Land Contract Houses in Springfield Ohio

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					Thirteen Independent States
• Americans needed to establish their own
  government and gain Britain’s respect.
  This brought new challenges. 
• The British believed the new government
  was weak and ineffective. 
• States organized their governments and
  adopted their own state constitutions. 
• The writers wanted to prevent abuses of
  power and also wanted to keep power in
  the hands of the people.

                                                (pages 192–193)
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Thirteen Independent States (cont.)
• State constitutions limited the power of the
  governor to avoid giving one ruler too
  much power. 
• Pennsylvania replaced the office of
  governor with an elected council of twelve
  members.




                                                (pages 192–193)
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Thirteen Independent States (cont.)
• States divided functions between the
  governor (Pennsylvania’s council) and the
  legislature. 
  - The legislature was the more powerful branch
    because of the limited powers of the governor. 
  - Most states had a bicameral, or two-house,
    legislature. This further divided the power. 
  - Legislatures were popularly elected and
    elections were frequent. 
  - State legislatures had many disagreements
    about how to make taxes fair.

                                                 (pages 192–193)
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Thirteen Independent States (cont.)
• In most states only white males who were
  21 years of age could vote. They also had
  to either be property owners or pay a
  certain amount of taxes. 
• In some states free African American
  males could vote.




                                                (pages 192–193)
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Forming a Republic
• Americans agreed that the country should
  be a republic, which is a government with
  elected representatives. 
• What they could not agree on was the
  origin and powers of the new republic. 
• At first most Americans favored a weak
  central government with the powers
  being given to the states to function
  independently except for the power to
  wage war and handle relations with
  other countries.
                                                (pages 193–195)
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Forming a Republic (cont.)
• In 1777 the Articles of Confederation were
  adopted to provide for a central
  government. 
• At the time the country needed a central
  government to fight the war against
  Britain. 
• The Articles were America’s first
  constitution. 
• The states, though, gave up little of their
  power. Each state kept “its sovereignty,
  freedom, and independence.”
                                                (pages 193–195)
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Forming a Republic (cont.)
• Under the Articles of Confederation, the
  government, which was the Confederation
  Congress, had the authority to: 
  - conduct foreign affairs 
  - maintain armed forces 
  - borrow money 
  - issue currency




                                                 (pages 193–195)
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Forming a Republic (cont.)
• The government did not have the
  authority to: 
  - regulate trade 
  - force citizens to join the army 
  - impose taxes 
• Congress needed to ask state legislatures
  to raise money and provide troops. 
• The government did not have a chief
  executive.

                                                 (pages 193–195)
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Forming a Republic (cont.)
• Each state had one vote in Congress. 
• State population did not matter, although
  larger, more populated states believed
  that they should have more votes. 
• States also argued about whether or not
  they claimed land in the West. 
• Maryland refused to ratify the Articles of
  Confederation until states abandoned
  their land claims. 
• Finally all 13 states approved the Articles
  on March 1, 1781.
                                                (pages 193–195)
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Forming a Republic (cont.)
• The Confederacy formally became the
  government of the United States. 
• The Confederation government had its
  weaknesses, but it won Americans their
  independence, expanded foreign trade,
  and provided for new states in the West. 
  - It had limited authority. 
  - It could not pass a law unless nine states
    voted for it. 
  - To change the Articles of Confederation, all
    13 states had to give consent. It was difficult,
    therefore, for Congress to pass laws when
    there was any opposition.                (pages 193–195)
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New Land Policies
• The Articles of Confederation had no
  provision for adding new states. 
• Congress realized it had to extend its
  authority over the frontier and bring order
  and stability to the territory where western
  settlers reached almost 120,000 by the
  1790. 
• The Western ordinances had a large
  impact on Western expansion and
  development of the United States.

                                                (pages 195–197)
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New Land Policies (cont.)
• In 1784 Congress divided the Western
  territory into self-governing districts. 
• When the number of people in a district
  reached the population of the smallest
  existing state, that district could apply for
  statehood. 
• In 1785 the Confederation Congress
  established a new law that divided the
  Western territories into larger townships
  and smaller sections. 
• Each smaller section would be sold at
  auction for at least $1 an acre.   (pages 195–197)
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New Land Policies (cont.)
• This was called the Ordinance of 1785. 
• Land speculators bought large pieces of
  land cheaply. 
• Another ordinance passed in 1787 was
  the Northwest Ordinance. 
  - It created a Northwest Territory out of the
    lands north of the Ohio River and east of
    the Mississippi River. 
  - It divided the lands into three to five
    smaller territories.

