the head forms early in the plant's life, the leaves Edema on Cole Crop Leaves
are not large enough to nourish the curd to a marketable Edema is water blistering on cole crop leaves.
size. Buttoning may occur shortly after planting in the field, The most common cause of edema is the presence of
when normal plants of the same age should be growing abundant, warm soil water and a cool, moist atmosphere.
vegetatively. Losses are usually most severe when Under these conditions the roots absorb water at a rate faster
transplants have gone past the juvenile stage before setting than is lost through transpiration. Excess water accumulates in
in the field. Stress factors such as low soil nitrogen, low soil the leaf, some parenchyma cells enlarge and block the
moisture, disease, insects, or micronutrient deficiencies can stomatal openings through which water vapor is normally
also cause this problem. Some cultivars, particularly early released from the plant; thereby contributing to further water
ones, are more susceptible to buttoning than others. retention in the leaf. If this condition persists, the enlarged
Lack of Heads in Broccoli and Cauliflower cells divide, differentiate a cork cambium, and develop
During periods of extremely warm weather (days over elongate cork cells externally to form a periderm. The rupture
86°F and nights 77°F) broccoli and cauliflower can remain of the epidermis by the enlarged inner cells and the periderm
vegetative (does not head) since they do not receive account for the raised, crusty appearance of older edema
enough cold for head formation. This can cause a problem spots.
in scheduling the marketing of even volumes of crop. Black Petiole
Cauliflower Blanching and Off Colors Black petiole or black midrib is an internal disorder of
The market demands cauliflower which is pure white or cabbage that has been occasionally noted in recent years. As
pale cream in color. Heads exposed to sunlight develop a heads approach maturity, the back side of the internal leaf
yellow and/or red to purple pigment. Certain varieties such petioles or midribs turn dark gray or black at or near the point
as Snow Crown are more susceptible to purple off-colors, where the midrib attaches to the core. The affected area may
especially in hot weather. Self-blanching varieties have be quite limited or may extend for 2 or 3 inches along the
been developed to reduce problems with curd yellowing. midrib. It is believed that this disorder is associated with a
For open headed varieties, the usual method to exclude potassium (K)-phosphorus (P) imbalance and results when the
light is to tie the outer leaves when the curd is 8 cm in K level in the soil is low and the P concentration high. High
rates of nitrogen may contribute to the problem. Probably, Continue to scout for soybean aphids. Since this is more of
as in the case with tipburn, black petiole is a complex a cool season aphid, we could see an increase with the recent
physiological disorder in which environmental conditions temperatures. As a general guideline, treatment is needed
play an important role in symptom expression. Variety through the R-5 stage (seed is 1/8 inch long in the pod of one
evaluation trials have shown that there are differences in of the four uppermost nodes on the main stem) of soybean
degree of susceptibility between varieties. development if economic levels are present. It may also be
Floret (Bead) Yellowing in Broccoli beneficial to spray through R-6 stage (pods containing a green
The florets are the most perishable part of the broccoli seed that fills the pod cavity at one of the four uppermost
head; yellowing may be due to overmaturity at harvest, nodes on the main stem) – reports vary as to the benefit of
high storage temperatures after harvest, and/or exposure spraying once plants reach the R-6 stage but in some years
to ethylene. Any development of yellow beads ends and some situations there has been an economic return.
commercial marketability. Bead yellowing due to Spraying after R-6 stage has not been documented to increase
senescence should not be confused with the yellow to light- yield in the Midwest.
green color of areas of florets not exposed to light during The suggested treatment threshold from the
growth, sometimes called "marginal yellowing". Midwest is still 250 aphids per plant with 80% of the plants
Brown Floret (Bead) in Broccoli infested with aphids. You can also consider using speed
This is a disorder in which areas of florets do not scouting to make a treatment decision. Information on how to
develop correctly, die and lead to brown discolored areas. use speed scouting can be founds at:
This is thought to be caused by plant nutritional imbalances http://www.nwroc.umn.edu/Cropping_issues/2007/Issue9/07_17
but also may be due to feeding damage on florets from _07_no4.htm or
insects such as harlequin bugs.
We continue to find sporadic and low levels of corn
Information adapted and reprinted in part from earworms in fields in Kent and Sussex counties. As corn dries
“Nonpathogenic Disorders of Cabbage” from Cornell University; down, moths emerging from larvae found in corn fields will lay
“Cole Crops Crop Management” from Prince Edward Island eggs in soybeans. Remember, corn earworms will feed on the
Canada, and factsheets from North Carolina State University on foliage and the pods. The only way to know if you have an
broccoli and cauliflower production. economic level will be to scout. Therefore, be sure to scout all
fields for podworms. Although states to our south reported
control failures with pyrethroids in soybeans in 2007, we did
not see this in Delaware in 2007. In many cases, poor control
in our area was the result of treating too late, treating large
or using too low of a rate. If using a pyrethroid, you should be
Agronomic Crop Insects using the mid to high range rate. In addition to the
Joanne Whalen, Extension IPM Specialist pyrethoids, Steward or Lorsban should also be considered,
firstname.lastname@example.org especially if armyworms are in the mix. The pyrethroids will
Grass Hay Crops not provide effective beet armyworm control. In the past, we
We have received reports from consultants in have used the treatment threshold of 3 corn earworms per 25
Maryland and Delaware regarding insect damage to grass sweeps in narrow fields and 5 corn earworms per 25 sweeps
hay crops that are close to cutting. In both cases, the insect in wide row fields (20 inches or greater). However, these are
causing the damage was fall armyworm. Although there are static thresholds that were calculated for a 10-year average
no thresholds for this insect in grass hay crops, fields soybean bushel value of $6.28. With higher soybean prices,
should be watched closely after cutting for damage to the the best approach to determining a threshold is to access the
regrowth. Baythroid XL, Mustang MAX, and Corn Earworm Calculator
Warrior are all labeled for armyworm control on http://www.ipm.vt.edu/cew/ which estimates a
August 22, 2008 Weekly Crop Update Volume 16, Issue 22 threshold based on the actual treatment cost and bushel value
5 grass hay crops. Insects must be small at the time of you enter.
treatment to achieve control.
As the potential for late season insect control
increases, be sure to check all labels for the days
from last application to harvest as well as other
restrictions In areas of the state with high bean leaf
beetle counts, be sure to watch for both defoliation and
pod feeding. Be sure to check the following link from the
Midwest for the most recent decision making information
for this insect pest
send email to email@example.com. For more information,
Pesticide Notes contact Sandra Sardanelli
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The results of the state wheat trials will be out shortly.
Many of your clients should be in the process of making
decisions about seed purchases for winter wheat planting this
fall. I have compiled a chart of disease reactions for wheat
University of Maryland varieties that we commonly see on the market here in
MD Department of Agriculture Maryland to help in this process. Disease resistance is always
University of Delaware the cheapest and most effective management tool we have.
Virginia Polytechnic Institute All the scores in the chart are re-scaled so that the most
susceptible thing we tend to see is a 9 on the scale of 0 to 9.
To subscribe to Pest Net: Send an email to The data that you will see in the state wheat trial report that
email@example.com The body of the email should Dr. Costa puts out will have raw data for powdery mildew. So
contain the line: subscribe pestnet-information 'your name' the most susceptible variety there (Becker) had a score this
Replace 'your name' with the appropriate information and season of 6.4. My effort to re-scale things is not to confuse
send the message from the email address to which you you but to try to take the seasonal difference out. You are
want the information sent. welcome to use this chart in any way you like. And if you
To unsubscribe to Pest Net: send an email to have any comments or criticisms of the approach feel free to
firstname.lastname@example.org the body of the email should let me know.
contain only: 'unsubscribe pestnet-information' If you have
any difficulty subscribing or unsubscribing to the list, please
Wheat reactions to diseases relative to pathogen strains experienced in
Maryland. Ratings range from 0 = highly resistant to 9= highly susceptible.
