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Human Activity Assistive Technology Haat

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					Assistive Technology for
   Computer Access
Unlocking the Mind with the Keys of Understanding!


  Carolyn P. Phillips & Liz Persaud
             Tools for Life
 Georgia Assistive Technology Program
         phone: 404-638-0390

 email: carolynpphillips@mindspring.com
   email: lizpersaud@mindspring.com
          www.gatfl.org
Considering Computer Access:
What Works for the Individual
Why Assistive Technology?
 For a person without
  a disability,
  technology makes
  things easier….

 For a person with a
  disability,
  technology makes
  things possible.
Assistive Technology Matching:
A TEAM APPRAOCH
     The Person with the disAbility
     Circle of Support – Family of Choice
     Case Managers
     Technologist
     Occupational Therapist
     Speech & Language Pathologist
     Physical Therapist
     Engineer
Human Activity Technology
(HAAT) Model
 Human: represents the skills and abilities of the
  person with a disability
 Activity: a set of tasks to be performed by the person
  with a disability
 Context: the setting or social, cultural and physical
  contexts that surround the environment in which the
  activity must be completed
 Assistive Technology: devices or strategies used to
  bridge the gap between the person‟s abilities and the
  demands of the environment
                                          Developed by Cook & Hussey
Promoting Strengths &
Managing Weaknesses
A Holistic Approach
Selection of an AT Device
Depends on an analysis of the following
  conditions:

   Prior experience or knowledge, and interests;
   The individual‟s specific strengths, weaknesses;
   The specific device (reliability, ease of operation, technical
    support, cost)
   Usefulness across settings
 Usefulness over time as symptoms manifest!
Most Effective
Technological Products
 Able to level out the playing field
 Work in cross-settings
 Portable
 Easy to maintain
 Affordable to replace and/or maintain
 Good and reliable technological support
 Accessible training format
Staying off the FAST
Track!
 Frustration
 Anxiety
 Stress
 Tension
“Technology gives me
hope & I need a lot of
       Hope!"
    ~ Earnestine
 Universal design principles
 equitable use
 flexibility in use
 simple and intuitive to use
 perceptible information
 tolerance for error
 low physical effort
 size and space for approach and use

     http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/univ_design/princ_overview.htm
Multi-modal
 Multi-modal systems
  – use more than one sense (or mode )
    of interaction
     e.g. visual and aural senses: a text processor
     may speak the words as well as echoing them
     to the screen
Challenge
 Very hard to design a product for everyone
 What happens when you can‟t?
 “Design for all” vs. “Design for most”
 Assistive technology
  – Any item, equipment or system, that is used to
    increase, maintain, or improve functional
    capabilities of a person with a disability
Considerations…
Function
   – absence of a limb
   – paralysis –
      • tetraplegia/quadriplegia – all four limbs
      • paraplegia – lower limbs only
Strength
Tremor/Accuracy
Slowness
Speech & Conversation
 Conversation is “a dialogue in which the one
  taking breath is called the listener”
 150 words/minute
 High-speed input for people with limited
  manual dexterity
  – Predictive interface, stored phrases, iconic boards
 Chat
Acceleration Techniques
 Create macros
 Use Word prediction
 Abbreviations
 Word Completion
Windows’ Accessibility Features
 Mouse: pointers, speed and trails

 Display: resolution settings, high contrast etc., Magnifier (XP)

 Cursor: repeat rate or delay and blink rate

 Keyboard options: sticky keys, filter keys and toggle keys,
    onscreen keyboard (XP).