                                                 (pages 195–197)
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New Land Policies (cont.)
 - It stated that when the population of a territory
   reached 60,000 citizens, that territory could
   apply for statehood. 
 - Each new state would enter as an equal to the
   original 13 states. 
 - It included a bill of rights to protect the settlers
   that guaranteed freedom of religion and trial
   by jury. 
 - Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude were
   permitted in the new territories.



                                                 (pages 195–197)
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Trouble on Two Fronts
• The Confederate government had trouble
  with finances, and with Britain and Spain
  over landholdings and trade. 
• Many Americans felt the country needed
  a stronger government to better deal with
  the problems. 
• The government had a large debt from
  fighting the war. 
• Congress had borrowed money from
  American citizens and foreign
  governments.
                                                (pages 197–198)
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Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.)
• It owed soldiers their wages. But because
  Congress had no power to tax, it did not
  have a way to raise revenue and pay off
  this debt. 
• Money was almost worthless. The paper
  money printed during the Revolutionary
  War had fallen in value, while the prices of
  food and other goods soared. 
• In Boston, for example, high prices led to
  food riots. 
• Because Congress had no power to tax, it
  and the states issued paper money. (pages 197–198)
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Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.)
• Because there were so many bills in
  circulation, the value of the money fell. No
  gold or silver backed these bills. 
• To help solve the financial problems, the
  Confederacy created a department of
  finance. 
• Robert Morris, a Philadelphia merchant,
  headed the department. 
• Morris proposed a plan that called for
  collecting a 5 percent tax on imported
  goods to help pay off the national debt.
                                                (pages 197–198)
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Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.)
• Because of Rhode Island’s opposition, the
  measure did not pass. A second effort also
  failed five years later. 
• The country’s financial situation worsened.              

• The problems with Britain concerned
  landholdings and trade. 
  - British troops remained in several strategic
    forts in the Great Lakes Region even
    though Britain had promised to withdraw all
    troops under the Treaty of Paris. 
  - British merchants closed Americans out of
    the West Indies and other profitable British
    markets.                                 (pages 197–198)
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Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.)
 - John Adams went to London in 1785 to
   discuss these issues. 
 - The British claimed that because Americans
   had not paid Loyalists for the property taken
   from them during the war, as agreed to under
   the Treaty of Paris, they were not willing to
   talk. 
 - Congress recommended payment, but the
   states refused.




                                                (pages 197–198)
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Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.)
• The problems with Spain were worse than
  those with England. 
 - Spain closed the lower Mississippi River to
   American shipping in 1784 in hopes of halting
   American expansion into their territory of
   Spanish Florida and lands west of the
   Mississippi River. 
 - A compromise was reached with an agreement
   in 1786 that limited American shipping on the
   Mississippi. 
 - In return for this, Spain promised to accept the
   border between Georgia and Spanish Florida
   proposed by the Americans.
                                                (pages 197–198)
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Trouble on Two Fronts (cont.)
 - Representatives from the South rejected the
   agreement because it did not include the right to
   use the Mississippi River.




                                           (pages 197–198)
Economic Depression
• The United States went through a
  depression, or a time when economic
  activity slowed and unemployment
  increased, after the Revolutionary War. 
  - Because Southern plantations were damaged
    during the war, they could not produce as
    much rice as prior to the war. 
  - As a result, rice exports dropped. 
  - Farmers could not sell the goods they grew
    and therefore did not have money to pay state
    taxes.

                                                 (pages 199–201)
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Economic Depression (cont.)
 - As a result, farmers lost their lands when state
   officials took their farms to pay the debt they
   owed. 
 - Some farmers were even jailed. 
 - American trade fell off when Britain closed the
   West Indies to American merchants. As a result,
   currency was in short supply, and whatever was
   around was used to pay the war debt.




                                                (pages 199–201)
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Economic Depression (cont.)
• The Shays’s Rebellion occurred as a result
  of the problems farmers suffered. 
• In 1787 Daniel Shays led a group of more
  than 1,000 angry farmers in forcing courts
  in western Massachusetts to close so
  judges could not seize farmers’ lands. 
• Shays led the farmers toward the federal
  arsenal in Springfield, Massachusetts, for
  arms and ammunition. 
• The farmers did not stop, even when the
  state militia fired over their heads and
  then directly at them, killing four.   (pages 199–201)
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Economic Depression (cont.)
• The uprising was over when Shays and
  his followers scattered. 
• Americans felt the impact of the Shays
  uprising. 
• Many were scared that future uprisings
  could occur.