Fungicide Use in Corn and Soybean: To
Revised 10 July 2008. Apply or Not to Apply;
Powdery Leaf Stripe Head
Brand Wheat Entry
Mildew1 Rust1 Rust Scab1
That is the Question
Branson 3 2 5 7 4 By Don Hershman and Paul Vincelli
Cooper 6 5 6 8 5 1
Coker This year there is great interest in applying fungicides to
Coker 9184 4 3 7 8 4 1 both corn and soybean in Kentucky, and elsewhere. Interest is
Agripro being fueled by high crop prices, aggressive marketing of
Coker 9312 8 5 8 6 4
Coker fungicides by manufacturers, and the perception by producers
Coker 9436 4 5 6 6 5 that applying fungicides will result in a net economic benefit
Agripro (increased yield and perhaps quality). We anticipate that 30-
Coker 9511 5 4 8 4 2
50% of Kentucky‟s corn and soybean acres (800,000 to 1
Coker 9553 3 4 2 8 9 3 million acres) will be sprayed with a fungicide during 2008.
Gromark FS 300 3 6 7 8 6 Nationally, the number of acres treated could approach 50
Gromark FS 621 3 2 9 4 4 million (for reference, there are about 160 million acres of
Gromark FS 627 5 2 8 3 2 corn and soybean in the U.S.). These numbers represent a
Pioneer 25R37 2 4 3 7 1 3
Pioneer 25R62 2 4 5 1 2
radical departure from business-as-usual corn and soybean
Pioneer 26R15 2 2 6 6 1 3 production!
Pioneer 26R56 5 3 4 8 4 What claims are being made about fungicides?
Fungicides (primarily strobilurin-based products - Table 1)
Public McCormick 0 8 6 6 1 are being marketed for control of certain fungal diseases.
Public Sisson 4 8 8 8 3 6 However, maintaining optimal health of treated crops has
Renwood Renwood 3633 7 3 7 1 been the main marketing strategy of fungicide manufacturers.
Seedway SW 55 4 4 8 1 2
Seedway SW 48 5 3 8 9 In addition to disease control benefits, fungicide
SS 520 2 3 8 8 4 9
manufacturers have promoted fungicides for optimizing
States physiological and biochemical processes in crops. As a result,
SS 548 7 3 8 1 treated crops are reportedly better able to withstand crop
Southern stresses, and yield more, compared with non-treated crops.
SS 560 2 6 6 8 1
SS 8302 8 8 2 6 2 Table 1. Fungicides commonly being used in corn and
Southern soybean production throughout the U.S.
SS 8309 4 5 5 5 1 4
Southern Fungicide Active ingredient(s) Chemical class(es)
SS 8404 4 3 8 7 4 2 Headline Pyraclostrobin Strobilurin
Southern Quadris Azoxystrobin Strobilurin
SS 8641 0 1 9 9
States Quilt Azoxystrobin + Strobilurin + triazole
SS MPV57 5 3 7 8 2 2 propiconazole
States Stratego Trifloxystrobin + Strobilurin + triazole
USG USG 3209 3 9 3 7 5 1 propiconazole
USG USG 3342 1 3 7 1 2
USG USG 3555 2 5 7 1
USG USG 3592 2 1 6 7 7 3 “Greening” effect
USG USG 3665 3 2 4 7 1 We have seen some of these data on how strobilurin
USG USG 3860 6 5 6 1 fungicides, in particular, are reported to impact plant
Vigoro Vigoro V9510 4 6 8 7 9 6
Vigoro Vigoro V9713 4 4 6 6 1 1 physiology/biochemistry of crops. Some of it looks very
Vigoro Vigoro Dominion1 3 4 6 7 5 convincing, and there is no denying that treated crops often
Tribute 1 7 8 6 1 7 (but not always) show what has been called a “greening
Ratings for powdery mildew, leaf rust, wssmv and head scab are based on local effect”. Most producers consider this greening effect to be a
data. Data for varieties not in last (2007-8) state trial are supplemented from past
local trials or other regional information. good thing that necessarily translates into higher yields
Stripe rust and sbwmv ratings are compiled from various other sources. compared to non-treated crops. However, this is definitely
Resistance to powdery mildew and rusts can change within a season. Past not the case and we have seen numerous situations in
performance is not a guarantee of continued resistance. research plots and grower fields where yields of corn or
Compiled by Dr. A. Grybauskas, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of
soybean were not improved by fungicide treatment, even
Maryland. Ratings for powdery mildew and head scab based on data from Dr. Jose
Costa. when the greening effect was evident.
As a side note, the greening effect can be a negative thing
as well. It can slow or even delay harvest, and grain (mainly
corn) may require drying if harvested at a higher moisture
content compared to non-treated crops.
Response to fungicides for crops under severe stress though pre-tassel application of strobilurin fungicides is known
or low stress/low disease conditions to be one cause.) In many cases, the yield loss from
We are plant pathologists and not crop physiologists. fungicide application has been clearly documented but the
Consequently, we focus primarily on the disease control exact cause of the yield loss is unknown. As with soybean,
aspects of fungicide treatments. However, we have noted industry data for corn, mostly from unreplicated side-by-side
that applying fungicides to corn or soybean, in replicated comparisons in grower fields, indicate a substantially higher
trials, frequently does not produce statistically higher yields average yield response to fungicides than university research,
when tests are grown under serious stress conditions, such but the wide range of yield results is still apparent even in
as drought, or under low stress/low disease situations. For industry data.
example, we have conducted 28 replicated soybean
fungicide tests in Kentucky since 2003. Disease pressure Table 2. Yield response of corn following fungicide
and crop stress were minimal in most of these tests; a few application in replicated trials conducted in IL, IN, IA,
experienced severe drought stress. In these tests, KS, KY, MN, MO, OH, WI, and Ontario, Canada during
statistically significant yield increases (in at least one 2007 (data summary by C. Bradley, Univ. of IL).
fungicide treatment) were seen in seven of 28 tests (25%).
These findings are consistent with those of researchers at Range of Number of data Percent
other land grant universities who have conducted several response of points in
hundred soybean fungicide tests since 2002, most of which corn crop to category (out
had very little disease development. A. Grybausksas (Univ. fungicide of 168)
of Maryland) summarized the results of 74 replicated tests, (compared to
conducted across 15 northern states in 2006. Yields in untreated corn)
fungicide-treated plots ranged from -6 bu/A to 18 bu/A -1 to -29 bu/A 46 27.4
(mean 2.8 bu/A). Some of the yield differences in individual 0 bu/A 8 4.8
studies were statistically significant; others were not. The 1 to 5 bu/A 51 30.4
main point is that soybean yields, on average, are 6 to 27 bu/A 63 37.5
somewhat higher when treated with a fungicide (mostly a
single application of a strobilurin fungicide at early pod Research consistently shows that the yield response
formation), but the yield results from individual treatments associated with spraying either corn or soybean with a
and tests vary wildly. To be fair, we note that results fungicide is very unpredictable. While an economic yield
summarized by industry suggest a more favorable outcome. increase is possible, it is not assured, and yield loss can also
occur. In our opinion, marketing literature by most fungicide
How often do fungicides improve corn yield? manufacturers is unrealistically “bullish”.
