Docstoc
EXCLUSIVE OFFER FOR DOCSTOC USERS
Try the all-new QuickBooks Online for FREE.  No credit card required.

Assistive Technologies Process

Document Sample
Assistive Technologies Process Powered By Docstoc
					Adoption of Assistive Technologies
    for Reading Disabilities:
 Cultural, Literacy, and Technological
                Aspects

          Katherine Deibel
        University of Washington
       Generals Exam Presentation
          November 16, 2007
What I’ve been up to…

I’ve been reading… for generals
                 …
                                                       … for my job
                                                       … for cooking
                                                       … for voting
                                                       … for fun



K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities             2
What is this talk about?


             The usage and adoption of
          assistive technologies by people
              with reading disabilities




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   3
Why does it matter?
– Reading is a critical skill in an
  information society
– 7—15% of the population have significant
  difficulties with reading
– Computer-based assistive tools can
  provide successful accommodations
– A tool is only helpful when it is used


Refs: Sands & Buchholz,1997
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   4
Abandonment of Assistive Technology
– 35% of all assistive technologies
  purchased are abandoned
– Waste of resources, time, and funds for
  users and disability services
– Bad experiences lead to disillusionment
  about assistive technologies




Refs: Phillips & Zhao, 1993, Martin & McCormack, 1999; Rimer-Reiss & Wacker, 2000
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities                          5
What I did
– Reviewed the research literature on:
      – Assistive technology for reading disabilities
      – Technology adoption and abandoment
      – Assistive technology adoption and abandonment

– Brought in insights from other research areas:
      –    Human-computer interaction
      –    Reading on computers
      –    Disability studies
      –    Education




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   6
Contributions
– Identified gaps in current work in this area
– Identified why those gaps exist and persist
– Research designs to address these gaps
– Synthesizing across disciplines




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   7
Outline
– Motivation and Introduction
– Background
      – Reading Disabilities
      – Assistive Technologies
– Overview of Research Literature
– Next Steps in Research
– Summary


K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   8
What is a reading disability?
A neurological condition defined as a
profound difficulty with reading and
learning how to read that cannot be
explained because of:
 – Low intelligence
 – Limited sensory ability
 – Lack of education
 – Lack of socioeconomic opportunity

K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   9
What’s in a name?
– Dyslexia
      – Dysphonia (auditory)
      – Dyseidesia (visual)
–    Word blindness
–    Phonological Processing Deficit
–    Strephosymbolia (twisted letters)
–    Visual Stress / Meares-Irlen Syndrome

                           Reading Disability
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   10
Prevalence of reading disabilities
– 7—15% of the population have some
  difficulty with reading
– Reading disabilities occur in all languages
– Most common form of disability at
  4-year universities in the U.S.
      – 46% of students registered as having a
        disability



Refs: Sands & Buchholz, 1997; Lewis et al. 1999’ Smythe et al., 2004
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities             11
Difficulties
– Phonological processing deficit
      – Difficulty translating words into sound
      – Word misidentification
      – Dropping or substitution of letters in words
      – Impacts reading comprehension




Refs: Perfetti et al., 1992; Dickinson et al., 2002
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   12
Difficulties
– Phonological processing deficit
– Memory
      – Short-term memory
      – Visual memory




Refs: Dickinson et al., 2002
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   13
Difficulties
– Phonological processing deficit
– Memory
– Visual stress
      – Letters and words move and blur together
      – Eye strain and headaches
      – Difficulty sustaining reading
      – Affects 20—30% of the general population


Refs: Jeanes et al., 1997; Evans, 2001; Dickinson et al., 2002; Kriss & Evans, 2005
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities                            14
Difficulties
– Phonological processing deficit
– Memory
– Visual stress


            Severity of difficulties varies
              greatly across individuals


Refs: Dickinson et al., 2002
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   15
Sociocultural aspects of reading disabilities

– Self-doubt, low confidence, and feelings
  of isolation
– Teasing from peers
– Viewed as lazy or faking
– Expectations from others to fail
– Invisible aspect of disability encourages
  the hiding or limiting of knowledge of
  having the disability
Refs: McDermott, 1993; Edwards, 1994; Zirkel, 2000; Cory, 2005;
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities        16
Outline
– Motivation and Introduction
– Background
      – Reading Disabilities
      – Assistive Technologies
– Overview of Research Literature
– Next Steps in Research
– Summary


