Assistive Technology for Computer Access Unlocking the Mind with the Keys of Understanding! Carolyn P. Phillips & Liz Persaud Tools for Life Georgia Assistive Technology Program phone: 404-638-0390 email: email@example.com email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.gatfl.org Considering Computer Access: What Works for the Individual Why Assistive Technology? For a person without a disability, technology makes things easier…. For a person with a disability, technology makes things possible. Assistive Technology Matching: A TEAM APPRAOCH The Person with the disAbility Circle of Support – Family of Choice Case Managers Technologist Occupational Therapist Speech & Language Pathologist Physical Therapist Engineer Human Activity Technology (HAAT) Model Human: represents the skills and abilities of the person with a disability Activity: a set of tasks to be performed by the person with a disability Context: the setting or social, cultural and physical contexts that surround the environment in which the activity must be completed Assistive Technology: devices or strategies used to bridge the gap between the person‟s abilities and the demands of the environment Developed by Cook & Hussey Promoting Strengths & Managing Weaknesses A Holistic Approach Selection of an AT Device Depends on an analysis of the following conditions: Prior experience or knowledge, and interests; The individual‟s specific strengths, weaknesses; The specific device (reliability, ease of operation, technical support, cost) Usefulness across settings Usefulness over time as symptoms manifest! Most Effective Technological Products Able to level out the playing field Work in cross-settings Portable Easy to maintain Affordable to replace and/or maintain Good and reliable technological support Accessible training format Staying off the FAST Track! Frustration Anxiety Stress Tension “Technology gives me hope & I need a lot of Hope!" ~ Earnestine Universal design principles equitable use flexibility in use simple and intuitive to use perceptible information tolerance for error low physical effort size and space for approach and use http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/univ_design/princ_overview.htm Multi-modal Multi-modal systems – use more than one sense (or mode ) of interaction e.g. visual and aural senses: a text processor may speak the words as well as echoing them to the screen Challenge Very hard to design a product for everyone What happens when you can‟t? “Design for all” vs. “Design for most” Assistive technology – Any item, equipment or system, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of a person with a disability Considerations… Function – absence of a limb – paralysis – • tetraplegia/quadriplegia – all four limbs • paraplegia – lower limbs only Strength Tremor/Accuracy Slowness Speech & Conversation Conversation is “a dialogue in which the one taking breath is called the listener” 150 words/minute High-speed input for people with limited manual dexterity – Predictive interface, stored phrases, iconic boards Chat Acceleration Techniques Create macros Use Word prediction Abbreviations Word Completion Windows’ Accessibility Features Mouse: pointers, speed and trails Display: resolution settings, high contrast etc., Magnifier (XP) Cursor: repeat rate or delay and blink rate Keyboard options: sticky keys, filter keys and toggle keys, onscreen keyboard (XP). SoundSentry: screen sounds for VI Narrator-Screen Reader (XP) Accessibility Wizard Windows ME and above: for setting features in control panel based on user need Software Modifications Sticky keys Slow keys or disable auto-repeat Modify keyboard mappings On-screen keyboards Possible Switches Foot pedal “Leaf” switch – highly sensitive Sip and puff Dual switch (can be used for Morse code) Joy stick Muscle switch Neural implant Eye gaze Switches for Access 1. Jelly Bean Red Switch by Ablenet 2. Buddy Button switch by TASH 3. Leaf Switch by Enabling Devices 4. Frog Switch by Enabling Devices 5. Untouchable a Proximity Single Switch 6. Grasp Switch 7. Voice Activated Switch by Enabling Devices 8. Activation Pressure Adjustable Switch by Penny and Giles 9. Ultimate Switch (with mount included) by Enabling Devices 10. Switch Tray for switch mounting by Maxess 11. Universal Switch Mount by Ablenet 12. Switch and Latch Timer for switch use by Ablenet 13. Battery Adapter (adapts battery operated toys to single switch) by Ablenet Mouse alternatives Trackball Proportional joystick Switched joystick or cursor keys Head sensor or mouth stick Eye-gaze Keyboard only Cursor Control 1. Microspeed trackball. 2. Standard trackball. 3. Penny and Giles joystick with keyguard. 4. Penny and Giles trackball. 5. Trackball from Crayola. 6. Trackball from Penny and Giles. 7. Hand mouse. 8. Mouse with switch interface from Logitech and Mini mouse (for small hands). 9. Glidepoint touch pad by Cirque 10. Graphite Tablet with stylus for drawing. Switch Interfaces for Computers Access 1. Macintosh Switch Interface by Don Johnston 2. USB Switch Interface by Quizworks 3. Switch Adapted Mouse by Logtec 4. SAM trackball mouse by Microspeed 5. IntelliKeys USB board by Intellitools Keyboard Modifications Keyguards Alternative layouts – Reduce movement – One-handed keyboards, possible chords Membrane surfaces (minimize required pressure) Onscreen Keyboards Alternative Input Devices Speech input – Dictation versus control Typing Sticks What is a Direct Brain-Computer Interface? … a system that captures signals directly from the human brain, providing a channel to control computers and other devices. The GSU BrainLab Mission is to pioneer real-world applications research for biometric technologies to improve the quality of life for people with severe disabilities, and to explore mainstream applications. Brain Signal Detection Techniques Invasive: implanted electrodes (single neuron) Noninvasive: scalp electrodes (EEG) Restoring Motion - Neural Prosthetics Brain “re-learns” how to move limbs via an artificial nervous system Simulation • Virtual reality hand Restoring Physical Motion • Robotic arm The “Aware „Chair” Integrated communication and environmental control • Intelligent, neurally controlled wheelchair • Conversation and environmental control prediction • Learns users habits and context • Provides emotional expression Take Aways! Think about universal design principles – helps all users, not just people with disAbilities Technology can help provide access and control of computer Wide range of solutions Try before You Buy! Nothing About Us without Us - Work with users! The Starfish There was a young man walking down a deserted beach just before dawn. In the distance he saw a older woman appear to be dancing. As he approached the woman, he saw her picking up stranded starfish and throwing them back into the sea. The young man gazed in wonder as the woman again and again threw the small starfish from the sand to the water. He asked, “Why do you spend so much energy doing what seems to be a waste of time.” The woman explained that the stranded starfish would die if left in the morning sun. “But there must be thousands of beaches and millions of starfish!” exclaimed the young man. “How can you make any difference?” The woman looked at the small starfish in her hand and as she threw it to the safety of the sea, she said, “It makes a difference to this one!”. For Your Time & Interest! We Want to Hear from You!
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