Since applying fungicides to field corn is a relatively new
production practice (only since 2006), most of the research So where do fungicides fit?
on corn is very recent. However, research thus far should The best chance that a fungicide treatment will result in a
temper enthusiasm for the routine use of fungicides in corn. net economic gain for corn or soybean occurs when disease
For example, last year Chad Lee and Paul Vincelli conducted conditions exist which justify making a fungicide application.
three corn fungicide tests under low disease, good growing In other words, fungicides often result in higher yields when
conditions. In these tests, fungicide application did not there is enough disease to cause significant yield reductions.
produce a significant yield difference. The same is true for But keep in mind that no fungicide is perfect. For example,
four UK trials in with strobilurin fungicides conducted in fungicides do a good to excellent job against some diseases,
western Kentucky several years ago. Similarly, in replicated an average to poor job against some, and have absolutely no
tests conducted throughout the Midwest and beyond during impact on others (for example, all nematode, viral, and
2007, research shows that it is far from guaranteed that a bacterial diseases, and many soil-borne fungal diseases).
fungicide application will provide an economic yield boost When diseases develop that ARE effectively controlled by
(Table 2). Although the average yield response across all one or more fungicides, higher yields are likely to be
treatments (Headline, Quilt, or Stratego at tasseling) tested harvested from treated crops. On the other hand, no amount
was 3.5 bu/A, 46 of 168 data points (27%) showed yield of fungicide will protect crops from serious outbreaks of some
loss when a fungicide was applied. The range of response diseases. Thus, the response of crops to fungicide treatment
of individual crops to a fungicide ranged from a 27 bu/A can, at least partially, be predicted based on the probability
yield increase to a 29 bu/A yield loss. That‟s right, a 29 that certain diseases might occur. For example, depending on
bu/A yield loss, with fungicides applied according to label weather conditions, grey leaf spot (GLS) of corn is highly likely
directions. Some of these cases of yield loss are due to to be a yield-limiting factor in a hybrid susceptible to GLS that
damage to the developing ear. This damage has been is late-planted, no-till, into a field where corn was grown the
called “arrested ear development”, whereby the ears are previous year. Other production and environmental factors are
moderately or highly stunted, with reduced numbers of also important, but the point is that some disease situations
kernels per row. (It should be noted that arrested ear (ergo, need to apply a fungicide) can be anticipated.
development can be caused by factors other than fungicide, However, there are many other situations where the
response to a fungicide treatment cannot be predicted with
any certainty. Throw into the mix different types and “Timely Viticulture” is designed to give those in the
degrees of crop stresses and it is not hard to see that Maryland grape industry a timely reminder of things they
making the most appropriate fungicide use decision for your should be considering in the vineyard or
corn or soybean crop is not as clear cut as you may have when establishing a planting.
thought. The odds are in your favor that treated corn or It is getting close to harvest and you
soybean will yield more than untreated crops. However, the want to:
economics of treating, even in this high price environment, stop spraying as soon as
are much less certain. possible…
Our suggestion is to reserve fungicide treatment for fields but still want to keep the fruit and leaves clean…
that are at risk for significant disease development. The while watching preharvest intervals…
disease history of fields, production practices, recent and and not applying anything to potentially affect
near-term weather conditions, etc, can help with this. For fermentation.
fields that are at low risk for disease, many producers will Please see timely info below from Dr. Anne DeMarsay (and
still feel compelled to apply fungicides for one reason or Dr. Tony Wolf) on Preharvest disease management.
another. If you fall into this category, we strongly suggest Additional information is always available on my web site
that you keep a portion of each field unsprayed for http://www.grapesandfruit.umd.edu/ and the listed links.
comparison purposes. And, don‟t compare just by looks or Joseph A. Fiola, Ph.D., Specialist in Viticulture and Small Fruit
even yield. Rather, compare by determining how much (or University of Maryland, Western MD Research & Education Center
how little) money the fungicide treatment put back into 18330 Keedysville Road
Keedysville, MD 21756-1104
your farm enterprise.
301-432-2767 ext. 344; Fax 301-432-4089
What About Treating After Hail?
Fungicides are being marketed as a rescue treatment for
corn following a hailstorm. We have not seen any research
showing that this is an economical practice. In fact, the
limited data available on this practice indicate that the Preharvest Disease Management
application doesn‟t reverse any of the yield loss that hail Anne DeMarsay, Ph.D., Fruit Pathology Specialist, University of
damage can cause. Maryland Cooperative Extension
Many Maryland vineyards are approaching or already within
30 days of the anticipated harvest date for early wine grape
One final point: Achieving good results when spraying
varieties. During this window, growers face the challenge of
any crop with fungicides requires excellent spray coverage.
managing several fungal diseases, including powdery mildew
Both aerial and ground applications have produced good
(PM), downy mildew (DM), Botrytis bunch rot, and other late-
results in corn and soybean. However, the recent trend
season bunch rots, without using fungicides that could impair
toward greatly reduced spray volumes for aerial application,
wine quality. Maryland growers may refer to Extension Fact
in particular, is troubling. Some fungicide labels now
Sheet 848, Guidelines for Developing an Effective Fungicide
indicate that it is acceptable to apply as few as 2 gal/A by
Spray Program for Wine Grapes in Maryland, 2008, for specific
air. If fungicide manufacturer are comfortable enough to
put this recommendation on product labels, we suspect that
For more information of the potential interaction between
this low volume can produce good results. However, this
late disease management and fermentation, a helpful
low volume is certainly “on the edge” and the chances of
presentation by Dr. Tony Wolf from Virginia Tech, entitled
poor treatment performance could be high if application is
"Late-season disease control options to manage diseases, but
attempted during less than ideal conditions, or the
minimize fermentation problems and wine defects," is
application is made by a marginally competent aerial
applicator. Just because someone is a good pilot does not http://www.vaes.org.vt.edu/AHSMITHJAREC/WolfWeb/Pre-
necessarily mean that they are a good aerial applicator. harvest%20disease%20management.pdf
The “word on the street” is that aerial applicators from all
over the country will be making their way to Kentucky to General Guidelines
apply fungicides to corn and soybean this year. You should Avoid applying fungicides containing sulfur, copper, and
take whatever steps are required to make sure that captan within 30–45 days of your anticipated harvest
whomever you hire to spray your crops (aerial or ground) is date. Sulfur and copper residues impart off-tastes to
good at what they do. wine, and captan residues may delay fermentation.
In managing PM and DM, your objective should be to
maintain a functional canopy for long enough to fully ripen
PM and DM before harvest and tolerate some foliar
mildew without harming fruit.
Grape Harvest Ripeness
mature, you may need to apply fungicides until quite Joseph A. Fiola, Ph.D.
late in the season to preserve the canopy. Specialist in Viticulture and Small Fruit
Be vigilant in scouting for late-season bunch rots, which Evaluating Grape Samples for Ripeness. It is critical to
often appear suddenly and close to fruit maturity, properly monitor and assess the fruit characteristics and
weeks after black rot and Phomopsis fruit rot. maturity to make the appropriate management, harvesting,
Powdery Mildew and winemaking decisions to produce the
Protect fruit until they reach 8 Brix, when they become best quality grapes and wine
immune to PM infection. Thereafter, protect the canopy possible. The last “Timely Viticulture”
as long as needed for ripening fruit. described how to take a proper
Late PM fungicides that will not affect wine quality sample that best represents the actual
include Quintec, Endura or Pristine (boscalid ripeness stage of the variety in that
component), stylet oil, and the potassium salts vineyard. The next step is set the
(Armicarb, Kaligreen, Nutrol). The sterol-inhibiting (SI) priorities that will optimize fruit quality
fungicides (Nova/Rally, Elite, Procure) may still be and give you the opportunity to make the
useful where PM has not lost sensitivity to SIs. best possible wine and then evaluate your sample based on
salt product. Use stylet oil once, and only on severe The critical principals here are that high quality wine is the
infections. Do not apply oil within 14 days of either confluence of fruit derived flavor and aroma components
sulfur or captan. and for red grapes also the reduction of immature
Downy Mildew tannins.