K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   17
Assistive technologies for reading
– Text-to-speech software
      – Listening to text read aloud by a computer
      – Bypasses phonological processing deficit
      – Improves reading rate and word
        identification
      – Users need strong auditory skills
      – Requires digitization of texts



Refs: Elkind et al., 1996; Sands & Buchholz, 1997, Laga et al., 2006
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities             18
Assistive technologies for reading
– Text-to-speech software
– Color overlays
      – Colored transparencies placed over text to
        reduce visual stress
      – Optimal color differs across individuals
      – Optometric screening used
        to select optimal color



Refs: Jeanes et al., 1997; Evans, 2001; Dickinson et al., 2002; Kriss & Evans, 2005
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities                            19
Outline
– Motivation and Introduction
– Background
– Overview of Research Literature
      –    Studies of assistive technology adoption
      –    Models of technology adoption
      –    Other research gaps
      –    Summary of literature review
– Next Steps in Research
– Summary

K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   20
Studies of assistive technology adoption
–    Phillips and Zhao (1993)
–    Elkind et al. (1996)
–    Jeanes et al. (1997)
–    Wehmeyer (1995, 1998)
–    Martin and McCormack (1999)
–    Riemer-Reiss and Wacker (2000)
–    Koester (2003)
–    Dawe (2006)
–    Shinohara and Tenenberg (2007)
–    Comden (2007)
–    Deibel (2007, 2008)
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   21
Diversity of methodologies & approaches
– Variety of methodologies:
      – Large-scale quantitative surveys (4)
      – Adoption studies of a single assistive
        technology (4)
      – Small-scale qualitative case studies (3)
– Different approaches
      – Focus on one or many technologies
      – Focus on one or many disabilities


K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   22
Studies of Assistive Technology Adoption
   Types of Assistive Technologies

                                     MANY
                                                                                 Study includes
                                                                                 people with reading
                                                                                 disabilities
                                                                                 Study does NOT
                                                                                 include people with
                                                                                 reading disabilities




                                     ONE
                                            ONE                           MANY
                                                  Types of Disabilities


K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities                                         23
Inclusion of reading disabilities
– 6 of the 11 studies included individuals
  with reading disabilities:
     –   Elkind et al. (1996)
     –   Jeanes et al. (1997)
     –   Riemer-Reiss and Wacker (2000)
     –   Koester (2003)
     –   Comden (2007)
     –   Deibel (2007, 2008)
– Mixed-disability studies do not report
  results by type
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   24
Studies of Assistive Technology Adoption
   Types of Assistive Technologies

                                     MANY
                                                                            Study includes
                                                                            people with reading
                                                                            disabilities
                                                                            Study does NOT
                                                                            include people with
                                                                            reading disabilities




                                     ONE
                                            0%                       100%
                                            Focus on Reading Disabilities


K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities                                    25
Summary of findings
– Only specific technology studies for
  users with reading disabilities
      – No study of technology use among people
        with reading disabilities
      – No ―in the wild‖ studies of adoption
– Consistent findings of general predictors
  of technology adoption
      – Involvement of user in selection process
      – Observable performance benefit
      – Ease of maintenance and configuration

K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   26
Outline
– Motivation and Introduction
– Background
– Overview of Research Literature
      –    Studies of assistive technology adoption
      –    Models of technology adoption
      –    Other research gaps
      –    Summary of literature review
– Next Steps in Research
– Summary

K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   27
Models of [assistive] technology adoption
– Baker’s Basic Ergonomic Equation
– Kintsch and DePaula’s Adoption Framework for
  Assistive Technologies
– Roger’s Diffusion of Innovations


             Sociocultural factors of reading
            disabilities affect their usefulness


Refs: Baker, 1986; King, 1999; Kintsch and DePaula, 2002; Rogers, 2003
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities               28
Roger’s Diffusion of Innovations
– Diffusion of Innovations is the seminal
  text and theory on technology adoption
– Key aspect is communication of ideas