                                                (pages 199–201)
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Economic Depression (cont.)
• Slavery was a difficult issue that many
  people and groups began to work toward
  ending. 
  - Quakers organized the first American Antislavery
    Society in 1774. 
  - In 1780 Pennsylvania passed a law that
    provided for freeing enslaved people gradually. 
  - In 1783 a Massachusetts court ruled slavery
    was illegal. 
  - Between 1784 and 1804, Connecticut, Rhode
    Island, New York, and New Jersey passed laws
    that gradually ended slavery.
                                                 (pages 199–201)
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Economic Depression (cont.)
  - In 1787 the Free African Society in Philadelphia
    was formed. 
• Some states clung to slavery, especially
  those south of Pennsylvania. 
• The plantations system relied on slavery
  to survive. 
• Yet a number of slaveholders did begin
  to free slaves after the war. 
• Virginia passed a law encouraging
  manumission, or freeing individual
  enslaved persons.
                                                 (pages 199–201)
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Economic Depression (cont.)
• The abolition of slavery divided the
  country. 
• In 1787, when state representatives met
  to plan a new government because they
  realized the Articles of Confederation
  were weak, they compromised on the
  issue of slavery. 
• It would take another war to resolve this
  issue.


                                                (pages 199–201)
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A Call for Change
• Political leaders were divided on the issue
  of the type of government the country
  should have. 
  - One group wanted to remain with a system of
    independent state governments. 
  - The other group wanted to create a strong
    national government. This group called for
    reform of the Articles of Confederation. 
  - James Madison and Alexander Hamilton were
    proponents of a strong central government.


                                                 (page 201)
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A Call for Change (cont.)
• In September 1787, Hamilton proposed
  calling a meeting in Philadelphia to discuss
  trade issues and possible changes to the
  Articles of Confederation so that the union
  would become a nation. 
• George Washington finally agreed to
  attend the convention although at first he
  was not enthusiastic about revising the
  Articles of Confederation. 
• His presence lent greater significance to
  the meeting.
                                                (page 201)
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The Constitutional Convention
• The Constitutional Convention met in
  Philadelphia beginning in May 1787 and
  consisted of 55 delegates, none of whom
  were Native American, African American, or
  women. 
• None of these groups were included in the
  political process.




                                                (pages 202–203)
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The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
• Several leaders stood out–George
  Washington, Ben Franklin, James Wilson,
  Gouverneur Morris, who wrote the final
  draft of the Constitution, Edmund
  Randolph, and James Madison, who
  became known as “Father of the
  Constitution” because he authored the
  basic plan of government that was
  adopted.



                                   (pages 202–203)
The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
• George Washington presided. The basic
  rules were: 
 - each state had one vote on all issues 
 - a majority vote was needed to finalize
   decisions 
 - delegates from at least 7 of the 13 states were
   required for meetings to be held 
 - delegates met behind closed doors so they
   could talk freely 
• Two plans of government were proposed–
  the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey
  Plan.
                                                (pages 202–203)
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The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
• The Virginia Plan, proposed by Edmund
  Randolph from Virginia, called for a two-
  house legislature, a chief executive chosen
  by the legislature, and a court system. 
  - The people would elect members of the
    lower house. 
  - The lower house would choose members
    of the upper house. 
  - In both houses, the number of
    representatives would be proportional to
    the population of each state. 
  - A state with a smaller population would
    have fewer representatives than a state
    with a larger population.               (pages 202–203)
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The Constitutional Convention (cont.)
• The New Jersey Plan, proposed by William
  Paterson, modified the Articles of
  Confederation. 
  - It kept the one-house legislature with one
    vote for each state. 
  - Congress would now have the powers to
    set taxes and regulate trade. 
  - Congress would elect a weak executive
    branch with more than one person.




                                                 (pages 202–203)
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Compromise Wins Out
• The delegates decided that simply revising
  the Articles of Confederation would not
  solve the problems. 
• They voted to plan a national government
  based on the Virginia Plan, but they had
  to work out several issues: 
  - how the members of Congress were to be
    elected 
  - how state representation would be determined
    in both houses


                                                (pages 203–205)
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Compromise Wins Out (cont.)
  - whether or not enslaved people were to be
    counted as part of the population, which would
    affect the number of representatives for some
    states 
  - whether or not to ban slavery 
• The Great Compromise was the agreement
  used to resolve the representation issues.