For late DM, use a phosphorous acid product These do not necessarily correspond to “desired” sugar
(phosphite) such as Phostrol, ProPhyt, Topaz, etc. and acid ranges.
Because of strobilurin-resistant DM strains, Pristine The highest priority needs to be the quality and
alone may no longer be effective on DM in Maryland quantity of varietal aroma/flavor in the fruit.
vineyards. Simply stated, to obtain a desired characteristic aroma
Botrytis Bunch Rot or flavor in the wine, it must be present in the grapes
Preharvest can be a critical time for Botrytis control on at the time of harvest!
bunch rot-prone varieties, especially in wet seasons. By regular, continuous sampling you will learn through
Latent infections that occurred at bloom become active experience the succession of aromas, flavors and
again, and berries become increasingly susceptible to textures that each variety goes through.
infection after veraison. (See Joe Fiola‟s Timely Depending on the degree of ripeness red grape
Viticulture on Botrytis). characteristics can range from green and herbaceous
Effective fungicides include Vanguard/Scala, Elevate, to fruity and “jammy.”
Pristine (at the 18.5–23 oz/ac rate) and Endura (at the Therefore the individual sampling must be diligent to
8 oz/ac rate). monitor for that aroma and/or flavor in the sample.
Late-Season Bunch Rots The next highest priority, especially for red wines, is the
Watch for late-season rots as fruit ripen, especially if texture of the grape tannins in skin and the seed.
there has been hail, bird damage, insect feeding, or PM These quality and quantity of the tannins determine
on fruit. The fungi that cause ripe rot, bitter rot, and the structure, body, astringency, bitterness, dryness,
Macrophoma rot, can enter intact berries, however; and color intensity of the wine. Mature tannins are
be careful not to injure ripening fruit while spraying or critical to the production of quality red wines.
mowing. Control insects that feed on fruit as part of an The degree of ripeness and polymerization of the
IPM program. tannins will determine the astringency and mouth feel
If ripe rot, bitter rot, or Macrophoma rot appear during of your wine.
the preharvest window, protect healthy fruit with a This can range from the undesirable, hard
strobilurin fungicide (Pristine or Abound). and course tannins of immature grapes,
Sour rot is caused by a complex of fungi, bacteria, and through to the desirable, “supple and silky”
insects that can gain entry only to wounded fruit. profile of mature grapes.
Because of the bacterial component, fungicides are not Procedure
effective against sour rot. Select a few random grapes and place them in you
For more information, contact Dr. Anne DeMarsay at mouth. DO NOT look at the cluster when you are
email@example.com choosing the grapes because you will tend to pick more
Without macerating the skins, gently press the juice out of
the berries and assess the juice for sweetness (front of
tongue) and acid (back sides of your tongue). With
experience (and comparison against numbers from lab
samples) you will be able to reasonably guesstimate the The first requirement is that the crop is at a susceptible
Brix and TA level of the grapes. stage. At this time all of our soybean acreage, full-season and
Next gently separate the seeds for the skins and “spit” double-crop, should be in reproductive stages and therefore is
into your hand. The color of the seeds gives you a clue at peak susceptibility.
to the level of ripeness. Green seeds are immature, The second requirement is for the pathogen to be, in this
green to tan and tan to brown seeds is maturing, and case, transported to the susceptible crop and that the spores
brown seeds are mature. Ripe seed tannins are be alive and in sufficient quantity to actually land on a
desirable as they are less easily extracted and more susceptible host. Although we may be experiencing the
supple on the palette. transport event, the number of spores that could be moved
Finally macerate the remaining skins and press them in does not appear to be that significant. There is only one
your cheeks to assess the ripeness of the skin tannins. known case of soybean rust in a commercial soybean field and
You will be able to “feel” the astringency (pucker) of that is in Texas. All the other hotspots indicated on the
the skins. The less intense the astringency the more www.sbrusa.net website as red counties are either on
ripe the grapes. kudzu or in a soybean sentinel plots. These all appear to be
A good way to practice is to first sample an early grape small, scattered mostly along or near the gulf coast, and only
variety such as Merlot and then immediately go to a later recently increasing in number and intensity. We would be
variety such as Cab Sauvignon, and you will feel the more likely to see significant spore transport to our area over
difference in the acidity, astringency and ripeness. Of such a long distance (Gulf to MD) if there were at least a few
course, other factors must still be considered, such as the large commercial production fields infected. Furthermore, Fay
total acidity and pH. Generally you would like to harvest sat over the southeast for nearly a week because the high-
white grapes in the 3.2-3.4 pH range and reds in the 3.4- pressure system that produced mild temperatures and sunny
3.5 range, as long as the varietal character is appropriate as conditions here blocked its movement northward. While Fay
described above. Remember the enologist can do a good sat over Florida and Georgia it‟s counterclockwise spin should
job adjusting acidity but it almost impossible to increase have transported spores predominantly in the Southeast and
variety character in the wine. Brix or sugar level is good to mostly westward. I suspect in the next week or so we will
follow on a “relative” scale but levels can greatly vary from hear more soybean rust finds in the southeast because of Fay.
vintage to vintage. In some years the grapes will be ripe When that occurs and is confirmed then we could have large
and have great varietal character at 20 Brix and another enough numbers of spores to produce a significant threat to
year they may still not have ripe varietal character at 23 our region.
Brix. Disease/Rot. The last requirement for disease development is continued
Monitor to see if the grapes are deteriorating do to fruit disease-favorable weather. The current weather forecasts
rots or berry softening. Look at the short and long range indicate only moderately disease-favorable conditions. The
forecast. If it looks good and the grapes have the ability to temperatures will be mostly favorable but moisture will not be
ripen further, then there may be a benefit to letting them widely available. In my opinion it is not optimal but it could be
hang a bit longer. If the tropical storm is on the way; just enough to allow infection to take place. We would need
when grapes are close to optimal ripeness, it is more another storm system or two to keep things wet for infections
desirable to harvest before a significant rainfall than to wait to increase locally.
until after the rain and allow them to build up the sugar There is no need for fungicide applications for soybean rust
again afterwards. management at this time. The early planted full-season crop
The original print friendly version fact sheet of this should be too far along to be damaged significantly even if
“Timely Viticulture” on is also available on my web site at: rust did appear. Irrigated late-planted or double-crop
http://www.grapesandfruit.umd.edu/Pages/TimelyVit_10 soybeans need to be watched as they may yet be threatened
especially if Fay produces some significant hotspots in the
southeast and the next couple of hurricanes or tropical
depressions come through at the right time. Late planted non-
Maryland Soybean Rust Risk Assessment irrigated soybeans may be too badly damaged by the drought
Arvydas (Arv) Grybauskas, Ph.D. to warrant additional inputs. These will need to be assessed
Associate Professor and Extension Plant Pathologist
on an individual basis. The season is not yet over but the risk
University of Maryland
of a widespread damaging soybean rust epidemic for
Today is the first day the 2008 growing season that the
Maryland in 2008 is rapidly running out of time.