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   29
Roger’s Diffusion of Innovations
– People with reading disabilities tend to
  tactically hide their disability from
  others
      – Stealth usage of technology slows diffusion
      – Social network of users is sparse




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   30
Summary of findings
– Sociocultural aspects of reading
  disabilities hinders applicability of
  adoption models
      – Loss of communication and limited social
        network due to invisibility of disability
      – Stigma issues are a concern
– Lack of usage of models in the adoption
  studies
      – Models referenced only in Riemer-Reiss &
        Wacker (2000) and Dawe (2006)
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   31
Outline
– Motivation and Introduction
– Background
– Overview of Research Literature
      –    Studies of assistive technology adoption
      –    Models of technology adoption
      –    Other research gaps
      –    Summary of literature review
– Next Steps in Research
– Summary

K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   32
Further gaps in the research
– Reading on computers
      – Most work conducted on desktop machines
      – Most work used in CRT displays
      – Influence of non-reading supportive
        technologies not accounted for in earlier
        studies
      – Potentials of portable computers (PDAs,
        tablets, etc.) have yet to be explored


Refs: Farmer, 1992; Gujar et al., 1998; Waycott & Kukulska-Hulme, 2003
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities               33
Further gaps in the research
– Reading on computers
– Medical approach to reading disabilities
      – Near total focus on text-to-speech and
        compensation / remediation of the
        phonological processing deficit
      – Suggests use of the medical model of
        disability
      – Limits assistive technology to ―crutches‖
        instead of ―running shoes‖

Refs: Hollan & Stornetta, 1992; Sands & Buchholz, 1997; Clough & Corbett, 2000
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities                       34
Further gaps in the research
– Reading on computers
– Medical approach to reading disabilities
– Ignoring changes in reading over time
      – Emphasis on early intervention
      – From ―learning to read‖ to ―reading to learn‖
      – Lack of support for more advanced reading
        skills and tasks



Refs: Wineburg, 1991; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997; Peskin, 1998, Peer & Reid, 2001
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities                        35
Further gaps in the research
– Reading on computers
– Medical approach to reading disabilities
– Ignoring changes in reading over time
– Focus on reading in schools
      – Reading takes place outside of schools
      – Systems are often deployed within the
        schools
      – Current assistive devices not designed for
        use in multiple locales
Refs: Laga et al., 2006
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   36
Summary of findings
– Various factors have limited previous
  assistive technology design and
  development
      – Technological
      – Philosophical
      – Educational




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   37
Outline
– Motivation and Introduction
– Background
– Overview of Research Literature
      –    Studies of assistive technology adoption
      –    Models of technology adoption
      –    Other research gaps
      –    Summary of literature review
– Next Steps in Research
– Summary

K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   38
Summary of literature review
– Limited development of assistive
  technologies for supporting reading
  disabilities
– No knowledge of what technologies are
  used by people with reading disabilities
– Sociocultural aspects of reading
  disabilities cause problems with current
  models of technology adoption


K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   39
Outline
– Motivation and Introduction
– Background
– Overview of Research Literature
– Next Steps in Research
– Summary




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   40
What to do next?
– Participatory design of assistive
  technologies has been successful
      – Aphasia Project (McGrenere et al, 2003)
      – Orientation for Amnesiacs (Wu et al, 2005)
– Challenges to this approach
      – Diversity of user group is problematic
      – Unclear on what technology needs to be built




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   41
What we really need…
– Fill in the gaps:
      – What technologies are used? Not used?
      – What contexts does reading take place in?
      – What reading tasks should we support?
– Proactively address what is known?
      – How can we design assistive technology to
        be more readily adopted?