                                                 (pages 203–205)
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Compromise Wins Out (cont.)
• Roger Sherman of Connecticut proposed
  the plan. It said that: 
 - There would be a two-house legislature. 
 - In the lower house, or House of
   Representatives, the number of seats for each
   state would vary according to the state’s
   population. 
 - In the upper house, or Senate, each state
   would have two members. 
 - The way to count enslaved people would be
   determined by the Three-Fifths Compromise.

                                                (pages 203–205)
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Compromise Wins Out (cont.)
  - Each enslaved person was to count as three-
    fifths of a free person for taxation and
    representation. So every five enslaved people
    would equal three free people. 
  - This broke the great debate that divided large
    and small states. 
• Another compromise plan to resolve the
  issue of slavery said that Congress would
  not interfere with the slave trade until
  1808. 
• Beginning that year, Congress could limit
  the slave trade if it chose to.
                                                 (pages 203–205)
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Compromise Wins Out (cont.)
• The Northerners, who wanted to abolish
  slavery throughout the nation and had
  already banned the slave trade in their
  states, compromised with the Southern
  states that considered slavery and the
  slave trade essential to their economies. 
• The Bill of Rights was proposed to protect
  the new government from abusing its
  power. 
• George Mason of Virginia proposed a bill
  of rights, but it was defeated.
                                                (pages 203–205)
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Compromise Wins Out (cont.)
• Most of the delegates felt that the
  Constitution already provided adequate
  protection of the people’s rights. 
• On September 17, 1787, after four
  months of discussion and planning, the
  delegates met to sign the document. 
• All but three delegates signed. 
• The Confederation Congress sent the
  approved draft for state consideration. 
• Nine of the thirteen states were needed
  for the Constitution to be approved.
                                       (pages 203–205)
Roots of the Constitution
• The Framers of the Constitution had
  studied government, history, and politics. 
• Many ideas in the Constitution came from
  the study of European political institutions
  and political writers. 
• The Enlightenment also influenced the
  delegates. 
• The British system of government and
  British ideas and institutions influenced
  the framers of the Constitution.

                                                (pages 207–208)
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Roots of the Constitution (cont.)
• The English found ways to limit the power
  of the monarch beginning in the 1200s. 
• The English Parliament controlled funds. 
• The English bill of rights guaranteed
  individual rights, and the judicial system
  oversaw that these rights were protected. 
• These ideas were included in the original
  Constitution except for the Bill of Rights,
  which was added a few years later. 
• The Framers took ideas about people and
  government from European writers of the
  Enlightenment.                         (pages 207–208)
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Roots of the Constitution (cont.)
• The Enlightenment promoted knowledge,
  reason, and science as the way to improve
  society. 
  - Ideas of John Locke, an English philosopher,
    included the belief that all people have natural
    rights, including life, liberty, and property and
    that government is an agreement, or contract,
    between the people and the ruler. 
  - The Constitution was a contract between the
    American people and their government, and it
    protected the people’s natural rights by limiting
    the power of the government.

                                                 (pages 207–208)
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Roots of the Constitution (cont.)
 - The French writer Baron de Montesquieu
   believed that a separation and balance of
   powers should exist. Also, the powers of
   government should be clearly defined and
   limited. 
 - The Framers provided for a specification and a
   division of powers. 
 - They also provided for a system of checks and
   balances to make sure that no one part would
   gain too much power.




                                                (pages 207–208)
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The Federal System
• The Federal System divided powers
  between the national (federal) government
  and the states. It created shared powers, a
  distinctive feature of the United Stated
  government. 
  - The federal government had the powers to tax,
    regulate trade, control the currency, raise an
    army, and declare war. 
  - The state governments had the power to pass
    and enforce laws and regulate trade within their
    borders. 
  - They could also establish local governments,
    schools, and other institutions affecting the
    welfare of its citizens.                  (pages 208–209)
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The Federal System (cont.)
  - Shared powers by the federal and states
    included the power to tax and to build roads. 
• The Constitution became the supreme law
  of the land, the final authority. 
• No state could make laws or take actions
  that went against the Constitution. 
• Federal courts based on the Constitution
  would settle disputes between the federal
  government and states.