National soybean rust monitoring and forecasting program
(IPMpipe – Soybean Rust) predicts that we could have live
soybean rust spores transported into our region. The
remnants of hurricane/tropical depression Fay is finally
bringing rain to our area but could be bringing with it a low
level of spores. This by itself is not cause for major concern.
There are three general requirements for disease to take
hold and develop.
Grain Marketing Highlights
NATIONAL Carl German, Extension Crops Marketing Specialist;
CROP Private Forecaster Pegs U.S. Corn Crop at 12.159
INSURANCE Billion Bushels
FC Stone has estimated the '08/'09 U.S. corn crop at 12.159
Fall Crop Insurance billion bushels. Their soybean crop estimate was placed at
Required for Disaster 3.003 billion bushels. In August, USDA estimated the U.S.
Eligibility in 2008 corn crop at 12.288 billion bushels and the soybean crop at
2.973 billion bushels. In 2007, U.S. corn production was
Any producer who wants to
13.074 billion bushels and soybean production was 2.585
be eligible for disaster
billion bushels. This private estimate indicates that ending
assistance on 2009 summer
stocks for U.S. corn would decline and U.S. soybean ending
crops must have crop
stocks would increase from USDA's August estimate. The next
insurance coverage on all
scheduled USDA supply and demand report will be issued on
insurable fall planted crops before the sales closing deadline
(September 30, 2008 for winter wheat, barley, and forage
As the line-up of pre-report production estimates make their
way onto the trading scene, there are a few market factors
The new Farm Bill requires crop insurance, on all acres of
that are worth mentioning. First, the dynamics of the
any insurable crop, or Noninsured Assistance Program
commodity markets are changing. The price of crude has
(NAP) coverage on all acres of uninsurable crops, in order
declined by nearly $36.00 per barrel (now trading at $108.85)
to be eligible for the Supplemental Revenue Assistance
and the U.S. dollar index has increased by nearly seven points
Program (SURE). If you fail to sign up for crop insurance on
since July 15th (now trading 78.56). The dollar index last
your fall planted crops you will not be protected under
traded at this level in December '07. At that time Dec '08 corn
SURE for your corn and soybeans next summer, even if you
futures were trading in the $4.40 to $4.75 range. Evidence of
buy crop insurance for those crops. The more crop
demand destruction, loss of demand due to high commodity
insurance coverage you have, the more your SURE
prices, now has commodity prices seeking a new equilibrium
guarantee will be.
at lower levels in order to begin the process of rebuilding
Authorized in the Farm Bill, SURE is effective for the 2008
crop year and runs through the 2011 crop year. SURE will
be based on whole farm revenue. It will be triggered by a Marketing Strategy
USDA Secretarial disaster declaration for a county. The vagaries of the weather and its impact upon projected
Contiguous counties are automatically eligible. It will also U.S. production for the '08 corn and soybean harvest have not
be available to any farm where, during the calendar year, been totally accounted for at this point in time. The oil
the total loss of production on the farm, because of industry was spared significant damage along the Gulf Coast
weather, is greater than 50 percent of the normal from hurricane Gustav. Resulting rains for the soybean crop
production on the farm. have been beneficial in the Corn Belt albeit somewhat late.
For insured crops, the SURE guarantee is 115 percent General consensus is that no big changes/surprises are
times the crop insurance price election times the crop expected to be released in USDA's September estimates.
insurance coverage level times the adjusted crop insurance The possibility of an early frost and possible crop damage
yield. Crop insurance coverage levels will determine the size from looming hurricanes will be watched this next week by
of the guarantee. commodity traders. Those possibilities are enough reason to
Some of the more common fall planted crops with the hold up on grain sales at this point in time. Currently, Dec '08
September 30 deadline include: winter wheat, oats, barley, corn futures are trading at $5.64; Nov '08 soybean futures at
rye, and forage production $12.43; and Dec '08 SRW wheat at $7.76 per bushel.
Assure Your Eligibility For technical assistance on grain marketing decisions
If you want to maintain your eligibility for disaster aid in contact: Carl L. German, Extension Crops Marketing
2009 you must sign up for crop insurance coverage on Specialist
every acre of every insurable fall planted crop before the Department of Food & Resource Economics
September 30, 2008 deadline. 208 Townsend Hall
If you have any questions, contact a crop insurance agent University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716-2130
well before the deadline. For more information contact Jan Phone: 302-831-1317 Fax: 302-831-6243
List owner<firstname.lastname@example.org> "E-Grain Marketing
Eliassen at (410) 778-0120 or Laurie Langstraat at (913)
Club"; and <www.agri-culturehealth.com> "Farm
685-2767. Retail/Wholesale Marketing Web Site".
Grants Offered for Projects in
Agricultural Sustainability Horticulture
Northeast SARE email@example.com
Environmental Horticulture refers to the use of greenhouse
The Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Research and and nursery plants to improve aesthetics in the human
Education (SARE) program offers three different environment.
competitive grant programs, all with application deadlines in Over the past several years, we have performed a series of
the late fall and early winter. These grants are capped at research trials studying fertilizer requirements for a wide
$10,000 and should offer innovative approaches to variety of herbs and ornamental plants. In addition, we
sustainable agriculture. provide a large amount of information in the form of fact
sheets designed to be useful for both industry professionals
Farmer grants are for commercial farmers who would and the general public. Included below is a summary of our
like to explore a new practice or idea, often by conducting research results as well as an index of the fact sheets we have
an experiment, trial, or on-farm demonstration. Projects can available, including a series covering general production
explore a wide range of topics such as pest management, information and a series highlighting production and consumer
soil health, adding value, marketing, or new production care factors for a variety of selected plant species:
techniques, and funds can be used to pay for the farmer's http://environmentalhorticulture.umd.edu/
time and for materials specific to the project.
12005 Homewood Road
Partnership Grants are for Cooperative Extension, Ellicott City, MD 21042
NRCS, and other agricultural professionals who work (410) 531-6947
Summary of Previous Results
farmers. Partnership Grants support on-farm research and Current Results
demonstration projects in sustainable agriculture, and funds General Information Fact Sheets
can be used to pay for personnel, materials, sampling, Greenhouse Management and Operations
General Production Information
supplies, testing, and to compensate cooperating farmers
Selected Plant Species - Production and Consumer Care Fact Sheets
for their time. Herbs
Sustainable Community grants are for projects that Perennials (H-Z)
connect farming and rural economic development. Projects
can address issues like finance, marketing, land and water
use, enterprise development, adding value to farm
products, or farm labor. Applicants must be affiliated with
an organization such as a community nonprofit,
Cooperative Extension, local government, an educational
institution, a planning board, a farming cooperative, or an
incorporated citizens' group. This grant is offered in
partnership with the Northeast Center for Rural When is My Horse Too Fat?
Development. Amy Burk Extension Equine Specialist
Applications and deadlines are posted on the Northeast University of Maryland
SARE web site at www.uvm.edu/~nesare, or call An overweight horse may be a happy horse, but it‟s
802/656-0471 to request a printed copy. certainly not a healthy horse. Research from the University of
The Northeast SARE region is made up of Connecticut, Maryland and other University‟s in Virginia, Tennessee, and
Delaware, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, New Kentucky all point towards a certain level of fatness associated
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode with a higher risk of horses and ponies developing insulin
Island, Vermont, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. resistance and/or laminitis. That level of fatness is a score of
Helen Husher, Publications and Public Information equal to or greater than 7 on the Henneke 1-9 body condition
Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education score (BCS) system. A horse with a BCS of 7 will have a
Tuesday and Thursday: Hills Building, 105 Carrigan Drive modest amount of fat deposited along the neck, withers, and
University of Vermont, Burlington VT 05405, 802/656- behind the shoulder. Individual ribs can be felt but they have
0554 Monday and Wednesday: 35 Loomis St., noticeable filling of fat in between ribs. Fat around the
Montpelier, VT 05602, 802/223-7923 tailhead will feel soft and they have fat on either side of their
spine causing a crease to form down their back. See the photo
below to see an example of a horse with a BCS of 7.
organized. It's a little different than the normal organization,
but I think it's ok to be a little different.