 SoundSentry: screen sounds for VI

   Narrator-Screen Reader (XP)

 Accessibility Wizard Windows ME and above: for setting
    features in control panel based on user need
Software Modifications
 Sticky keys
 Slow keys or disable auto-repeat
 Modify keyboard mappings
 On-screen keyboards
Possible Switches
   Foot pedal
   “Leaf” switch – highly sensitive
   Sip and puff
   Dual switch (can be used for Morse code)
   Joy stick
   Muscle switch
   Neural implant
   Eye gaze
Switches for Access




1.    Jelly Bean Red Switch by Ablenet
2.    Buddy Button switch by TASH
3.    Leaf Switch by Enabling Devices
4.    Frog Switch by Enabling Devices
5.    Untouchable a Proximity Single Switch
6.    Grasp Switch
7.    Voice Activated Switch by Enabling Devices
8.    Activation Pressure Adjustable Switch by Penny and Giles
9.    Ultimate Switch (with mount included) by Enabling Devices
10.   Switch Tray for switch mounting by Maxess
11.   Universal Switch Mount by Ablenet
12.   Switch and Latch Timer for switch use by Ablenet
13.   Battery Adapter (adapts battery operated toys to single switch) by Ablenet
Mouse alternatives
 Trackball
 Proportional joystick
 Switched joystick or cursor keys
 Head sensor or mouth stick
 Eye-gaze
 Keyboard only
                  Cursor Control




1.    Microspeed trackball.
2.     Standard trackball.
3.     Penny and Giles joystick with keyguard.
4.     Penny and Giles trackball.
5.     Trackball from Crayola.
6.     Trackball from Penny and Giles.
7.     Hand mouse.
8.     Mouse with switch interface from Logitech and Mini mouse (for small
      hands).
9.     Glidepoint touch pad by Cirque
10.    Graphite Tablet with stylus for drawing.
Switch Interfaces for Computers Access




1.   Macintosh Switch Interface by Don Johnston
2.   USB Switch Interface by Quizworks
3.   Switch Adapted Mouse by Logtec
4.   SAM trackball mouse by Microspeed
5.   IntelliKeys USB board by Intellitools
Keyboard Modifications
 Keyguards
 Alternative layouts
  – Reduce movement
  – One-handed keyboards, possible chords
 Membrane surfaces (minimize required
 pressure)
Onscreen Keyboards
Alternative Input Devices
 Speech input
  – Dictation versus control
Typing Sticks
What is a Direct
Brain-Computer Interface?
 … a system that captures signals directly from the
 human brain, providing a channel to control
 computers and other devices.




 The GSU BrainLab Mission
 is to pioneer real-world applications research for
 biometric technologies to improve the quality of life
 for people with severe disabilities, and to explore
 mainstream applications.
Brain Signal Detection
Techniques
                     Invasive: implanted
                     electrodes (single neuron)




Noninvasive: scalp
electrodes (EEG)
Restoring Motion - Neural
Prosthetics
Brain “re-learns” how to move limbs via
an artificial
 nervous system



Simulation
• Virtual reality hand
Restoring Physical Motion
• Robotic arm
The “Aware „Chair”




Integrated communication and environmental control
  • Intelligent, neurally controlled wheelchair
  • Conversation and environmental control prediction
  • Learns users habits and context
  • Provides emotional expression
Take Aways!
 Think about universal design principles –
  helps all users, not just people with
  disAbilities

 Technology can help provide access and
  control of computer

 Wide range of solutions

 Try before You Buy!

 Nothing About Us without Us - Work with
  users!
                         The Starfish
      There was a young man walking down a deserted beach just before dawn.
                          In the distance he saw a older woman
                                  appear to be dancing.
                            As he approached the woman,
                            he saw her picking up stranded
                      starfish and throwing them back into the sea.
                           The young man gazed in wonder
                            as the woman again and again
                   threw the small starfish from the sand to the water.
He asked, “Why do you spend so much energy doing what seems to be a waste of time.”
                            The woman explained that the
                               stranded starfish would die
                                   if left in the morning sun.
                           “But there must be thousands of
                          beaches and millions of starfish!”
                                  exclaimed the young man.
                        “How can you make any difference?”
                       The woman looked at the small starfish
                             in her hand and as she threw
                            it to the safety of the sea, she said,

                         “It makes a difference to this one!”.
    For Your Time & Interest!

We Want to Hear from You!

				
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