                                                 (pages 208–209)
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The Organization of Government
• The federal government is divided into
  three branches: legislative, executive, and
  judicial. 
• The legislative, or lawmaking, branch is
  made of the House of Representatives
  and the Senate. 
• Powers include collecting taxes, coining
  money and regulating trade, declaring
  war, raising and supporting armies, and
  making all laws needed to fulfill its
  functions given to it by the Constitution.
                                                (pages 209–211)
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The Organization of Government (cont.)
• Headed by the president the executive
  branch carries out the nation’s laws and
  policies. 
• The duties of the president include being
  commander in chief of the armed forces
  and conducting foreign policy. 
  - In the Electoral College, each state
    chooses electors to cast their votes for the
    president and vice president. 
  - The president and vice president serve a
    four-year term.

                                                 (pages 209–211)
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The Organization of Government (cont.)
• The judicial branch, or court system,
  consists of the Supreme Court and lower
  courts. 
• The courts hear cases involving the
  Constitution, laws passed by Congress,
  and disputes between states. 
• The system of checks and balances, a
  distinctive feature of the United States
  government, maintains a balance of
  power.

                                                (pages 209–211)
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The Organization of Government (cont.)
• It is a system that keeps one branch from
  becoming more powerful than another. 
• Each branch has roles that limit the
  others. 
  - Both houses of the legislature must pass
    a bill for it to become a law. 
  - The president can check Congress by
    vetoing a bill. 
  - The judicial branch checks the Congress
    by making sure the laws they pass do not
    conflict with the Constitution.

                                                 (pages 209–211)
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The Organization of Government (cont.)
 - Congress can check the president by
   overriding the veto, but two-thirds of both
   houses must vote for the bill. 
 - The judicial branch checks the president by
   making sure his decisions and actions are
   legal. 
 - The judicial branch decides whether or not
   decisions or actions by the legislative and
   administrative branches are legal. 
 - The president appoints Supreme Court
   justices, but the Senate checks by approving
   the appointments.

                                                (pages 209–211)
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The Organization of Government (cont.)
• The Constitution created a nation in which
  the people could choose their officials and
  the officials answered to the people, not
  the states.




                                       (pages 209–211)
The Constitutional Debate
• Before the Constitution could go into
  effect, 9 of the 13 states had to ratify it. 
• A great debate took place, with Americans
  discussing arguments for and against the
  Constitution. 
• State legislatures set up special ratifying
  conventions. 
• Rhode Island was the only state that did
  not call a convention because its leaders
  opposed the Constitution from the
  beginning.
                                                 (pages 211–212)
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The Constitutional Debate (cont.)
• Federalists supported the Constitution.
  George Washington, Ben Franklin, James
  Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John
  Jay supported the Constitution. 
• Madison, Hamilton, and Jay wrote the
  Federalist Papers, a collection of essays
  explaining and defending the Constitution. 
• The Antifederalists opposed ratification. 
• They wrote a series of essays known as the
  Antifederalist Papers.


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The Constitutional Debate (cont.)
• They believed that the new Constitution
  would take away the liberties Americans
  had fought to win, create a strong central
  government, and ignore the will of the
  states and the people. 
• They wanted a bill of rights. 
• The debate exposed each group’s fears. 
• The Federalists feared disorder without a
  strong federal government and looked to
  the court to create a national government
  capable of maintaining order.
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The Constitutional Debate (cont.)
• The Antifederalists feared oppression more
  than disorder. 
• They worried that the government would be
  run by a small educated group of people
  that would hold the power.




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Adopting the Constitution
• The Constitution was ratified by all states,
  despite opposition. 
• Delaware was the first to ratify on
  December 7, 1787. 
• New Hampshire was the ninth state to ratify
  on June 21, 1788. 
• New York and Virginia, the two largest
  states, had not yet ratified. 
• Both states had strong Antifederalist
  groups, and their support was necessary to
  promote the future of the new government.
                                                (page 213)
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Adopting the Constitution (cont.)
• Virginia ratified at the end of June 1788
  after being told the Constitution would
  have a bill of rights added to it. 
• New York narrowly ratified in July 1788,
  North Carolina in November 1789, and
  Rhode Island in May 1790. 
• Celebrations took place in hundreds of
  American towns and cities. 
• The Constitution was finally ratified, and
  the new nation had a new government.
• A bill of rights was added in 1791.
                                                (page 213)
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Description: Land Contract Houses in Springfield Ohio document sample