Once I hear back from everyone as to whether they like or
dislike the site, I will begin a plan to populate it with articles
and text. My goal is the have this site be one of the top if not
the premier horse pasture management and BMP website to
Please send comments back to me by Aug 14th. I'm on
vacation from Aug. 4th until then, so I'll read your comments,
but I won't start working on them until then.
Amy Burk, PhD
Extension Horse Specialist
1117 Animal Science Center
University of Maryland
Ph: 301-405-8337; Fx: 301-314-9059
Figure 1. A horse with a BCS 8. Fat has accumulated over the
neck, withers, ribs, and back, behind the shoulder, and on the
side of the tailhead.
The ideal level of fatness in a horse varies with their use,
but tends to be between a 5 and 6 for most horses. Consult
a veterinarian or nutritionist for weight loss strategies for an
overweight horse and be sure to read our fact sheet titled
“Trimming the Fat: Weight Loss Strategies for the Overweight
Horse” which also outlines how to body condition score
Looking for Hay?
The Garret County hay list is available on-line at:
Equine Rotational Grazing Showcase
Amy Burk Extension Equine Specialist
University of Maryland
The equine rotational grazing and pasture management
Alas, the index page of the Horse Pasture Stewardship is showcase at the University‟s research and education farm in
available for viewing and comments! Howard County is nearly complete. The showcase comprises
http://ansc.umd.edu/new/horsepasture/index5.cfm 5.5 acres of land for year round rotation of four horses. It is
Please skim over this site and let me know what you think configured with four 1.2 acre pastures, a bluestone sacrifice
about the design and navigation. Make sure to scroll over lot with hay feeder, waterer, and run-in shed, and two
the menu to see what the site will contain and how it's vegetative sacrifice paddocks planted in novel hardy turfgrass
The site is quickly becoming a major educational site and The IRS often looks at the owners own tax records and
land and pasture stewardship with research to begin at the previous business ventures and track record. Therefore, it
site in the spring. Once the fence is installed in September, is important that your own record is clean.
we intend to include the equine rotational grazing and Showing a profit whenever possible will help strengthen
pasture management showcase as a tour stop at the the fact that it is a profit motive driven business.
October 4, 2008 AGNR Open House at the research and Having personal horses as pleasure at the facility is fine;
education center. as long as you still show that your business has a profit
Click here for more information on the upcoming Open motive and is not just trying to offset the costs of your
House or visit www.equinestudies.umd.edu for more hobby.
information on our equine rotational grazing and pasture Keeping the items listed above in mind is important when
management showcase. considering whether or not you are a real equine
business. As long as you can show that you do intend to
Hobby or Business? make a profit, keep accurate and up-to-date records, and
show that you do have a vested interest within your
Defining Your Equine Venture equine business then you should have no problem
Kristen Wilson Equine Specialist showing the IRS that you are truly a business and not just
University of Maryland a hobby.
Many people involved within the horse industry often do
not view their small horse operation as a business. They are
surprised to learn that you do not have to own a large
1st Western Maryland Performance-
facility or have several years of experience to be considered Tested Buck and Invitational Doe Sale
an equine business. According to the Internal Revenue
Service (IRS), if your main objective is to make a profit,
and Field Day
then you are considered a legitimate business. Since most The 1st Western Maryland Performance-Tested Buck
hobbyists usually hold down another job, in which their and Invitational Doe Sale and Field Day will be held on
significant income comes from, and often try to offset the Saturday, October 4, 2008, at the Washington County
costs of their own horse expenses, the IRS will not consider Agricultural Center near Boonsboro, Maryland.
them a real business. The 20 top-performing bucks from the Western Maryland
Hobbyist can deduct their expenses up to the amount of Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test will be auctioned
income that was earned. However, when a profit motive off, along with doelings that are half-sibs to the bucks on test.
exists, equine operations are able to deduct expenses Sale animals will include full-blood and percentage Kikos and
greater than the income of the business. Since the IRS will Boers, along with some Kiko x Boer crossbreds.
be looking to see if you are a real business, there are The 20 top-performing bucks will be chosen on the basis on
several things that you must consider. Below are some growth performance, parasite resistance and resilience,
important tips to keep in mind when running an equine carcass merit, and minimum standards for structural
business: correctness and reproductive soundness. The goats on test
Have a business plan that you follow and keep accurate consume a pasture-only diet, with no supplemental feed.
up-to-date records for finances, time, and equine The Field Day will start at 10 a.m. It will feature Dr. Dan
activities. Waldron, Professor of Animal Science from Texas A&M
As the business owner, it is important that you invest a University. Dr. Waldron is an expert on the performance
significant amount of your time into the business and testing of small ruminants. Lunch (goat burgers) will be
have a good understanding of the equine industry. available for purchase. The sale will begin at 2 p.m.
It is generally unfavorable if a substantial amount of For more information about the sale and field day, contact
income is coming from other sources other than the Susan Schoenian at (301) 432-2767 x343 or
equine business. firstname.lastname@example.org.
The IRS understands that things happen and your Superior Semen Works will be on hand on Friday and
business may not make a profit each year. The general Saturday, October 3 and 4 to collect semen from the bucks on
rule with the IRS is that you should show a profit 2 out test or bucks brought to the facility. For more information,
of every 7 years with an equine business. contact Jeanne Dietz-Band at (301) 432-7296 or
It is very important that you continually show that you email@example.com.
are trying to make your business more successful. This Visit the meat goat test blot at:
can be done by cutting costs, updating and following http://mdgoattest.blogspot.com.
your business plan, and by having good business
The business owner should continually improve their
skills by keeping current with the horse industry and
always looking for avenues to improve and expand their
Phoenix Services AGSlag: A Local The cooling rate of steel slag is sufficiently low so that
crystalline compounds are generally formed. The predominant
Byproduct of Severstal Steel in compounds are dicalcium silicate, tricalcium silicate, dicalcium
Sparrows Point, Maryland ferrite, merwinite, calcium aluminate, calcium-magnesium iron
Matt Kerins oxide, and some free lime and free magnesia (periclase). The
Aggregate Sales Phoenix Services relative proportions of these compounds depend on the steel-
firstname.lastname@example.org making practice and the steel slag cooling rate.