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   42
Proposed research
– Study of technology and literacy
  practices of people with reading
  disabilities
– Development of software tools that
  assist the adoption process




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   43
Study of technology and literacy practices
– Case study of people with reading disabilities
  emphasizing:
      – their use of regular and assistive technologies to
        support reading
      – the types and contexts of their reading activities
– Methodologies:
      – Semi-structured interviews
      – Technology biographies
– Modeled after the studies by Dawe (2006)
  and Shinohara & Tenenberg (2007)

K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   44
Assisting technology adoption through software

– Findings of adoption studies are fairly
  consistent
– General predictors of technology
  adoption:
      – Involvement of user in selection process
      – Observable performance benefit
      – Ease of maintenance and configuration
      – Understanding of what the technology does


K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   45
Reframe findings as questions
– Successful adoption of assistive technology
  relies on the user knowing:
      – What does this device do?
      – Why will this device help people with my disability?
      – Will this device help me with my ability?
      – How do I configure this device?
      – How do I use this device?

               Can we develop a system that insures
                 these questions are answered?


K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   46
Semiotic engineering
– Interface is viewed as a communication
  between the designer and user
– Usability breakdowns are viewed as
  miscommunications
– Idea:
      – Use semiotic engineering principles and
        practice to insure the adoption questions are
        answered
– Has yet to be applied to the design of
  assistive technologies (Deibel, 2007)
Refs: de Souza, 2005; Deibel, 2007
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   47
Schematic of Adoption Support System

                           Reading                  Screening                Recommended Tools
    Document                Tools                  Questionnaire
     Viewer

                            Expert
                            System

   A

                                                                    Tool Demo
                   User                                                                  Tool
                                                                    Configuration
                                                                    Wizard
                                                                   C
                                                 B


                A. Overall application.     B. Detail of expert system.
                              C. Detail of a reading tool
Refs: Deibel, 2007
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities                                       48
What I did
– Reviewed the research literature on:
      – Assistive technology for reading disabilities
      – Technology adoption and abandoment
      – Assistive technology adoption and abandonment

– Brought in insights from other research areas:
      –    Human-computer interaction
      –    Reading on computers
      –    Disability studies
      –    Education




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   49
Contributions
– Identified gaps in current work in this area
      – Lack of studies on [assistive] technology use
      – Models of adoption are inappropriate
      – Narrow focus on reading tasks and contexts
– Identified why those gaps exist and persist
      – Lack of attention to sociocultural factors
      – Technology limitations
      – Educational philosophies
– Research designs to address these gaps
      – Study of technology and literacy practices
      – How to design technology to support the adoption process
– Synthesizing across mulitple disciplines

K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities         50
Acknowledgements
 Completion of this work would not have been possible
 without the influence of many people, including:
– Bill Winn                                                  – Ken Yasuhara
– Jennifer C. Stone                                          – Richard C. Davis
– Dan Comden                                                 – Imran Rashid
– Hilary Holz                                                – Janet Davis
– Cynthia J. Atman                                           – Jim Borgford-Parnell
– Lindsay Michimoto                                          – Jason Deibel
– Literacy Source                                            – Johannes Gutenberg

 and my advisors and committee members.


K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities                            51
Extra slides




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   52
The Statistics

                                                     Specific Learning Disability 55%
                                                     – 90% experience difficulty 12%
                                                     Mobility / Orthopedic        with
      Reading                                                                     1%
                                                     Speech / Language& Reese, 1992)
                                                        reading (Kavale
     Difficulty                                      Blind / Visual
                                                     – Data includes ADD/ADHD 5%
                                                     Hearing                      6%
                                                     Mental / Emotional           10%
                                                     Health                       6%
                                                     Other                        5%


        Disabilities at U.S. Colleges & Universities
                 (NCES Report 1999-046)
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities                           53
Phonological Processing Deficit

                                                     Mental
                                                     Word



                                       Morpheme                Phoneme



                                          Letter               Letter
                                           Form                Sound




                                                        Word




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities               54
Other assistive technologies
– Cardboard windows
– Single word displays
– Semantic line breaking of text
– SeeWord




Refs: Frase & Schwartz, 1979; Pepper & Lovegrove, 1999; Dickinson et al., 2002
K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities                       55
Summary
– Review of technology adoption literature
– Identification of gaps and shortcomings of
  current research
– Proposal of two research paths to improve our
  understanding of how to support the usage of
  assistive technologies by people with reading
  disabilities




K. Deibel, Assistive Technologies and Reading Disabilities   56

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Assistive Technologies Process document sample