Steel slag, a by-product of steel making, is produced
during the separation of the molten steel from impurities in
steel-making furnaces. The slag occurs as a molten liquid
melt and is a complex solution of silicates and oxides that Photo: Steel Slag prior to
solidifies upon cooling. Pulverizing
In the basic oxygen process, hot liquid blast furnace
metal, scrap, and fluxes, which consist of lime (CaO) and
dolomitic lime (CaO MgO or “dolime”), are charged to a
converter (furnace). A lance is lowered into the converter The fertilizer analysis of the AgSlag product from Phoenix
and high-pressure oxygen is injected. The oxygen combines Services in the following tables offers about 60% of the liming
with and removes the impurities in the charge. These value (CCE) as a typical Genstar Ag lime product; however, it
impurities consist of carbon as gaseous carbon monoxide, also provides manganese an often required micronutrient in
and silicon, manganese, phosphorus and some iron as liquid soybean and alfalfa production in Southern Maryland. The
oxides, which combine with lime and dolime to form the aluminum in surface applied AgSlag may also help to bind
steel slag. At the end of the refining operation, the liquid available phosphorus reducing phosphorus runoff in high
steel is tapped (poured) into a ladle while the steel slag is Phosphorus soils.
retained in the vessel and subsequently tapped into a Phoenix Services AgSlag
separate slag pot. Severstal Steel, Sparrows Point, Maryland
There are many grades of steel that can be produced, Fertilizer Analysis
and the properties of the steel slag can change significantly Constituent Composition
with each grade. Grades of steel can be classified as high, %
medium, and low, depending on the carbon content of the Available Phosphate 0.08%
steel. High-grade steels have high carbon content. To Calcium 19.15
reduce the amount of carbon in the steel, greater oxygen Calcium Oxide 26.81
levels are required in the steel-making process. This also Magnesium 4.28
requires the addition of increased levels of lime and dolime Magnesium Oxide 7.10
(flux) for the removal of impurities from the steel and (Calculated)
increased slag formation.
The chemical composition of slag is usually expressed in
terms of simple oxides calculated from elemental analysis
Calcium Carbonate Equiv. 55.32
determined by x-ray fluorescence. Table 18-2 lists the
range of compounds present in steel slag from a typical
base oxygen furnace. Virtually all steel slags fall within Passing #20 Sieve 66.58
these chemical ranges but not all steel slags are suitable as Passing #60 Sieve 29.80
aggregates. Of more importance is the mineralogical form Passing #100 Sieve 22.77
of the slag, which is highly dependent on the rate of slag Effective Neutralizing Value 24
cooling in the steel-making process.
Typical Steel Slag Chemical Composition. Genstar Aglime AgSlag
Constituent Composition (%) CaO (calcium oxide) 51.0% 26.81%
MgO (magnesium oxide) 1.0% 7.1%
CaO 40 - 52
CaCO3 Equivalent (CCE) 93.0% 55.32%
SiO2 10 - 19 Pass 20 Mesh 98.0% 66.58%
FeO 10 - 40 Pass 60 Mesh 80.0% 29.80%
MnO 5-8 Pass 100 Mesh 56.0% 22.77%
MgO 5 - 10
For more information about purchasing AgSlag
(approximately $7.00/ton) and using this local agricultural
P2O5 0.5 - 1
lime/fertilizer product contact Matt Kerins, Aggregate sales for
S < 0.1 Phoenix Services at email@example.com or 610-334-8929.
Metallic Fe 0.5 - 10
Operations County and 29,
using Extension February 5,
Manure and Office 10 17 (exam),
Fertilizer 24 & 26 (plan
FARMER TRAINING & Day Classes 9:00 am – 4:30 pm ($35 total, $15 for
lunch on first day & $20 for certification exam)
Write Your Own Nutrient
#3 Crop UM Wye January 13
Management Plan Operations Research and 21 (exam)
The Farmer Training and Certification course provides an using Litter and (snow dates
opportunity for farmers to learn how to write nutrient and Education January 16 and
management plans for their own operations. As a producer, Fertilizer Center 28)
you have first hand knowledge of your own crops, animals, February 3
#4 Crop Washington
and equipment. Who better to write your nutrient
Operations County and 11 (exam)
management plan than you? This course will teach you how
using Extension (snow dates
to do it!
You will receive:
Manure and Office February 6 and
A comprehensive training binder – that will be Fertilizer 18)
used during the class, serve as a reference during
the exam, and as a valuable resource when you
write future plans for your operation.
Certification – producers who pass the exam will
be certified by MDA to write their own nutrient
Voucher training credits – this class will fulfill the
nutrient applicator voucher training requirements.
A discount – on the purchase price NuManPro, Emerald Ash Borer Survey and
Maryland‟s nutrient management planning software.
You will have the opportunity to:
Eradication Updates - MDA
Complete a nutrient management plan for your http://www.mda.state.md.us/plants-pests/eab/current.php/
operation that meets MDA regulations.
In order to work on your own plan, you need to
begin gathering information now. You will need a August 26, 2008 UPDATE
map or sketch of your operation, soil tests that are
On Friday, August 15, 2008, suspect EAB infested ash
less than two years old and a recent manure
trees were discovered a little over two miles south of the
analysis (if manure is applied to your land). Contact
eradication zone in Charles County. The identification was
your county Extension office if you need assistance
confirmed as EAB by the USDA on Monday, August 25.
This infestation was discovered while MDA crews were
surveying in a ½ mile radius of the previously reported
Space is limited and applications are accepted on a
June 25 prism trap catch. Other traps in Prince George's
first-come basis; therefore, register early.
(outside of the active project area) and Charles Counties
Registrations must be received 10 days before the
are negative to date, including several 1-2 miles away from
first class. For more information, please call (410)
841-5959. Classes will be cancelled if there is lack of
interest. The Secretary of Agriculture issued a revised
quarantine order on August 26, 2008 to encompass
Evening Classes 7–9 pm $20 for certification exam Charles Co., and extend the nested quarantine into
#1 Diverse Frederick October 21, the northern part of Charles County. This action has
Operations County 23, 28 and 30, been taken to prevent the movement of EAB infested
(pastured Extension November 5 material from Charles County and according to federal
animals, Office (exam), 10 & protocols. The Infested Area has further restrictions to
vegetables & 12 (plan prevent the movement of at risk material from the known
flowers) writing) core area of the EAB infestation.
#2 Crop Montgomery January 27
We are currently continuing to assess the situation, Jane Lawton
including sending samples to the USDA to determine the Farm to School
age of the infestation, conducting delimiting survey in the
area to get a better idea of how widespread it is, and Program
assembling a MD team to work with the USDA Science Maryland Homegrown
Panel and Management Team to determine the next steps
for the Maryland project. School Lunch Week
September 22 – 26, 2008
JULY 23, 2008 UPDATE A new initiative being implemented by the Maryland
Department of Agriculture, the Maryland State Board of
One of the purple prism traps placed in the 1-mile grid Education and other organizations and individuals will bring
survey in Prince George's County has caught one adult more Maryland-grown products to school lunch rooms and
EAB. The trap was serviced June 25, 2008. It is 3.4 miles help educate students about where their food comes, how it is
from any previously known infested tree in the EZ (see produced, and the benefits of a healthy diet. The Jane
map) and about .4 mi. from the Charles County line. We Lawton Farm to School Program, so named in honor of the
are currently conducting surveys and working with the late Maryland House of Delegates member Jane Lawton of
national EAB Science Panel and Management Team to District 18, Montgomery County, was created during the 2008
determine the best course of action. To date, no other sign Session of the Maryland General Assembly and SB 158 Farm-
of EAB has been found in the area and, of 954 traps to-School Program – Activities and Promotional Events,
statewide, this is the only positive outside of the EZ. We sponsored by Senator Jamie Raskin, was signed into law by
will post new information on this site as it becomes the Governor in May. In addition to facilitating the
available. procurement of local Maryland produce for school menus, the
bill also creates a Maryland Homegrown School Lunch Week to
We have had several inquiries about the status of our promote Maryland agriculture through school meal and
program in Maryland in light of the recent Virginia EAB classroom programs and interaction between students and
detections. We are currently continuing with ongoing local farmers.
surveys as planned. We are in contact with the Virginia In 2008, Maryland Homegrown School Lunch Week will be
Department of Ag. and Consumer Services (VDACS) and held September 22nd through September 26th with a kickoff
national EAB Program and will re-assess the situation as it event tentatively scheduled for Tuesday, September 23rd at
is warranted based on survey results both in VA and MD. A Takoma Park Middle School in Montgomery County. The
combined VA MD map is posted for reference. program will also provide educational materials for teachers to
integrate into their lessons to help students make the
connection between their lunch menus and the agricultural
MACS Manual Now Online process. Thus far, Montgomery, Cecil, Carroll, and Anne
The Maryland Agricultural Water Quality Cost-Share Arundel Counties are planning to feature local products in
(MACS) Program provides farmers with grants for up to their menus during Homegrown School Lunch Week, and
87.5 percent of the cost to install conservation measures other school systems have expressed interest in participating.
known as best management practices (BMPs) on their farms
to prevent soil erosion, manage nutrients and safeguard Supply local products to schools
water quality in streams, rivers and the Chesapeake Bay. If you are a farmer, complete and return the “Producer
There are more than 30 BMPs currently eligible for funding Survey” to let us know what products you can provide in
under this program, including cover crops, waste storage September, or contact your school or county food service
structures, and streamside buffers. office directly. If you are a wholesale distributor, let your
Throughout its history, MACS has been a leader in clients know what Maryland products you can provide during
helping farmers protect soil and water resources by Maryland Homegrown School Lunch Week. If you are a
providing conservation grants to install tried and true distributor or a school buyer, contact us to find more local
conservation measures as well as innovative, state-of-the- farmers to meet your needs.
art practices. Click here to learn more. For more information on the Jane Lawton Farm to School
Program, or to complete the producer survey visit
www.marylandsbest.net/farm2school or call 410-841-
The Fall 2008 issue of the “Mastering Marketing”
quarterly newsletter has been posted to the web at
Topics in this issue include:
· On-Farm Processing Educational Opportunity
· The Farmer’s Share
· The Inside Quote
· Send in Your Tips
· Web Resources
Mastering Marketing is published quarterly by the University
of Maryland Cooperative Extension. It is written and edited
by Ginger S. Myers, Regional Marketing Specialist, at the
Western Maryland Research and Education Center
(WMREC), 18330 Keedysville Road, Keedysville, MD 21756,
tel. 301.432.2767 x338; e-mail Nutrient Management Update
firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. Krista Mitchell
Visit http://AgMarketing.umd.edu for more information Nutrient Management Advisor,
on the agricultural marketing program. For more Anne Arundel & Howard Counties
information on WMREC, visit http://wmrec.umd.edu. During my 8-years with MCE, Maryland‟s Nutrient
Management Regulations and the nutrient management plans
Please enjoy the following “Mastering Marketing” that fall under these regulations have changed only slightly;
excerpts: however, the premise that most producers need a plan update
every year has not changed. With that being said, not every
client needs to come to me on January 1st to have his or her
plan written. In order to accommodate all of my clients, I
have decided to space out my plan-writing as follows:
For producers who do not apply manure, please come and
Maryland’s Online Farmer’s Market- see me now or within the next couple of months for plan
The Environmental Finance Center located at the University For producers who use commercial fertilizer, you need to
of Maryland announces the launch of Foodtrader.org, a have an updated nutrient management plan in your hands
virtual farmer‟s market that will connect both buyers and when you order your fertilizer; therefore, please see me
sellers with local food as soon as it is harvested. In concert before the first of the year (or sooner, if possible).
with its sister site Agtrader.org, Foodtrader.org will give For all of my clients, please do not wait until April or May
consumers access to the rich diversity of agricultural to call me for a plan because plans cannot legally be
resources within the state of Maryland. written after nutrients have been applied. If you wait until
these months to call me, unfortunately you will be out of
With Foodtrader.org, farmers can create an instantaneous compliance and subject to Maryland Department of
listing that will identify the description, quantity, price, and Agriculture enforcement actions.
location of their items. Consumers can search listings within After January 1st, I will be focusing on larger farms that are
specific categories and communicate directly with the more complex and need field assessments, such as the
farmer to buy the food at the farm, at a farmers market or Phosphorus Site Index, conducted. I will also need to focus
at another prearranged location. This site also allows for on those farms that are listed in order on the Maryland
producers and consumers to post listing for events and Department of Agriculture‟s “Planning Priorities” list. This list,
wanted items. It is a free website for Maryland that which mandates the order of my clients‟ plan-writing needs, is
complements the Maryland Department of Agriculture‟s as follows for 2009:
“Maryland‟s Best” program. 1. Any farm that has pollution problems or any client who is
deemed non-compliant by MDA enforcement procedures is
For any questions regarding Foodtrader.org, please contact automatically moved to the top of my list;
Joanne Throwe at 301/405-5036. 2. Farmers who participate in the Manure Transport Project
and/or those who have a MACS application pending for an
animal waste storage structure or poultry mortality
Patrick Thompson, 4-H FEA,
3. Existing clientele with animal operations who had their
University of Maryland
expired plan written by me; and
Are you between 8 and 18 or know someone who
4. First come, first serve for any other farmer who must
is? If so have you considered joining 4-H? The
comply with the Water Quality Improvement Act.
Anne Arundel County 4-H program is growing and
I‟d like to remind everyone that I am shared with
is always looking for new members and volunteers. The
Howard County, so that only gives me roughly 10 days a
program has community clubs located throughout Anne
month in the Anne Arundel County office. Also, please keep
Arundel County but is also looking for volunteers and
in mind that I need at least 2 weeks to write your plan, get
members to lead new groups. There are a variety of projects
it reviewed, and schedule an appointment to go over it with
members can participate in including animal science,
you. If every client comes to me at the first of January,
environmental sciences and human sciences. We are also
there is simply not enough time for me to write plans for all
looking for adults to do seminars or presentations to help 4-
of my clients in two counties by February. So, again, please
Hers learn how they can further their projects. To receive
look at my proposed plan-writing timeline above and come
more information, please contact Patrick Thompson in the
in at the appropriate time. By following this schedule, you
Anne Arundel Extension Office at 410-222-6759 or at:
are not only ensuring that you will have an updated nutrient
management plan when you need it, but you are helping
ensure that your neighbors will have a timely nutrient
management plan as well. And that‟s good for all of us! Thanks for Partnering
Thanks for partnering with the Maryland Cooperative
Check Out Our Updated County Website Extension, and supporting our programs. I also hope you
enjoy this newsletter. If you are no longer interested in
Visit us in Cyberspace!!! receiving this newsletter, please call or write the office for the
Christie Germuth is our website designer. removal of your name from the mailer.
Christie has recently updated our
website, and we hope that you find the
Anne Arundel County Extension
The current and past agricultural newsletter
additions are available for viewing or copy at: Time to Pluck Up!
An agricultural bulletin page is also available for
viewing or copy under our hot topics section at:
R. David Myers, Extension Educator
New on the website 2008: Anne Arundel County Agriculture and Natural Resources
Agricultural Program Teaching Modules - Streaming Anne Arundel & Prince George’s Counties
Also relive the history of Extension and University of NACAA Communication Award
Maryland College of Agriculture Land Grant Mission Individual Newsletter
2002 National Winner
by viewing the 150 Years Anniversary PowerPoint:
http://annearundel.umd.edu/files/University%20of%20 Prince George’s Cooperative Extension
Maryland%20150%20Year%20Anniversary.pps 6707 Groveton Drive
Clinton, MD 20735
Anne Arundel Cooperative Extension
7320 Ritchie Highway, Suite 210
Note: Registered Trade Mark Products, Manufacturers, or Companies Glen Burnie, MD 21061
mentioned within this newsletter are not to be considered as sole endorsements. 410 222-6759 or 301 970-8250
The information has been provided for educational purposes only.